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ACSM Mid Atlantic Region Friday, November 11, 2005 ABSTRACTS: Flexibility and power Cook, Eli, Cheesman, Wendy, and Kieffer, H.Scott Messiah College, Grantham, PA Static stretching has been utilized for injury prevention and increasing joint ROM. Recent studies show prolonged stretching decreases performance and tissue stiffness. However, the effects of shorter stretching protocols and their effect on both trained and untrained subjects have not sufficiently been examined. PURPOSE: To assess the effects of static stretching on power performance and passive tissue tension in trained and untrained women. METHODS: Eighteen untrained (age 19.65+/-1.27 yrs; wt 68.14+/-11.69 kg; 1.64 +/-.12 m) and 13 athletically trained (age 20.08 +/-1.04;wt 70.61+/-6.98kg;ht 1.72+/-.070 m) women completed three separate sessions for familiarization, stretching and control(the latter two sessions were randomized). All sessions began with a five minute self paced warm up on a motor driven treadmill followed by stretching protocol (4 stretches held 3 times for 30 seconds each repetition) or a five minute rest period. Testing performed on all three days consisted of in vivo plantar flexor passive tension (immediate and 30 min post treatment), countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) and isokinetic plantar flexor power (peak torque, time to peak torque, total work, power). RESULTS: A 2 (treatment) x 2 (group) factorial ANOVA was conducted on the scores obtained for each power parameter. No significant differences were found in any power score for the main effect of treatment. The main effect of group demonstrated a significant difference between the athletes and non-athletes in the VJ (p<.001), peak torque (p<.001), average power (p<.001), and total work (p<.01). In addition, there were no significant interactive effects for any power parameter. ANOVA results were significant for passive tissue tension measures performed 30 minutes post treatment/control. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, significant differences were observed for power parameters between trained and untrained subjects. No significant differences were observed with either group for stretch or control. The only exception was a significant increase in passive tension 30 minutes post intervention. These results suggest a modest stretching program may not affect power performance in trained and untrained subjects. The increase in passive tension 30 minutes post stretch may indicate an effect on stretch tolerance and stress relaxation behavior. The validity and reliability of the pacer fitness test for college soccer and field hockey players Delp, Shelly, Thomas, K., Conway, J., Miller, Doug, and Kieffer, H.Scott. Messiah College, Grantham, PA The Pacer test is commonly used to determine the soccer-specific fitness of elite soccer players. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of the 20- meter multistage fitness test (Pacer Test) for predicting the maximal aerobic capacity (VO max) 2 of female collegiate athletes. METHODS: Twenty-two collegiate female soccer and field hockey players (19.14 + 1.13 yrs) completed a maximal aerobic treadmill test and a 20-meter multistage fitness test. The treadmill protocol involved continuous intervals of increasing speed and required subjects to run to exhaustion. VO max was measured using a Medgraphics CPX oxygen 2 analyzer. The multistage fitness test requires subjects to complete the 20-meter shuttle run within increasing speed increments indicated by an emitted audio signal from a calibrated CD. The test protocols were performed with a minimum of 24 hours and a maximum of seven days between the two testing sessions. In addition, five subjects were randomly selected to complete a second Pacer Test to establish inter-trial reliability. Paired t-tests were used to determine validity and reliability. RESULTS: The results show that there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between the measured VO max on the treadmill and the predicted VO max from the Pacer Test. 2 2 The results also indicate that there was no difference between the two repeated Pacer Tests. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, while the Pacer Test appears to be a reliable fitness test, its validity for predicting the VO max of collegiate female athletes using the current prediction 2 equation is questionable. Stepwise regression analysis suggests that a new formula, VO max = 2 32.045+.230(laps completed) more accurately predicts VO max of intercollegiate female athletes 2 from the Pacer Test. The effects of an acute bout of static stretching on power output in trained females Everett, Gary, Thomas, M., Hall, K., Kieffer, H.Scott Messiah College, Grantham, PA PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute bout of static stretching on power output in trained women athletes. Sixteen female Division III lacrosse players were recruited for the study. The subjects reported on 2 different days and randomly underwent a series of power tests. They performed a non-stretching (NS) warm up protocol prior to testing on 1 day and a stretching (S) warm-up protocol prior to testing on the second day. Both treatment groups performed a general warm-up consisting of a 5-min self-paced walk on a motor driven treadmill prior to each condition. The NS protocol received a 5-min rest period prior to the power testing whereas the S protocol utilized 2 sets of 7 different commonly used stretches of the lower body that were held for 20-sec with the intensity held to the point just prior to discomfort. Both the S and NS treatments performed the power tests immediately, 15-min, and 30-min following each respective warm-up protocol. The Margaria-Kalamen step test along with 3 different vertical jump tests, the drop jump, countermovement jump, and squat jump were used to assess power. A 2 (Treatment) x 3 (Time) Factorial ANOVA was used to analyze the main and interactive effects of stretching and time. RESULTS: No significant differences in the main effects of treatment or time for any power measure were identified. Between subjects analysis found no significant interactive effects. