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					                                 ACSM Mid Atlantic Region
                                 Friday, November 11, 2005


ABSTRACTS:

Flexibility and power
Cook, Eli, Cheesman, Wendy, and Kieffer, H.Scott Messiah College, Grantham, PA
Static stretching has been utilized for injury prevention and increasing joint ROM. Recent studies
show prolonged stretching decreases performance and tissue stiffness. However, the effects of
shorter stretching protocols and their effect on both trained and untrained subjects have not
sufficiently been examined. PURPOSE: To assess the effects of static stretching on power
performance and passive tissue tension in trained and untrained women. METHODS: Eighteen
untrained (age 19.65+/-1.27 yrs; wt 68.14+/-11.69 kg; 1.64 +/-.12 m) and 13 athletically trained
(age 20.08 +/-1.04;wt 70.61+/-6.98kg;ht 1.72+/-.070 m) women completed three separate
sessions for familiarization, stretching and control(the latter two sessions were randomized). All
sessions began with a five minute self paced warm up on a motor driven treadmill followed by
stretching protocol (4 stretches held 3 times for 30 seconds each repetition) or a five minute rest
period. Testing performed on all three days consisted of in vivo plantar flexor passive tension
(immediate and 30 min post treatment), countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) and isokinetic
plantar flexor power (peak torque, time to peak torque, total work, power). RESULTS: A 2
(treatment) x 2 (group) factorial ANOVA was conducted on the scores obtained for each power
parameter. No significant differences were found in any power score for the main effect of
treatment. The main effect of group demonstrated a significant difference between the athletes
and non-athletes in the VJ (p<.001), peak torque (p<.001), average power (p<.001), and total
work (p<.01). In addition, there were no significant interactive effects for any power parameter.
ANOVA results were significant for passive tissue tension measures performed 30 minutes post
treatment/control. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, significant differences were observed for
power parameters between trained and untrained subjects. No significant differences were
observed with either group for stretch or control. The only exception was a significant increase in
passive tension 30 minutes post intervention. These results suggest a modest stretching program
may not affect power performance in trained and untrained subjects. The increase in passive
tension 30 minutes post stretch may indicate an effect on stretch tolerance and stress relaxation
behavior.

The validity and reliability of the pacer fitness test for college soccer and field hockey
players
Delp, Shelly, Thomas, K., Conway, J., Miller, Doug, and Kieffer, H.Scott. Messiah College,
Grantham, PA
The Pacer test is commonly used to determine the soccer-specific fitness of elite soccer players.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of the 20-
meter multistage fitness test (Pacer Test) for predicting the maximal aerobic capacity (VO max)
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of female collegiate athletes. METHODS: Twenty-two collegiate female soccer and field hockey
players (19.14 + 1.13 yrs) completed a maximal aerobic treadmill test and a 20-meter multistage
fitness test. The treadmill protocol involved continuous intervals of increasing speed and required
subjects to run to exhaustion. VO max was measured using a Medgraphics CPX oxygen
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analyzer. The multistage fitness test requires subjects to complete the 20-meter shuttle run within
increasing speed increments indicated by an emitted audio signal from a calibrated CD. The test
protocols were performed with a minimum of 24 hours and a maximum of seven days between
the two testing sessions. In addition, five subjects were randomly selected to complete a second
Pacer Test to establish inter-trial reliability. Paired t-tests were used to determine validity and
reliability. RESULTS: The results show that there was a significant difference (p<0.001)
between the measured VO max on the treadmill and the predicted VO max from the Pacer Test.
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The results also indicate that there was no difference between the two repeated Pacer Tests.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, while the Pacer Test appears to be a reliable fitness test, its
validity for predicting the VO max of collegiate female athletes using the current prediction
                               2
equation is questionable. Stepwise regression analysis suggests that a new formula, VO max =
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32.045+.230(laps completed) more accurately predicts VO max of intercollegiate female athletes
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from the Pacer Test.

