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					MPEG Streaming over Mobile
         Internet


     Kyunghee Lee and Myungchul Kim
        {leekhe, mckim}@icu.ac.kr



 1
                    Contents
• Introduction
• Related Work
• Proposed Mechanism
• System Design
• Testbed Configuration
• Experiments
• Performance Evaluation
• Conclusions
• References

     2
                         Introduction
• General multimedia data characteristics
   – Intolerant to delay and jitter variance
   – Error-sensitive
• Characteristics of mobile Internet
   – Frequent routing path changes due to handoffs
   – Higher error rate in wireless link
• Effects on streaming multimedia data in mobile Internet
   – Handoff delay
   – Re-routing toward congested network  delay increment
   – Higher packet loss probability due to mobility
    Significant quality degradation of streaming multimedia data


        3
                 Introduction (cont’d)
• Popular Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee
  mechanisms
   – Differentiated Service (DiffServ) [2]
      • Guarantees aggregated QoS for multiple flows
      • Can not guarantee specific QoS requirement for each data flow

   – Integrated Service (IntServ)
      • Network resource reservation for specific data flow
      • Strict guarantees for multimedia streams with various QoS
        requirements
      • Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) [3]


      4
                Introduction (cont’d)
• Problems of RSVP in Mobile Internet
   – Mobile Host (MH) handoff invalidates existing reservation paths
      overhead and delay to re-establish new RSVP session
   – Movement to congested wireless cell  fail to get admission to
     re-establish new RSVP session
   Seamless QoS guarantees are impossible


• Existing approaches
   – Mobile RSVP (MRSVP) [15]
   – Hierarchical Mobile RSVP (HMRSVP) [16]
   – A method of Concatenation and Optimization of Reservation
     Path (CORP) [10]

      5
                        Related Work
• Priority-based scheduling for MPEG streaming on
  Mobile Internet
  – Differentiated delivery service depending on the
    importance of each MPEG frame data
                                                           Priority-aware
                                                  CH       MPEG Server
                                                       I
                                                  P

                                                  B
                                              B
             R1
                                          I
                                              congested
         P        B     B        FA
                                      P
              Packet drop                                      : MPEG video stream

                                  I                            : Non-multimedia Traffic

                                  MPEG Client
                            MH
     6
                          Related Work (cont’d)
• Classify IP packets into two classes depending on its payload
   – Class 1: containing MPEG and GOP header (priority 1)
   – Class 2: containing MPEG I frame (priority 1)
   – Class 3: containing MPEG B, P frame (priority 7, best-effort)

• Uses TOS field in IP packet header as a classifier
                                                                                 4 TOS bits


                                   3-bit precedence field   minimize maximize maximize minimize                      1-bit
                                    (currently ignored)      delay   throughput reliability monetary                unused
                                                                                              cost


    0                                                         16                                                        31
         4-bit          4-bit             8-bit TOS field                       16-bit total length (in bytes)
        version      header len.


                      16-bit identification                        3-bit flag              13-bit fragment offset

        8-bit time-to-live (TTL)           8-bit protocol                        16-bit header checksum



                                                  32-bit source IP address


                                                            ….
         7
                    Related Work (cont’d)
• Priority-aware MPEG streaming server
                               Priority-aware MPEGvideo streamserver



                                          Priority setting
                                                                                     UDP
 MPEG
video file                                move MPEGdata
                   Analysis            froma file to the buffer   Packetization


                   Parse the            check up the data in
                   MPEGfile                 the buffer             set the TOS
                                                                   value of the
                                                                     packet
                 make an offset          decide the value of
                    table                    TOSfield                               MPEG
                                                                                  video client




             8
               Related Work (cont’d)
• Mobile IP Foreign Agent (FA)
   – Is the most probable spot of packet loss due to the network
     congestion
   – Acts as a gateway router for its own wireless subnet
   – Runs mobile IP FA daemon program
   – Performs priority-based CBQ scheduling for the traffic delivered
     toward MH
• Mobile MPEG client
   – Plays MPEG video stream from the server
• Advantages
   – Simple and light-weight mechanism  suitable for
     wireless/mobile networking environment
   – Significant video quality improvement can be achieved though the
     extra bandwidth is scarcely consumed

      9
                                  Related Work (cont’d)
                                                                             Experiment scenario                                     * Total
                                                                                                                                       1516 frames

