Gulf mexico oil spill (PowerPoint) by qingyunliuliu


									The Gulf of Mexico Oil
 The 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill has been
  described as the worst environmental
  disaster in US history. On the 20th April, the
  Deepwater Horizon rig blew up killing eleven
  workers. The subsequent oil spill affected
  hundreds of miles of Gulf coastline, causing
  serious economic damage to the region, both
  in terms of tourism and fishing. The oil spill
  flowed continuously for three months! It is
  till nowadays; the largest accidental marine
  oil spills in the history of the petroleum
  industry! Its impact still continues even after
  the well was capped. Its effect is still a
  problem till these days despite efforts to
  stem the leak and contain the oil on the
  surface, the slick has spread, threatening
  wildlife and closing down thousands of sq
 The spill stemmed from a sea-floor oil
  gusher called The Deepwater Horizon that
  exploded in April 20, 2010 when methane
  gas from the well, under high pressure, shot
  all the way up and out of the drill column ,
  expanded onto the platform, and then ignited
  and exploded. Efforts by multiple ships to
  stop the flames were unsuccessful. After
  burning for approximately 36 hours, the
  Deepwater Horizon sank on the morning of
  April 22, 2010.The oil flowed continuously
  for three months till July 15 when the leak
  got stopped by capping the gushing
  wellhead, after it had released about 4.9
  million barrels crude oil before it was
 There are social, economic and environmental
  consequences of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. It has a
  great impact on tourism, fisheries, wildlife and the
  health risks to those involved in the clean up
  operation. The disaster has caused massive
  environmental damage for hundreds of miles along
  the US coast. It caused massive damage to marine
  and wildlife habitats as well as to the Gulf's fishing
  and tourism industries. A huge area of the Gulf was
  closed to shrimping after tar balls were found in
  shrimpers' nets and fishing boats. Scientists have also
  reported immense underwater plumes of dissolved oil
  that were not visible at the surface, as well as an 80-
  square-mile "kill zone" surrounding the blown BP
  well where everything looked dead on the seafloor.
  Even the birds around there suffered. The oil
  penetrated into the structure of their bodies, reducing
  its insulating ability, thus making the birds more
  vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less
  buoyant in the water.
 It also impaired their flight abilities to
  escape from predators. When oil covered
  their feathers, it caused kidney damage,
  altered liver function, and digestive tract
  irritation. In addition to all that, the spill
  is still causing big pollution problems like
  polluting the air and people not being
  able to go on the beaches.
 Oil giant BP has acknowledged its absolute
  responsibility for cleaning up a huge oil spill
  after the explosion of its well. Emergency
  teams are using several methods in attempts
  to deal with the huge spreading oil at the
  surface, which has created a slick covering
  about 2,000 square miles. More than 275
  vessels, including, skimmer ships, tugs,
  recovery vessels, floating containment
  booms, anchored barriers, sand-filled
  barricades along shorelines, and dispersants
  were used in an attempt to protect hundreds
  of miles of beaches and wetlands. A giant
  concrete-and-steel funnel has been placed
  over a blown-out oil well at the bottom of
  the Gulf of Mexico so that the oil leak can be
 Also, another company was contracted to
  drill the well and dispersant chemicals were
  used down at the leak site as well as on the
  surface to deal with that problem. These
  chemicals, rather like soap, are being
  sprayed from ships and aircraft in an effort
  to help break down the oil. Another method
  used to tackle oil spills is burning - although
  it can be tricky to carry out and has
  associated environmental risks such as toxic
  smoke. Both industry and government have
  also taken numerous steps to improve safety
  since the incident. Also, the federal
  government swiftly imposed new regulations
  on the offshore drilling industry after the
 In addition to these steps, an internal affairs unit
  to expose improper relationships between
  companies and regulators was established. It has
  vowed to improve inspections and has issued
  new rules for new drilling proposals that have to
  undergo more thorough environmental reviews
  to meet new safety standards that apply to all
  deep-water operations. Thus, a massive
  operation is under way in and around the Gulf of
  Mexico to halt the leak from a blown-out oil
  well, prevent the spread of the slick and clean its
  mess. All that clean up business had cost
  enormous amounts of money. Economically the
  financial scale of the disaster was revealed, with
  the US Government asking for at least $20 billion
  compensation from BP. This led to a dramatic
  drop in the share price of the company.
 Thankfully, British Petroleum (BP) has
  finally capped the leaking well that has
  expelled millions of barrels of oil into the
  Gulf of Mexico. According to the BBC, a
  pressure test showed a cement plug put
  in place by BP to permanently "kill" the
  well was holding. Hopefully, this
  environmental disaster will be completely
  solved soon and life can go back to
  normal there. Oil is essential for modern
  life and it is the basis for petrochemicals











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