The effects of an acute bout of static stretching on power output in trained females
Everett, Gary, Thomas, M., Hall, K., Kieffer, H.Scott Messiah College, Grantham, PA
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute bout of static
stretching on power output in trained women athletes. Sixteen female Division III lacrosse
players were recruited for the study. The subjects reported on 2 different days and randomly
underwent a series of power tests. They performed a non-stretching (NS) warm up protocol prior
to testing on 1 day and a stretching (S) warm-up protocol prior to testing on the second day. Both
treatment groups performed a general warm-up consisting of a 5-min self-paced walk on a motor
driven treadmill prior to each condition. The NS protocol received a 5-min rest period prior to the
power testing whereas the S protocol utilized 2 sets of 7 different commonly used stretches of the
lower body that were held for 20-sec with the intensity held to the point just prior to discomfort.
Both the S and NS treatments performed the power tests immediately,
15-min, and 30-min following each respective warm-up protocol. The Margaria-Kalamen step
test along with 3 different vertical jump tests, the drop jump, countermovement jump, and squat
jump were used to assess power. A 2 (Treatment) x 3 (Time) Factorial ANOVA was used to
analyze the main and interactive effects of stretching and time. RESULTS: No significant
differences in the main effects of treatment or time for any power measure were identified.
Between subjects analysis found no significant interactive effects. CONCLUSIONS: Results of
this study suggest that static stretching of generally recommended intensity and duration did not
positively or negatively influence performance in trained female athletes. However, descriptive
analysis of all performance measures revealed that 48% of all testing measures showed increase
in performance, 8 % no change in performance, and 44% a decrease in performance. Data
suggests that static stretching may not effect performance; however, further research needs to be
conducted on possible mechanisms for individual responses.

The effects of the You Can! Program on functional abilities and self-efficacy for older adults
Mattson, Elizabeth, Prescott, Abbie, Hepkins, N., Kieffer, H.Scott Messiah College, Grantham,
PA
As the aging process occurs there is a natural decline in the ability to perform simple activities of
daily living; however, it has been demonstrated that physical activity can help prevent this
decline. In addition, it has been theorized that an exercise intervention will improve one’s
subjective view of their physical abilities and possibly lead to an increase in physical function.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the U.S. Administration on
Aging’s You Can! Program combined with a structured walking program on the functional ability
and self-efficacy for older adults. METHODS: Males and females, age 60 and older, from a local
assisted living facility completed a series of pre-tests: 30 second chair stand, thirty second arm
curl, two minute step test, chair sit and reach test, back scratch, 8’ up and go, dynamic balance
test, and static balance test. Each participant also completed the SF-36 Health Survey for self-
efficacy. Following a twelve week self-paced walking program (minimum of 3x/week), the
subjects were post-tested using the identical testing battery. The walking program was conducted
on a motor-driven treadmill or on an indoor walking track and the walking time was increased by
the subjects own volition. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the mean and standard
deviation of the demographic measurements of the subjects (age, weight, height). Paired t-tests
were performed to determine the significance between the pre and post measurements of each
functional test. Paired t-tests were performed to determine the significance between the pre and
post measurements of each subcategory of the SF-36 Health Survey (physical functioning, bodily
pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health). RESULTS:
Significant differences were found for the two minute step test (P < .001), dynamic balance (P <
.05), static balance (P < .05), physical functioning (P < .05), and general health (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the You Can! Program combined with a
structured walking program is effective in promoting gains in aerobic capacity and balance, as
well as improving one’s perception of general health and physical functioning.

An investigation of energy expenditure during isometric video game play using the kilowatt
isometric game controller
Prescott, Abbie, Mattson, Elizabeth, Miller, Doug., Kieffer, H.Scott, and Drury, D.G. Messiah
College, Grantham PA and Gettysburg College, Gettysburg PA
Recent evidence suggests that American youth are spending increasingly more time playing video
games, which may result in a decrease in their overall daily physical activity. Physically
interactive computer gaming may provide a means to increase muscular and/or cardiovascular
demands of playing video games. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare various
physiological responses of traditional hand-held video gaming with Powergrid’s Kilowatt
“Intensity gaming™” isometric controller. METHODS: Ten male subjects between the ages of
19-22 were familiarized with both the video game and the Kilowatt gaming system prior to the
study. The 40-min expsession included 4 separate 10-min periods of rest, traditional video
gaming, rest and Kilowatt gaming. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and caloric expenditure were
recorded continuously for each subject throughout the session. The specific video game selected
was progressive, intermittent, and multi-directional. All subjects performed the Kilowatt session
at the highest effort levels of 9-10. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed that heart rates,
oxygen uptakes, and energy expenditure measures were all higher with Kilowatt than during rest
and traditional video game playing (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings indicate that Power
Grid’s Kilowatt requires isometric contractions that significantly elevate cardiovascular
parameters and energy output during video gaming.

				
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