       • Testbed configuration                                                           Sample MPEG file specification
                                                                                      File size                   1.2 Mbytes
                                                                                     Playing out
                                                                                                                       48 sec
                                                                                      Duration
                                R     Non-diffserv router                            Frame rate                        30 fps
                                                                                 Avg. bit rate                    214 Kbps
           MPEG video stream
                                                                                     Containing             102 I, 404 P, 1010 B
                                                                                      Frames
                            Background
                              traffic
                                              Priority-aware                             Background traffic pattern
                       HA                FA   MPEG server                  8500000

                                                                           8000000
           Priority-based scheduling on/off
                                                                           7500000
                                                                   (bps)
                                                                           7000000
Wireless                                                Wireless           6500000
subnet 1                                                subnet 2
                                                                           6000000

                  MH                                                                 1       6    11   16    21   26     31     36     41    46   (sec)

                                                                                         **
                                                                                         The bandwidth limit in the WaveLAN II
                                                                                         wireless link: 5.07 Mbps


                  10
                           Related Work (cont’d)
• Experimental results
   – Number of the received packets (at client) containing
     either MPEG header or I-frame (Class 1, 2)
          • Each packet size: 1024 bytes
          • Total number of Class 1 or 2 packets: 151
          • Number of the received packets: 151 (the proposed
            mechanism), 121 (FIFO scheduling)
   – Transfer rate variation of the MPEG video stream
                               FIFO scheduling                  priority-based CBQ scheduling
              200000
              180000
              160000
      (bps)




              140000
              120000
              100000
               80000
                       1   5       9    13       17   21   25    29    33    37    41    45
                                                                                                (sec)


          • Transfer rate is more independent on the amount of the background traffic
                 ( ) Class 1, 2 packets are served by the priority-based scheduling
     11
                                 Related Work (cont’d)
• Experimental results (cont’d)
  – PSNR value distribution
                                 FIFO scheduling                Priority-based CBQ scheduling
                      450
                      400
   Number of frames




                      350
                      300
                      250
                      200
                      150
                      100
                       50
                        0
                            10     20        30    40      50          60         70        78
                                                    PSNR (dB)

                       • Amount of the received traffic:
                         824 Kbytes (FIFO), 852 Kbytes (CBQ) out of total 1.2 Mbytes
                       • Number of frames  20 dB: 919 (FIFO), 775 (CBQ)           Out of total
                       • Number of frames with 78 dB: 151 (FIFO), 192 (CBQ)        1440
                       • 78 dB: same quality with the original image
                       •  20 dB: impossible to be recognized by human eyes
          12
               Related Work (cont’d)
• CORP
  – Base Station (BS) takes charge of making and
    managing RSVP sessions on behalf of MH
  – Consists of two main processes
        • Concatenation of Reservation Path (CRP) process
            – Reservation path extension technique
            – Current BS pre-establishes pseudo reservation path (PRP)
              toward its neighboring BSs to prepare for MH’s handoff
            – When MH handoffs, corresponding PRP is activated to guarantee
              QoS for MH
        • Optimization for Reservation Path (ORP) process
           – Solves infinitely long path extension problem and
              reservation path loop problem of CRP process
           – Optimizes the extended reservation path

   13
                Related Work (cont’d)
• CRP Process
                                I.    MH requests a new RSVP session and
               CRP inform
                                      BS_B makes it on behalf of the MH
                                II.   BS_B sends CRP inform messages to its
                                      neighbors

CRP inform

BS_A    BS_B   BS_C




CORP message          PRP
RSVP session          Activated PRP

       14
                Related Work (cont’d)
• CRP Process
                                I.     MH requests a new RSVP session and
                                       BS_B makes it on behalf of the MH

                                II.    BS_B sends CRP inform messages to its
                                       neighbors
                                III.   BS_B makes PRP to its neighbors
BS_A    BS_B   BS_C




CORP message          PRP
RSVP session          Activated PRP

       15
                Related Work (cont’d)
• CRP Process
                                I.     MH requests a new RSVP session and
                                       BS_B makes it on behalf of the MH
                                II.    BS_B sends CRP inform messages to its
                                       neighbors
                                III.   BS_B makes PRP to its neighbors
BS_A    BS_B   BS_C             IV.    MH handoffs toward BS_C’s cell




