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					International Relations

           Unit 5
 Beginnings of the Cold War
             Yalta Conference
       War time meeting in February of
        1945 between:
    •    United States: Franklin Roosevelt
    •    United Kingdom: Winston Churchill
    •    Soviet Union: Josef Stalin
        Yalta Conference (Con’t)
       Goal of the conference was to establish
        an agenda for post-war Germany
    •     Soviet’s felt they held the upper hand in the
          conference because the Red Army was 65
          miles from Berlin
    •     FDR hoped to gain Stalin’s commitment to
          the UN
            Also hoped to get Soviet assurance for support in
             the Pacific theater
    •     Churchill pushed for free democratic
          elections in eastern and central Europe
            Stalin sought Soviet sphere of influence in those
             countries
             •   Especially Poland
        Yalta Conference (Con’t)
       Poland
    •    Stalin believed a strong Poland as the
         keystone to Soviet peace
            Yet agreed to allow free-democratic
             elections
             •   Later reneged and installed a communist puppet
                 regime
    •    Red Army strongly held much of
         Eastern Europe at this time as well
       The Big Three reinforced the
        spheres-of-influence philosophy
        post-war
    “A Novel Burden Far From Our
                Shores”
       Truman administration between 1945
        and 1953 turned traditional U.S. foreign
        policy assumptions upside down
    •     Unilateralism gave way to multilateralism
    •     Through the containment policy:
            Signed a host of international commitments
            Mounted peacetime military buildup
            Created many new programs
            Second World War
       Left a broad swath of destruction
        and human misery through the
        world
    •    Nearly 60 Million people killed
    •    Cities lay in ruins, factories
         demolished or idle, roads and bridges
         destroyed, fields unplowed
    Second World War (Con’t)
       Japan, Italy, Germany were defeated
        and reduced to second-rank powers
    •     Only the United States and the Soviet Union
          emerged from the war capable of wielding
          significant influence beyond their borders
       Middle East and South-SE Asia erupted
        into revolutions against their onetime
        colonial masters
    •     War created the rise and fall of new factions
          within many countries, increasing instability
            Also allowing intervention from U.S. and Soviets
             Additional Changes
       Advances in transportation drastically shrank
        distances
    •     Especially the expansion of aviation
       Atomic Bomb destabilized international
        relations
    •     Many feared that a new war using Nuclear Bombs
          could be more devastating than WWII
       Only the U.S. emerged stronger and richer at
        WWII’s end
    •     It alone possessed atomic weapons
    •     UN was located in New York City
       A New Manifest Destiny
    •     “We are now concerned with the peace of the entire
          world”
            To straighten out the mess made by the Europeans
                        Truman
       Became president following the death of
        FDR
    •     Which FDR had kept Truman in the dark in
          concerns to public and foreign policy
       Saw a complex world in black-and-white
        terms
    •     Viewed people, races, and nations through
          stereotypes and sometimes ethnic slurs
    •     He preferred blunt talk to the silky tones of
          diplomacy
            Also used his subordinates much more frequently
             than FDR
              Truman (Con’t)
       Sought to use James Byrnes who
        was FDR “Special Assistant” and
        had been present at Yalta
    •    However used unilateralism, hurt him
         in the long run
                    U.S. Fears
       After V-J Day (Victory over Japan Day),
        the U.S. was at the pinnacle of power
    •     Yet felt insecure and threatened from events
          in “Korea to Timbuktu”
       Feared that an aggressive Stalin might
        exploit global instability
    •     Thus branding the one-time ally an enemy
       Americans felt that the atomic monopoly
        wielded them enormous power over
        other countries
    •     Yet the Soviets balked at threats to their
          own national interests
              Soviet’s Power
       Eastern Europe played a critical
        role in the postwar transformation
        of American attitudes toward the
        USSR
    •    Moves to nationalize major industries
         was seen as a threat to a healthy
         world economy, according to the U.S.
    •    Political oppression and limited press
         increased U.S. fears
       Over western allies protests, the
        Soviets kept troops in Iran and
        Manchuria
                        Stalin
       The Soviet dictator was a cruel
        tyrant who presided over a brutal
        police state
    •    He Ruthlessly promoted his own power
         and security of his state
    •    Determined to have friendly
         governments, or buffer zones
            To guard against German threat
       “He was devious yet cautious,
        opportunistic yet prudent,
        ideological yet pragmatic.”
