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SELF-CONFIDENCE: THE KEY TO SPORT SUCCESS Damon Burton University of Idaho What is self-confidence? SELF- CONFIDENCE DEFINED True Self-Confidence – is a realistic belief or expectation of achieving success. Self-Confidence is: not what you hope to do but what you realistically expect to do not what you tell others but your innermost thoughts about your realistic capabilities, not pride in past deeds but a realistic judgment about what you are able to do SELF CONFIDENCE TERMINOLOGY SELF-EFFICACY DEFINED Self-efficacy – is a realistic belief or expectation about achieving success on a specific task in a specific situation. For example, “I can pole vault 16’6” in this meet.” or “I will hit this game-winning shot.” Self-efficacy is least impacted by personality because it is highly specific, unstable and based on situational factors such as task difficulty, preparation, recent successes/failures and playing conditions. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TYPES OF CONFIDENCE Confidence is developed “bottom up. Athletes should attempt to enhance self-efficacy by accumulating success experiences in specific situations. Next, as self-efficacy experiences increase , state self- confidence improves. Finally, an accumulation of state self-confidence experiences eventually boosts trait self-confidence. For example, an athlete may have high self-efficacy of rebounding well in an upcoming game but be worried about her ability to play good defense on the opponent’s star player. Making some good stops increases defensive self-efficacy during the game. A strong overall defensive game enhances state self confidence to play well overall in the next game, while 6 good games in a row boosts trait basketball self confidence. HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF CONFIDENCE Global Level Self-Esteem Domain Level Physical Mental Social Artistic Context Attractive Sport Physical Physical Level Competence Body Strength Condition Does self-confidence enhance performance? SELF-CONFIDENCE ENHANCES PERFORMANCE Mahoney & Avener (1976) 1976 Olympic qualifiers were more confident than nonqualifiers. Feltz’ (1988) review found moderate to strong relationships between confidence and performance (i.e., mean r = .54). Research finds a reciprocal relationship between self-confidence and performance. HOW SELF-CONFIDENCE IMPACTS PERFORMANCE lowers anxiety by creating positive expectations of success, increases motivation by raising perceived competence, enhances concentration by eliminating distraction from negative thoughts and personal putdowns. What are the three types of self-confidence? CONFIDENCE-PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP Diffidence Optimal SC Overconfidence PERF SELF-CONFIDENCE OPTIMAL SELF-CONFIDENCE Competence -- possess the knowledge, strategies, skills and abilities necessary for success, Preparation – sufficiently prepared so you can successfully perform those skills and strategies in a particular competitive situation. 1984 upset of Georgetown in the Villanova’s NCAA Championship Game. DIFFIDENT ATHLETES . . . confuse “what is” with what they “wish would be” or with what “ought to be,” see themselves as losers and act accordingly, mistakes devastate their competence, self doubts fuel self-fulfilling prophecies that create a vicious negative spiral, focus on their shortcomings and overlook their accomplishments, and are underachievers whose confidence limits their development TYPES OF OVERCONFIDENCE inflated confidence, and false confidence. INFLATED CONFIDENCE People who believe they are better than they really are and have an inflated opinion of themselves and their skills. They overestimate their abilities while underestimating their opponents’ skills. Pampering from parents/coaches, playing weak competition, and excessive media hype are its primary causes. Often they are competent but don’t prepare adequately. FALSE CONFIDENCE act confident on the outside but inside fear failure and are really diffident, pretend to be brash, cocky and arrogant, difficulty admitting errors and filled with excuses, difficult to coach because they won’t accept responsibility for mistakes, and normally prepare hard but lack the competence to be successful. What is the difference between performance and outcome confidence? PERFORMANCE- VERSUS OUTCOME CONFIDENCE Performance Confidence – performers’ belief that they can execute the skills and strategies necessary to perform well and attain their goals. Outcome Confidence – performers’ belief that they will socially compare well and win the competition. WHY IS PERFORMANCE CONFIDENCE BETTER? Performance