CORP message          PRP
RSVP session          Activated PRP

       16
                          Related Work (cont’d)
• CRP Process

                                      I.     MH requests a new RSVP session and
                                             BS_B makes it on behalf of the MH
                                      II.    BS_B sends CRP inform messages to its
                                             neighbors
BS_A    BS_B         BS_C             III.   BS_B makes PRP to its neighbors
               CRP
               activate               IV.    MH handoffs toward BS_C’s cell
                                      V.     BS_C sends CRP activate message to the
                                             previous BS (BS_B)
CORP message                PRP
RSVP session                Activated PRP

       17
                 Related Work (cont’d)
  CRP Process
                                I.     MH requests a new RSVP session and
                                       BS_B makes it on behalf of the MH
                                II.    BS_B sends CRP inform messages to its
                                       neighbors
                                III.   BS_B makes PRP to its neighbors
                                IV.    MH handoffs toward BS_C’s cell
BS_A    BS_B   BS_C             V.     BS_C sends CRP activate message to the
                                       previous BS (BS_B)
                                VI.    BS_B forwards MPEG-1 video through
                                       the activated PRP

CORP message          PRP
RSVP session          Activated PRP

       18
                 Related Work (cont’d)
   CRP Process                  I.     MH requests a new RSVP session and
                                       BS_B makes it on behalf of the MH
                                II.    BS_B sends CRP inform messages to its
                                       neighbors
                                III.   BS_B makes PRP to its neighbors
                                IV.  MH handoffs toward BS_C’s cell
                                V.   BS_C sends CRP activate message to the
BS_A    BS_B   BS_C
                                     previous BS (BS_B)
                                VI. BS_B forwards MPEG-1 video through
                                     the activated PRP
                                VII. BS_B terminates useless PRP toward
                                     BS_A
CORP message          PRP
RSVP session          Activated PRP

       19
                Related Work (cont’d)
• ORP Process
                                I.    BS_C sends IGMP group report message
                                      to its gateway router



                       IGMP
                       report
BS_A    BS_B   BS_C




CORP message          PRP
RSVP session          Activated PRP

       20
                         Related Work (cont’d)
   ORP Process
                                     I.     BS_C sends IGMP group report message
                                            to its gateway router
                                     II.    BS_C joins into the existing multicast
                                            RSVP session
                                     III.   BS_C sends CRP release message to the
                                            previous BS (BS_B)
BS_A    BS_B        BS_C
               CRP
               release




CORP message               PRP
RSVP session               Activated PRP

       21
                 Related Work (cont’d)
   ORP Process
                                I.     BS_C sends IGMP group report message
                                       to its gateway router
                                II.    BS_C joins into the existing multicast
                                       RSVP session
                                III.   BS_C sends CRP release message to the
                                       previous BS (BS_B)
BS_A    BS_B   BS_C             IV.    BS_B terminates the activated PRP and
                                       BS_C uses the newly optimized one to
                                       deliver MPEG data stream to MH


CORP message          PRP
RSVP session          Activated PRP

       22
                          Related Work (cont’d)
   ORP Process                            I.     BS_C sends IGMP group report message
                                                 to its gateway router
                                          II.    BS_C joins into the existing multicast
                                                 RSVP session
                                          III.   BS_C sends CRP release message to the
                                                 previous BS (BS_B)
                                          IV.    BS_B terminates the activated PRP and
                                                 BS_C uses the newly optimized one to
BS_A    BS_B
               CRP
                        BS_C
                                 CRP
                                                 deliver MPEG data stream to MH
               inform            inform
                                          V.     BS_B leaves the multicast RSVP session
                                          VI.    BS_C sends CRP inform messages to its
                                                 neighbors to prepare MH’s probable
CORP message                   PRP
                                                 movement
RSVP session                   Activated PRP

       23
          Proposed Mechanism
• Motivation
  – To provide QoS guarantees for MPEG video streaming services
    with mobility support

• Proposed System
  – Uses CORP to guarantee seamless QoS in mobile networks
  – Provides MPEG-1 video streaming services over CORP
  – CORP-aware video streaming server and client
  – CORP-capable mobile agents (Base Stations)



    24
                  System Design
                                                                CORP message
                                                                MPEG-1 data


• Video Server Architecture                     Video Server
                                      CORP Adaptation        MPEG-1 Traffic
   – CORP adaptation module              Module              Transfer Module

     handles CORP messages and
     takes charge of resource
                                                   RSVP
     reservation process

   – MPEG-1 traffic transfer                      TCP/UDP
     module transfers MPEG-1
     stream to BS at the speed of a
     reserved bandwidth                                 IP