    Council of Foreign Ministers
       Met in Moscow in December of
        1945
       Reinforced sphere-of-influence
        principles in regards to East Asia
        and Eastern Europe
       Even developed a proposal for
        international control of atomic
        energy
    •    Truman viewed this agreement as an
         “Appeasement Document”
    Council of Foreign Ministers
                (Con’t)
       Began a more hard-line foreign
        policy of tough talk and no
        concessions
    •    Actions the following months only
         reinforced that U.S.-Soviet differences
         were irreconcilable
                 Long Telegram
       An eight-thousand word missive that
        assessed Soviet policies in the most
        gloomy and ominous fashion
    •     Written by George F. Kennan
       Stressed that Communist ideology
        reinforced traditional Russian
        expansionism
    •     Confirmed the futility and even danger of
          further negotiations and prepared the way
          for a policy called the “Containment Policy”
            Using military, economic and political mechanisms
             to deter the spread of Communism
               Sinews of Peace
       On March 5, 1945 Winston Churchill
        gave a speech in Fulton, Missouri at
        Westminster College
       Churchill warned that from “Stettin in
        the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an
        Iron Curtain has descended across the
        (European) Continent”
    •     The coining of a phrase used during the rest
          of the Cold War
       Initially the speech was received very
        negatively by many in the U.S.
                       Germany
       Throughout 1945-46 the former allies
        attempted to negotiate a peace treaty
    •     However their actions spoke louder than
          words
            Soviet vengeful treatment of Germans, promotion
             of leftist political parties, incessant demand for
             additional reparations, all reinforced U.S.
             suspicions
            The western occupation zones merged, among loud
             Soviet protests
       Byrnes gave speech in September 1946
        stating U.S. intentions to preserve and
        protect a democratic Germany
         Achieving Grand Goals
       Unprecedented economic aid
        programs were developed to
        combat ongoing insurgencies and
        clear up breeding grounds of
        economic want in which they
        believed Communism would
        flourish
    •    Formed an alliance with Western
         European nations that involved a
         binding commitment to intervene
         militarily
              The Cold Warriors
       Byrnes retired as Secretary of State and was
        replaced by George C. Marshall
    •     Greatly supported by Dean Acheson and Kennan
            Known as the Wise Elihu Root
    •     They were appalled by Marxist Dogma and Soviet
          totalitarianism
       New task was to restructure government for a
        new era of global involvement
    •     Organize its institutions and mobilize its resources to
          wage the Cold War
       Passed the National Security Act of July 1947
    •     Created the Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security
          Council and the Central Intelligence Agency
             A Containment Policy
       Economic and military aid were
        given to Greece and Turkey
       A Leftist victory could have a
        bandwagon effect on the already
        fragile political institutions in
        France and Italy as well
    •    Could create a Domino Effect
            U.S. assumption in all the revolutions, that
             the Soviets had a hand in the rise of leftist
             groups
A Containment Policy (Con’t)
       Became known as the Truman
        Doctrine
    •    The U.S. needed to “Support free
         peoples who are resisting attempted
         subjugation by armed minorities or
         outside pressures.”
            Became the foundation for interventionism
             throughout the Cold War
               Marshall Plan
       United States, unlike the years
        following WWI, gave in huge sums,
        money to help stabilize Europe
    •    Viewed Germany as most vital to
         European recovery
    •    Americans pushed European countries
         to integrate their economies and to
         create multilateral trade
          Marshall Plan (Con’t)
       The Marshall Plan was passed in
        April 1948, with the price tag of
        $13 Billion
    •    Provided capital to Western Europe
         without sparking inflation
    •    Started the process of integration that
         led to the Common Market and
         ultimately the European Union
       One of the Most successful 20th
        century initiatives
              Covert Operations
       Truman Administration employed many
        of its new national security mechanism,
        including CIA covert operations, in order
        to prevent Communist victories
    •     Successful initially during the Italian election
          of 1948, producing an inflated faith in the
          utility of covert operations
       Operation Rollback sought to use
        sabotage, guerrilla operations and
        propaganda to stir up rebellion in Soviet
        Bloc countries
    •     Results were disastrous
            Either spies were captured or rebellions did not
             receive the type of support they anticipated from
             the U.S.
