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					SELF-CONFIDENCE:
    THE KEY TO
  SPORT SUCCESS

   Damon Burton
  University of Idaho
What is self-confidence?
      SELF- CONFIDENCE
          DEFINED
 True Self-Confidence – is a realistic belief
  or expectation of achieving success.
 Self-Confidence is:
   not what you hope to do but what you
    realistically expect to do
   not what you tell others but your innermost
    thoughts about your realistic capabilities,
   not pride in past deeds but a realistic
    judgment about what you are able to do
SELF CONFIDENCE
 TERMINOLOGY
 SELF-EFFICACY DEFINED
 Self-efficacy – is a realistic belief or expectation
  about achieving success on a specific task in a
  specific situation.
 For example, “I can pole vault 16’6” in this
  meet.” or “I will hit this game-winning shot.”
 Self-efficacy is least impacted by personality
  because it is highly specific, unstable and based
  on situational factors such as task difficulty,
  preparation, recent successes/failures and
  playing conditions.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
 TYPES OF CONFIDENCE
   Confidence is developed “bottom up. Athletes should attempt
    to enhance self-efficacy by accumulating success
    experiences in specific situations.
   Next, as self-efficacy experiences increase , state self-
    confidence improves.
   Finally, an accumulation of state self-confidence experiences
    eventually boosts trait self-confidence.
   For example, an athlete may have high self-efficacy of
    rebounding well in an upcoming game but be worried about
    her ability to play good defense on the opponent’s star
    player.
   Making some good stops increases defensive self-efficacy
    during the game. A strong overall defensive game enhances
    state self confidence to play well overall in the next game,
    while 6 good games in a row boosts trait basketball self
    confidence.
        HIERARCHICAL MODEL
           OF CONFIDENCE

   Global Level                   Self-Esteem



Domain Level      Physical      Mental     Social    Artistic




Context                      Attractive
             Sport                        Physical   Physical
Level      Competence          Body       Strength   Condition
 Does self-confidence
enhance performance?
    SELF-CONFIDENCE
 ENHANCES PERFORMANCE

 Mahoney &    Avener (1976) 1976 Olympic
  qualifiers were more confident than
  nonqualifiers.
 Feltz’ (1988) review found moderate to
  strong relationships between confidence
  and performance (i.e., mean r = .54).
 Research finds a reciprocal relationship
  between self-confidence and
  performance.
 HOW SELF-CONFIDENCE
 IMPACTS PERFORMANCE

 lowers anxiety by creating positive
  expectations of success,
 increases motivation by raising perceived
  competence,
 enhances concentration by eliminating
  distraction from negative thoughts and
  personal putdowns.
What are the three types
  of self-confidence?
CONFIDENCE-PERFORMANCE
     RELATIONSHIP

       Diffidence   Optimal SC   Overconfidence



PERF




       SELF-CONFIDENCE
          OPTIMAL
      SELF-CONFIDENCE

 Competence --    possess the knowledge,
  strategies, skills and abilities necessary
  for success,
 Preparation – sufficiently prepared so
  you can successfully perform those skills
  and strategies in a particular competitive
  situation.
            1984 upset of Georgetown in the
   Villanova’s
    NCAA Championship Game.
    DIFFIDENT ATHLETES . . .

 confuse “what is” with what they “wish would
  be” or with what “ought to be,”
 see themselves as losers and act accordingly,
 mistakes devastate their competence,
 self doubts fuel self-fulfilling prophecies that
  create a vicious negative spiral,
 focus on their shortcomings and overlook their
  accomplishments, and
 are underachievers whose confidence limits
  their development
      TYPES OF
   OVERCONFIDENCE


inflated confidence, and
 false confidence.
  INFLATED CONFIDENCE
People who believe they are better than they
 really are and have an inflated opinion of
 themselves and their skills.
They overestimate their abilities while
 underestimating their opponents’ skills.
Pampering from parents/coaches, playing weak
 competition, and excessive media hype are its
 primary causes.
Often they are competent but don’t prepare
 adequately.
     FALSE CONFIDENCE
act confident on the outside but inside
 fear failure and are really diffident,
pretend to be brash, cocky and arrogant,
difficulty admitting errors and filled with
 excuses,
difficult to coach because they won’t
 accept responsibility for mistakes, and
normally prepare hard but lack the
 competence to be successful.
 What is the difference
 between performance
and outcome confidence?
 PERFORMANCE- VERSUS
 OUTCOME CONFIDENCE