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that static stretching of generally recommended intensity and duration did not positively or negatively influence performance in trained female athletes. However, descriptive analysis of all performance measures revealed that 48% of all testing measures showed increase in performance, 8 % no change in performance, and 44% a decrease in performance. Data suggests that static stretching may not effect performance; however, further research needs to be conducted on possible mechanisms for individual responses. The effects of the You Can! Program on functional abilities and self-efficacy for older adults Mattson, Elizabeth, Prescott, Abbie, Hepkins, N., Kieffer, H.Scott Messiah College, Grantham, PA As the aging process occurs there is a natural decline in the ability to perform simple activities of daily living; however, it has been demonstrated that physical activity can help prevent this decline. In addition, it has been theorized that an exercise intervention will improve one’s subjective view of their physical abilities and possibly lead to an increase in physical function. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the U.S. Administration on Aging’s You Can! Program combined with a structured walking program on the functional ability and self-efficacy for older adults. METHODS: Males and females, age 60 and older, from a local assisted living facility completed a series of pre-tests: 30 second chair stand, thirty second arm curl, two minute step test, chair sit and reach test, back scratch, 8’ up and go, dynamic balance test, and static balance test. Each participant also completed the SF-36 Health Survey for self- efficacy. Following a twelve week self-paced walking program (minimum of 3x/week), the subjects were post-tested using the identical testing battery. The walking program was conducted on a motor-driven treadmill or on an indoor walking track and the walking time was increased by the subjects own volition. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the mean and standard deviation of the demographic measurements of the subjects (age, weight, height). Paired t-tests were performed to determine the significance between the pre and post measurements of each functional test. Paired t-tests were performed to determine the significance between the pre and post measurements of each subcategory of the SF-36 Health Survey (physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health). RESULTS: Significant differences were found for the two minute step test (P < .001), dynamic balance (P < .05), static balance (P < .05), physical functioning (P < .05), and general health (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the You Can! Program combined with a structured walking program is effective in promoting gains in aerobic capacity and balance, as well as improving one’s perception of general health and physical functioning. An investigation of energy expenditure during isometric video game play using the kilowatt isometric game controller Prescott, Abbie, Mattson, Elizabeth, Miller, Doug., Kieffer, H.Scott, and Drury, D.G. Messiah College, Grantham PA and Gettysburg College, Gettysburg PA Recent evidence suggests that American youth are spending increasingly more time playing video games, which may result in a decrease in their overall daily physical activity. Physically interactive computer gaming may provide a means to increase muscular and/or cardiovascular demands of playing video games. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare various physiological responses of traditional hand-held video gaming with Powergrid’s Kilowatt “Intensity gaming™” isometric controller. METHODS: Ten male subjects between the ages of 19-22 were familiarized with both the video game and the Kilowatt gaming system prior to the study. The 40-min expsession included 4 separate 10-min periods of rest, traditional video gaming, rest and Kilowatt gaming. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and caloric expenditure were recorded continuously for each subject throughout the session. The specific video game selected was progressive, intermittent, and multi-directional. All subjects performed the Kilowatt session at the highest effort levels of 9-10. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed that heart rates, oxygen uptakes, and energy expenditure measures were all higher with Kilowatt than during rest and traditional video game playing (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings indicate that Power Grid’s Kilowatt requires isometric contractions that significantly elevate cardiovascular parameters and energy output during video gaming.
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