                                                 Wired Link


     25
               System Design (cont’d)
• Base Station Architecture                           CORP
   – CORP message handler                CORP Message          Traffic
                                         Handler Module    Forward Module
     module handles CORP
     messages which are generated
     by neighboring BSs or a                     RSVP
     mobile client

   – traffic forward module                         TCP/UDP
     receives MPEG-1 streaming
     data from the video server and
     forwards it to a neighboring
                                                   IP/Mobile IP
     BS or directly delivers it to the
     client
                                               Wired/Wireless Link


     26
             System Design (cont’d)
• Client Architecture                                Client
   – CORP adaptation module           Handoff Detection    MPEG-1 Video
     handles CORP messages                Module          Playback Module
   – Handoff detection module
                                      CORP Adaptation     MPEG-1 Traffic
     detects a handoff and               Module           Receiver Module
     determines when MH has to
     request the activation of PRP
   – MPEG-1 traffic receiver                       TCP/UDP
     module receives MPEG-1
     streaming data from a current
     BS                                            Mobile IP
   – MPEG-1 video playback
     module plays the MPEG-1
     video from the received stream              Wireless Link


     27
                   System Design (cont’d)
• MPEG-1 Service Procedure over CORP before
  Handoff
 Video Server                 BS1                     BS2                    Client


            Service Request         Service Request

       Service Request Ack                              Service Request Ack

              RSVP path

              RSVP resv

                                PRP establishment

            MPEG-1 traffic
                                                            MPEG-1 traffic
                                                                                       Client
                                                                                      Handoffs
                                                                                  (BS1BS2)

       28
                  System Design (cont’d)
• MPEG-1 Service Procedure over CORP after
  Handoff
 Video Server                BS1                      BS2                    Client
                                                                                       Client
                                                                                      handoffs
                                    CRP Activate       CRP Activate Request       (BS1BS2)

                                   CRP Activate Ack
            MPEG-1 traffic          MPEG-1 traffic          MPEG-1 traffic
                                    ORP Request

         ORP Request Ack
             RSVP path

                                      RSVP resv

            MPEG-1 traffic
                                                            MPEG-1 traffic

       29
             Testbed Configuration
                                       Wired subnet bandwidth
• Network Architecture                      10 Mbps Ethernet
        Home Agent      Video Server   Wireless subnet bandwidth
                                            IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN with
                                            the bandwidth of 11 Mbps
                                       BS
 Wired Subnet_1       Wired Subnet_2
                                            Runs FA daemon of Mobile IP
              Gateway                       Runs CORP daemon
  BS1                         BS2      Client
                                            Runs MH daemon of Mobile IP
                                            Runs VOD client program
    MH
                                       Video Server
 Wireless Subnet_1 Wireless Subnet_2        Supports CORP-aware MPEG-1
                                            streaming service



      30
                         Experiments
•   Experiment Scenarios
    –    Background traffic generation:
         MGEN
                                          Sample Video Clip Specification
    –    Maximum throughput of wired
         network: 9.34 Mbps                                      Shrek
    –    Wired subnet_1: non-congested
                                             Resolution          352 X 288
    –    Wired subnet_2: congested
                                             Average Data Rate
         • 8.2 Mbps background traffic                           1.39
                                             (Mbps)
    –    Movement of MH: BS1  BS2
                                             Frame Rate (fps)    25
•   Experiment Cases
                                             Play out duration
    I.   MPEG-1 streaming with CORP and      (sec)
                                                                 80
         TCP
                                             Total number of
    II. MPEG-1 streaming with TCP only                           2,000
                                             frames
    III. MPEG-1 streaming with CORP and
         UDP
    IV. MPEG-1 streaming with UDP only

         31
                                          Performance Evaluation
• QoS Guarantee
                 I. MPEG-1 Streaming with CORP and TCP                                                                II. MPEG-1 Streaming with TCP only
                 80                                                                                          60

                 70              Before Handoff                                                                               Before Handoff
                                                                                                             50
                                 After Handoff                                                                                After Handoff
                 60
Percentage (%)




                                                                                            Percentage (%)
                                                                                                             40
                 50

                 40                                                                                          30

                 30
                                                                                                             20
                 20
                                                                                                             10
                 10

                 0                                                                                           0
                      0    0.3      0.6   0.9     1.2   1.5   1.8   2.1   2.4     2.7   3                         0     0.3     0.6   0.9   1.2    1.5   1.8   2.1   2.4    2.7   3