                     Berlin Airlift
       In July 1948, when U.S. began moving
        western Germany toward a nation, the
        Soviets sealed access to the city of
        Berlin by highway, rail and water
    •    Blockade posed a major challenge for the
         U.S. and its allies
            Created a volatile situation in which the slightest
             misstep could provoke conflict
    •    U.S. for eleven months flew 250 missions a
         day around the clock in order to maintain
         some semblance of a functioning economy in
         west Berlin
            This action greatly backfired on Stalin and backed
             down from the blockade
             North Atlantic Treaty
                  Organization
       Started after Britain and four European
        nations formed the Brussels Pact
    •     A mutual defense treaty
       Europeans feared Soviet intimidation
        and subversion more than its military
        power, thus seeking support from U.S.
        and Canada
    •     Nations would join together to protect one
          another from Communist intervention, using
          force if necessary
            U.S. Senate approved the treaty in July 1949
         Cold War Policies in Latin
                  America
       U.S. shifted from neglect to concern to
        active involvement centered around
        Anti-Communism
    •     However initially gave limited technical
          assistance, loans, private capital, and
          increased trade
    •     Created the Organization of American States
          to enforce regional security
            Passed an anti-Communist resolution sponsored by
             the U.S. delegation
       U.S. viewed Latin America as especially
        susceptible to Communist penetration
    Cold War Policies in the Middle
                  East
       In dealing with the Arab-Israeli conflict,
        the U.S. was in a difficult position
    •     Recognize an independent Israel in the
          Palestinian territory
    •     Refuse Recognition of an independent Israel
            Either way isolate a either group and allow the
             Soviets an opportunity to gain more supporters
       Ultimately the U.S. recognized the new
        Jewish government within eleven
        minutes of it’s establishment
    •     Infuriated the Arabs and represented the
          first step in building what would be the U.S.-
          Israelis special relationship
    Cold War Policies in East Asia
       Marshall, before being tapped to
        Secretary of State, was sent to negotiate
        a truce between Nationalist Chiang Kai-
        Shek and Communist Mao Zedong
    •     Tried to create a “U.S. styled Democracy,”
          with Chiang Kai-Shek having the upper hand
            Considered by many the most thankless missions
             every undertaken by a U.S. diplomat
    Cold War Policies in East Asia
                 (Con’t)
       Nationalist began collapsing, creating a
        difficult situation for U.S. officials
    •     Intervene to prevent the spread of
          Communism?
    •     Ultimately they viewed that Chiang was
          insufficient as leader and that China was a
          “Secondary Theater”
       Japan gained even more importance
        following the demise of the Nationalist
        within China
    •     U.S. General Douglas MacArthur was given
          the task of creating a “Switzerland of the
          Pacific” in Japan
    Cold War Policies in East Asia
              (Con’t)
       Vietnam Revolution against France
    •    1949 U.S. recognized the French puppet
         government headed by emperor Bao Dai
            Vietnamese independence movement was
             headed by longtime Communist operative Ho
             Chi Minh
             •   U.S. viewed Ho as a puppet of the Kremlin
        The Tumultuous Years from
                 1949-1950
       A series of stunning events sharply
        escalated Soviet-American tensions
    •     Truman administration officials globalize the
          containment policy
            Assumed commitments in the world wide struggle
             against Communism and increased full-scale,
             peacetime rearmament
    •     Soviet explosion of an atomic bomb in
          September 1949 challenged the U.S.
          superiority
            U.S. began development of the Hydrogen Bomb,
             even more powerful than the Atomic Bomb
        The Tumultuous Years from
              1949-1950 (Con’t)
       A series of stunning events sharply
        escalated Soviet-American tensions
        (Con’t)
    •    Fall of China seemed to shift power
         struggle toward Communism
            Began creating domestic turmoil in U.S.