Performance Confidence – performers’
 belief that they can execute the skills and
 strategies necessary to perform well and
 attain their goals.
Outcome Confidence – performers’ belief
 that they will socially compare well and
 win the competition.
  WHY IS PERFORMANCE
  CONFIDENCE BETTER?
 Performance standards    are more flexible
  so they can be raised or lowered to
  consistently achieve optimal difficulty
  necessary to keep motivation high.
 Success is also more controllable,
  enhancing self-determination, and thus
  prompting performers to take credit for
  their successes as indicative of increased
  competence.
  What are some specific
strategies you use to boost
   your self-confidence?
CONFIDENCE DEVELOPMENT
      STRATEGIES
general confidence development
 strategies,
six confidence development tips for
 practitioners, and
strategies for developing and
 maintaining confidence during
 competition.
           ENHANCING
         SELF-CONFIDENCE
 Performance
Accomplishments                Behaviors
   Vicarious
  Experiences       Self-
                                           Performance
                  Confidence
    Verbal
  Persuasion
                               Thoughts
 Physiological
Arousal Control
   ENHANCING SELF-
     CONFIDENCE
Hierarchical Model            Interventions
     Performance         1.
   Accomplishments

                         1.
 Vicarious Experiences   2.

                         1.
  Verbal Persuasion      2.

                         1.
 Physiological Arousal   2.
  GENERAL CONFIDENCE
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
performance accomplishment
   goal-setting,

vicarious experiences,
   modeling/demonstrations  – Namath’s Jets,
   imagery – Russell “déjà vu,”

verbal persuasion,
   reinforcement –   enhances feelings of competence,
   self talk – confidence script,

arousal control.
CONFIDENCE-DEVELOPMENT
 TIPS FOR PRACTITIONERS
develop a systematic goal setting
 program and log and graph progress,
create a personal Hall-of-Fame,
design a systematic conditioning program
 and maximize preparation,
use effective modeling strategies,
replay past successes and imagine future
 triumphs, and
emphasize confidence-building thoughts.
How do you maintain
your self-confidence
during competition?
 DEVELOPING & MAINTAINING
  COMPETITIVE CONFIDENCE
 appraise   situations as challenges rather than
  threats,
 develop readiness, performance and
  recovery plans to deal with problems,
 emphasize problem-focused coping
  strategies to reduce threat,
 use emotion-focused coping techniques to
  feel less threatened, and
 focus on more controllable process and
  performance goals.
What is the self-fulfilling
      prophecy?
SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY

 Self-Fulfilling Prophecies – occur when
  coaches’/teachers’ expectations prompt
  athletes/students to behave or perform in a way
  that conforms with those expectancies.
 Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that a
  group teachers believed were “academic late
  bloomers” made greater educational gains than
  did a control group for whom they had neutral
  expectancies.
 Expectancies of teachers, coaches and parents
  can significantly raise or lower performers’
  self-confidence.
  What are the four (4)
steps of the Self-Fulfilling
    Prophecy Process?
SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY MODEL
          SELF-FULFILLING
         PROPHECY PROCESS
 STEP 1 – Coaches Develop Expectations
 STEP 2 – Coaches’ Expectations Influence their
           Treatment of Athletes (i.e., frequency,
           duration, and quality of interactions)
 STEP 3 – Athletes’ Learning and Performance
            Is Impacted by Differential Treatment
 STEP 4 -- Athletes’ Behavior Conforms to
             Coaches’ Expectations
        STEP 1: COACHES FORM
           EXPECTATIONS
   Person Cues
       race,
       gender
       socioeconomic status,
       size,
       body type, and
       style of dress.
   Performance Information
       conditioning and skills tests,
       previous performance history,
       evaluation of others, and
       tryout information.
     STEP 2: DIFFERENTIAL
    EXPECTANCIES IMPACT
    COACHING BEHAVIORS
 type,  frequency and warmth of
  interactions,
 nature of instructional behaviors (e.g.,
  skills taught, difficulty of skills, and
  persistence)
 nature of feedback behaviors (e.g.,
  valence, specificity, and corrective
  content)
 attributions for success and failure.
  STEP 3: COACHES’ BEHAVIOR
     IMPACTS ATHLETES’
         PERFORMANCE

quantity and  quality of learning,
quality of competitive cognitions
 and performance, and
long-term development.
      STEP 4: ATHLETES’
  PERFORMANCE CONFORMS
WITH COACHES’ EXPECTATIONS

 Athletes most susceptible to Self-
 Fulfilling Prophecy effects are . . .
   younger,
   lessexperienced,
   lower in self-esteem,
   more coachable, and
   value success more.
How do we maximize
positive Self-Fulfilling
  Prophecy effects?
        HOW TO MAXIMIZE
       POSITIVE SFP EFFECTS
1.   Determine what sources of information are used
     to form expectations.
2.   Realize initial expectancies may be inaccurate,
     requiring adjustment as performers skill changes.
3.   Equalize skill-development time across athletes.
4.   Provide all performers sufficient time to fully
     master skills.
5.   Respond to errors with corrective instruction.
6.   Focus on product as a means to attain product.
7.   Develop good coach-athlete relationships.
8.   Create a performance-oriented team climate.

				
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posted:10/11/2011
language:English
pages:39