standards are more flexible so they can be raised or lowered to consistently achieve optimal difficulty necessary to keep motivation high. Success is also more controllable, enhancing self-determination, and thus prompting performers to take credit for their successes as indicative of increased competence. What are some specific strategies you use to boost your self-confidence? CONFIDENCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES general confidence development strategies, six confidence development tips for practitioners, and strategies for developing and maintaining confidence during competition. ENHANCING SELF-CONFIDENCE Performance Accomplishments Behaviors Vicarious Experiences Self- Performance Confidence Verbal Persuasion Thoughts Physiological Arousal Control ENHANCING SELF- CONFIDENCE Hierarchical Model Interventions Performance 1. Accomplishments 1. Vicarious Experiences 2. 1. Verbal Persuasion 2. 1. Physiological Arousal 2. GENERAL CONFIDENCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES performance accomplishment goal-setting, vicarious experiences, modeling/demonstrations – Namath’s Jets, imagery – Russell “déjà vu,” verbal persuasion, reinforcement – enhances feelings of competence, self talk – confidence script, arousal control. CONFIDENCE-DEVELOPMENT TIPS FOR PRACTITIONERS develop a systematic goal setting program and log and graph progress, create a personal Hall-of-Fame, design a systematic conditioning program and maximize preparation, use effective modeling strategies, replay past successes and imagine future triumphs, and emphasize confidence-building thoughts. How do you maintain your self-confidence during competition? DEVELOPING & MAINTAINING COMPETITIVE CONFIDENCE appraise situations as challenges rather than threats, develop readiness, performance and recovery plans to deal with problems, emphasize problem-focused coping strategies to reduce threat, use emotion-focused coping techniques to feel less threatened, and focus on more controllable process and performance goals. What is the self-fulfilling prophecy? SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY Self-Fulfilling Prophecies – occur when coaches’/teachers’ expectations prompt athletes/students to behave or perform in a way that conforms with those expectancies. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that a group teachers believed were “academic late bloomers” made greater educational gains than did a control group for whom they had neutral expectancies. Expectancies of teachers, coaches and parents can significantly raise or lower performers’ self-confidence. What are the four (4) steps of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Process? SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY MODEL SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY PROCESS STEP 1 – Coaches Develop Expectations STEP 2 – Coaches’ Expectations Influence their Treatment of Athletes (i.e., frequency, duration, and quality of interactions) STEP 3 – Athletes’ Learning and Performance Is Impacted by Differential Treatment STEP 4 -- Athletes’ Behavior Conforms to Coaches’ Expectations STEP 1: COACHES FORM EXPECTATIONS Person Cues race, gender socioeconomic status, size, body type, and style of dress. Performance Information conditioning and skills tests, previous performance history, evaluation of others, and tryout information. STEP 2: DIFFERENTIAL EXPECTANCIES IMPACT COACHING BEHAVIORS type, frequency and warmth of interactions, nature of instructional behaviors (e.g., skills taught, difficulty of skills, and persistence) nature of feedback behaviors (e.g., valence, specificity, and corrective content) attributions for success and failure. STEP 3: COACHES’ BEHAVIOR IMPACTS ATHLETES’ PERFORMANCE quantity and quality of learning, quality of competitive cognitions and performance, and long-term development. STEP 4: ATHLETES’ PERFORMANCE CONFORMS WITH COACHES’ EXPECTATIONS Athletes most susceptible to Self- Fulfilling Prophecy effects are . . . younger, lessexperienced, lower in self-esteem, more coachable, and value success more. How do we maximize positive Self-Fulfilling Prophecy effects? HOW TO MAXIMIZE POSITIVE SFP EFFECTS 1. Determine what sources of information are used to form expectations. 2. Realize initial expectancies may be inaccurate, requiring adjustment as performers skill changes. 3. Equalize skill-development time across athletes. 4. Provide all performers sufficient time to fully master skills. 5. Respond to errors with corrective instruction. 6. Focus on product as a means to attain product. 7. Develop good coach-athlete relationships. 8. Create a performance-oriented team climate.