             over “Communist sympathizers…
             undermined efforts… within the State
             Department
             •   Began the Red Scare by Joseph R. McCarthy
        The Tumultuous Years from
             1949-1950 (Con’t)
       NSC-68
    •    Drafted in late 1949 that proclaimed
         defending freedom across the world in
         order to save it at home
           Painted a zero-sum world in which any
            gain for Communism was automatically a
            loss for the “Free World”
            •   Pressed for shoring up Western European
                countries
            •   Huge boost to defense spending
                    Korean War
       Conflict began from occupation zones
        hastily carved out at WWII’s end
    •     Divided between U.S. and Soviet at 38th
          parallel
    •     Regimes emerged in each zone bearing the
          distinct imprint of the occupying power
            U.S. backed Syngman Rhee
            Soviets supported Communist zealot Kim Il-Sung
    •     Initially U.S. left South Korea out of its
          “Defense Perimeter”
            However Communist victory in China reinforced
             necessity in a buffer through Korea
           Korean War (Con’t)
       Kim Il-Sung pressed Stalin for the
        go-ahead to invade the South
    •    Stalin approved it provided that Kim
         got a quick victory
       To Soviet surprise, the Truman
        administration responded promptly
    •    Received UN support to back the
         military of the South Koreans
             Korean War (Con’t)
       Though the South was initially losing, UN
        commander General MacArthur devised a plan
        for an amphibious assault on the northern
        coastline
    •     An incredibly dangerous plan, that was extremely
          successful
            The South pushed the North Koreans back to the 38th
             Parallel
    •     However Chinese intervention by 1950 ultimately
          helped stall the war near the 38th parallel
            Ultimately the fighting ended under Eisenhower
    •     MacArthur was suspended for insubordination before
          wars end
       Major victory for Chinese Communist party
    Coexistence and Crises, 1953-
                 1961
       By March 6, 1953 Joseph Stalin
        was pronounced dead
    •    His death, along with the development
         of nuclear weapons, fundamentally
         changed the Cold War
            New leaders on both sides struggled to
             cope with a more complex and menacing
             world
    Coexistence and Crises, 1953-
            1961 (Con’t)
       By 1950’s, the Cold War was
        prominently between the U.S. and
        Soviet Union
    •    Each side saw each other as completely
         hostile
            They used imaginable weapons, alliances,
             economic and military aid, espionage, proxy wars,
             targeted assassinations and arms race
    •    Both sides primarily chose to wage conflict
         through client states, diplomacy,
         propaganda, and threats of force
    Coexistence and Crises, 1953-
            1961 (Con’t)
       During this time nearly 100 new
        nations were created
    •    Created a fertile breeding ground for
         great power competition
            These countries were labeled “Third
             World” Countries
    •    Areas were used for proxy wars
                  Life Post-WWII
       U.S. citizens were accustomed to conscription
    •     Nearly 3.5 million people were serving through the
          draft
       Through a global network of alliances, the U.S.
        was committed to defend forty-two nations
       Intelligence agencies used any means to
        monitor USSR actions
    •     To win global competition for hearts and minds,
          Americans stationed abroad helped grow crops, build
          schools, train military personnel, and manipulate the
          outcome of elections
       Public relations firms sought to boost their U.S.
        images and secure maximum economic and
        military assistance
             Communist Hysteria
       Communist threat created a near
        hysterical fear and suspicion that
        “…Communist were everywhere…”
    •     “Busy undermining your government,
          plotting to destroy your liberties and try to
          aid the Soviet Union
       U.S. government deported real and
        suspected Communists and even
        encouraged citizens to spy on each other
    •     Church membership soared during this
          period as well
            Dwight D. Eisenhower had “In God We Trust”
             added to coins
    Communist Hysteria (Con’t)
       Some U.S. officials viewed the Cold war
        as equivalent to a holy war
       Republican Joseph R. McCarthy wreaked
        havoc through investigations of alleged
        Communist influence in the government
    •     Claimed to have the names of known
          communist operatives within the U.S.
          government other influential positions
            Ultimately became so ridiculous that Congress
             censured him
    •     Ultimately ruining the lives of many
          dedicated public servants and eliminated
          much of its expertise on East Asia
                A New U.S. Cast
       Dwight D. Eisenhower
    •    Personified the values the nation clung
         to under external threat
    •    Also had a lifetime of experience in the
         national security matters that now
         held top priority
            He kept his military advisers at arm’s
             length
    •    Had the NSC meet weekly or more
         A New U.S. Cast (Con’t)
       John Foster Dulles
    •    Became the nation’s Secretary of
         State
            Related to previous famous secretary of
             states
    •    A cool pragmatist with a sophisticated
         view of the world and ample tactical
         skills
    Handling Post-Stalin USSR
       New leaders Molotov, Beria and Malenkov
        attempted to shift toward a less
        confrontational mode with the U.S.