                                  Data receiving rate per each second (Mbps)                                                   Data receiving rate per each second (Mbps)


                          – Data rate is measured at client per each second while the sample
                            MPEG file is being delivered
                          – Not much difference in data rate distribution between before and
                            after handoff cases in (I)
                          – Amount of packet loss due to handoff is about 81Kbytes in (I)
                          – 84 percents are less than 0.3 Mbps after handoff in(II)
                             32                                                 * 150KBps bandwidth reserved
                           Performance Evaluation (cont’d)
• QoS Guarantee (cont’d)
          I. MPEG-1 Streaming with CORP and UDP                                                             II. MPEG-1 Streaming with UDP only
                 100                                                                                  100

                 90                                                                                   90
                            Before Handoff                                                                        Before Handoff
                 80         After Handoff                                                             80          After Handoff
Percentage (%)




                                                                                     Percentage (%)
                 70                                                                                   70

                 60                                                                                   60

                 50                                                                                   50

                 40                                                                                   40

                 30                                                                                   30

                 20                                                                                   20

                 10                                                                                   10

                  0                                                                                    0
                       1   1.1   1.2   1.3   1.4   1.5   1.6   1.7   1.8   1.9   2                          0   0.2      0.4   0.6   0.8   1   1.2   1.4   1.6     1.8   2

                             Data receiving rate per each second (Mbps)                                               Data receiving rate per each second (Mbps)

                       – Not much difference in data rate distribution between before and
                         after handoff cases in (I)
                       – Average data rate before handoff is significantly higher than that
                         after handoff in (II)
                       – Average packet loss rate is about 0.6 Mbps in (II)
                                                                     * 200KBps bandwidth reserved

                           33
                      Performance Evaluation (cont’d)
• Quality of Streaming Video
I. MPEG-1 Streaming with CORP and TCP                                                                II. MPEG-1 Streaming with TCP only
             90
                                                                                                     90

             80                                                                                      80

             70                                                                                      70

             60                                                                                      60
                                                                                                                                      Handoff
 PSNR (dB)




                                                                                          PSNR(dB)
             50                                                                                      50

             40                                                                                      40

             30                                                                                      30

             20                                                                                      20

             10                                                                                      10
                                               Handoff
             0                                                                                       0
                  0    200   400   600   800    1000   1200   1400   1600   1800   2000                   0   200   400   600   800    1000   1200   1400   1600   1800   2000

                                         Frame number                                                                           Frame number


             – If Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) is less than 20 dB, the frame
               can be regarded as being lost
             – In (I), MPEG-1 streaming data did not suffer from loss or delay
               under the congested situation
             – 11 frames were lost during CRP process time in (I)
             – the total number of received frames is only 1107 frames out of
               2000 frames for 80 seconds in (II)
                      34
                   Performance Evaluation (cont’d)
• Quality of Streaming Video (cont’d)
 I. MPEG-1 Streaming with CORP and UDP                                                                   II. MPEG-1 Streaming with UDP only
              90                                                                                         90

              80                                                                                         80

              70                                                                                         70

              60                                                                                         60
  PSNR (dB)




                                                                                             PSNR (dB)
              50                                                                                         50

              40                                                                                         40

              30                                                                                         30

              20                                                                                         20

              10                                                                                         10
                                                Handoff                                                                                   Handoff
              0                                                                                          0
                   0    200   400   600   800    1000     1200   1400   1600   1800   2000                    0   200   400   600   800   1000   1200   1400   1600   1800   2000

                                          Frame number                                                                              Frame number




              – The average PSNR is 69.6 dB before MH’s handoff and 68.6 dB
                after MH’s handoff in (I)
              – MH could not play back MPEG-1 video stream correctly after
                handoff in (II) because of too high packet loss rate (0.6 Mbps)


                       35
                     Conclusions
• QoS guarantee for MPEG-1 streaming service in Mobile
  Internet
   – QoS guarantee mechanism with mobility support – CORP
   – Implementation of MPEG-1 streaming service over CORP

• Streaming Video Quality Improvement
   – Significantly better PSNR values in both cases of using TCP and
     UDP when CORP mechanism is applied
   – MPEG-1 streaming with CORP and TCP provided the highest video
     quality in the experiments

• Future work
   – Reduction in the packet loss during a handoff with CORP
   – Reduction in the packet loss over wireless links when UDP is used
     as a transport protocol

     36

				
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