    •     However coolly received by U.S. officials
    •     U.S. officials viewed the peace overtures by
          USSR as designed to undermine Western
          morale and hold back Western rearmament
       Yet U.S. officials began moving away from
        NSC-68 toward The NEW LOOK strategy
    •     Relied more heavily on nuclear weapons and
          collective security to maintain the containment
          policy
    •     Also believed even greater in propaganda and
          psychological warfare
    East Asian Success and New
               Problems
       Eisenhower was able to negotiate an end
        to fighting on the Korean peninsula
    •    Yet there has never been an actual peace
         treaty
       Indochina became the new hotspot for
        the Cold War
    •    In 1954 France’s 8 year war against the
         Communist-led Vietminh seemed to be
         tipping away from France
    •    U.S. sought to help due to the famous
         domino theory,
            Warning that if Vietnam should fall to the
             Communist, the rest of SE Asia might soon follow
             •   Possibly leaving affects in Middle East and Japan
    East Asian Success and New
           Problems (Con’t)
       Indochina became the new hotspot
        for the Cold War (Con’t)
    •    Despite agreements reached at
         Geneva to allow free elections, the
         U.S. the non-communist leaders
         refusal to participate in the national
         elections
            Fear that he would lose to Ho Chi Minh
    •    Dulles negotiated the Southeast Asia
         Treaty Organization (SEATO)
            Similar in design and purpose to NATO
    East Asian Success and New
          Problems (Con’t)
       China-Taiwan
    •    U.S. in 1955, fearful of Chinese intentions,
         recognized Chiang Kai-Shek’s establishment
         of an independent country on the island of
         Taiwan
    •    With yet another country, we signed a
         mutual-protection agreement
            Today still a hot-bed issue
    •    Possibly the start of Chinese desire for
         Nuclear weapons
                Eastern Europe
       Even more fervently, Eisenhower
        used psychological warfare to win
        hearts and minds in Eastern Europe
    •    Used the Radio Free European radio
         station, despite jamming by the Soviet
         Union
    •    These actions encouraged the Eastern
         Europeans countries to revolt,
         ultimately unsuccessfully
            Sobered U.S. expectations for quick
             uprisings in Eastern Europe
         Eastern Europe (Con’t)
       The United States during the 1950’s
        even initiated cultural exchanges with
        the Soviet Union and blocs
    •     Music and especially jazz became a powerful
          weapon in the new arsenal of liberation
            1955, Voice of America’s “Music of America,”
             reached an estimated thirty million people in the
             Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
    •     Became a very powerful tool to gain positive
          recognition of the U.S. throughout Eastern
          Europe
             Arab-Israeli Conflict
       By 1955, Krushchev had struck an
        arms deal with Egypt
    •    Helped increase the West’s fear of
         Arab nationalism might veer to the left
         and that the West must work to keep
         them from Soviet influence
            In return, U.S. signed an arms deal with
             Israel
    Arab-Israeli Conflict (Con’t)
       Eisenhower and Dulles deepened
        U.S. involvement in the Middle East
    •    Military bases, lines of communication
         and huge reservoirs of oil
            Mounted covert operations to overthrow
             unfriendly governments
            However not realizing the amount of hate
             throughout the Middle East
    Arab-Israeli Conflict (Con’t)
       Iranian nationalist took control of
        British Anglo-Iranian Oil Company
    •    U.S. officials used interventionism, yet
         blurring the lines between local
         nationalism and communism
    •    Eisenhower called for CIA to overthrow
         the Prime Minister of Iran
            Replaced him with the Shah
             •   A friendly government, yet ended up becoming
                 a brutal dictatorship
            Tried same thing in Syria, however
             unsuccessfully
    Arab-Israeli Conflict (Con’t)
       In 1954, signed the Baghdad Pact
        with Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and
        Pakistan
    •    Viewed by some as the West’s new
         form of imperialism
    •    Yet, most Arabian countries viewed
         Israel as a “cancer,” and must be
         removed
            The more the U.S. pressed for peace, the
             more strained Arab-Israeli relations
             became
             Suez Canal of 1956
       In 1952, Nasser overthrew British
        puppet King Farouk in Egypt
    •    U.S. sought to win him over by giving
         $400 million to help build a dam at
         Aswan on the Nile
            U.S. reneged due to Nasser seeking Soviet
             support as well
            Nasser then in 1956 overthrew British
             controllers of the Suez Canal
    Suez Canal of 1956 (Con’t)
       In 1952, Nasser overthrew British
        puppet King Farouk in Egypt (Con’t)
    •     On October 29, 1956 (Supported, but not by
          France and the U.S.) Israel attacked and
          seize the Sinai and Gaza without significant
          opposition
            The West threatened to use sanctions against
             Israel and Soviet threatened to unleash rockets
             against London and Paris
       Through the Eisenhower doctrine,
        interventionism, Nasser became the
        “Champion of Arabs”
                  Latin America
       U.S. rebuffed Latin American pleas for a
        hemispheric Marshall plan
    •     Insisted instead that modest loans and
          private investment were the correct path to
          economic development
            Also warned about the dangers of Communism
       U.S. also continued to support dictators,
        as long as they were friendly
    •     Continued the practicing dating back to the
          1920’s
          Latin America (Con’t)
       Operation PBSUCCESS in 1954 was
        used to overthrow the Guatemalan
        government
    •    Mainly successful due to Arbenz
         resigning, fearful of U.S. doing
         anything to get rid of him
    •    The success of this operation created
         complacency and confidence in
         overthrowing unfriendly governments
                Cuban Relations
       The rise of Fidel Castro, and his lean
        toward Soviet Union, brought the Cold
        War into the U.S. backyard
    •     With U.S. support, Fulgencio Batista
          governed oppressively in Cuba
            The Platt amendment had been reneged by 1934,
             however the U.S. domination continued
    •     Fidel had tried in both 1953 and 1956 to
          overthrow U.S. dominance
            Ended disastrously
    •     Finally on January 1, 1959, Fidel rode
          triumphantly into Havana on a tank given to
          Batista by the U.S.
        Cuban Relations (Con’t)
       Castro sought to free Cuba from U.S.
        domination and eventually saw the
        Soviet Union as a means to that end
    •     He legalized the Communist Party, executed
          Batista supporters, purchased weapons from
          the Soviet Union
    •     In response the U.S. began the Social
          Progress Trust Fund to help stabilize Latin
          America
            However U.S. launched a full-scale economic
             warfare, including trade embargo, broke relations,
             and sought to mobilize opposition groups
        Beginnings of a Cooling, or
                  Détente
       At the end of Eisenhower’s 2nd term,
        politicians began questioning his foreign
        policy, specifically the New Look
        Program
    •     October 4, 1957 Soviet Union launched
          Sputnik
            It created a sense of profound vulnerability
            Also used by Democrats like JFK, who said the U.S.
             was dangerously behind the Soviet Union in
             weapons of mass destruction
    •     In response he created NASA, and ordered
          the construction of super-secret underground
          bunker complexes
        Beginnings of a Cooling, or
               Détente (Con’t)
       Both Khrushchev and Eisenhower
        began to come to agreements on
        nuclear disarmament and
        inspection
    •    Khrushchev was invited to the U.S. in
         the fall of 1959
            Ended at Camp David (Named after
             Eisenhower’s grandson)
    •    Meetings brought forth worldwide
         hope for peace
        Beginnings of a Cooling, or
             Détente (Con’t)
       On May 1, 1960 all hopes for quick
        peace were destroyed when a U.S.
        spy plane (U-2) was shot down
        over the Soviet Union
    •    Constituted an act of war
    •    Ultimately each side hardened their
         stance toward the other, substantially
         ending negotiations
            Used, among other things, to usher in JFK
             to office
    Consequences of the Actions
             From 1950
   While covert actions seemed necessary
    and sometimes successful, it left long-
    term negative feelings throughout the
    world
   The Eisenhower administration left
    massive problems for the Kennedy and
    Johnson administration, that would lead
    to the most dangerous period of the Cold
    War

				
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posted:10/11/2011
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