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COACH DANIEL’S GUIDE TO THE 2007 U.S. HISTORY E.O.C. EXAM COMPETENCY GOAL 1 THE NEW NATION 1.1 FEDERALISM The _____________________created the ______________, within the judicial branch of government. The Federalists wanted a ______central government, but the Anti-Federalists feared a large central government so they preferred more power for the ___________. The Anti-Federalists forced the adoption of the _________ (the first 10 amendments) that protected the rights of the individual. Among those 10 were #1 - protection of the basic ____________, #4 - freedom from unlawful __________________, and #6 - the right to a ____________ by a public jury. Alexander Hamilton, the first Sec. of the __________ under Washington, had an economic plan that called for paying off the ___________, getting revenues through taxes and ____________, and creating a ____________. Hamilton‟s Economic Plan for the U.S. was based on “__________” (free markets without interference by the government). __________________ (1794) saw Pennsylvania farmers rise up on the tax collectors who tried to take away from their profits on grain used for making _____________. Washington sent in the _________ to put down the revolt. This was the first test of the power of the ___________ government over the states. The two political party system in America arose out of the conflict between _________ and _________. Jefferson was a strict constructionist that believed that the government only had the powers that were written into the Constitution. Hamilton believed that the government could go beyond what was written to what was implied as seen in the “_____________” clause. Hamilton headed up the ___________ made up of northern businessmen and Jefferson headed up the ________________ made up of southern and western farmers. In 1798 Congress passed the ________ and __________ Acts, which made it harder for an immigrant to become a citizen and made it illegal to openly criticize the government. Because many of the immigrants supported the D-R Party, Jefferson and his protégé, James Madison drafted the _____________________ that any state thought a federal law was unconstitutional could _________ (not obey) that law. In the election of 1800 ___________ defeated John Adams and put an end to the enforcement of the Alien and Sedition laws. But, before Adams left office he appointed as many Federalist judges to the courts. They were called the “______________”. Jefferson took the oath before some of the judges got their papers. One of them, William Marbury sued the government for his job in the case of __________ vs __________. The Supreme Court under Chief Justice, _____________, supported the government and Madison. This case set a precedent that the Supreme Court is the final authority on the constitutionality of laws and verified the idea of “______________”. President _________ allowed the US to double its‟ size with the ___________________ from Napoleon of France for $15 million dollars. The Federalist Party tried to slow the power of the Democratic-Republicans by holding the ______________ __________. This convention marked the end of the Federalist era and became known for the idea of “_________”, leaving the union by the New England states. 1.2 Political Issues In the early days of the new republic only ________________________ could vote. Voting is also called __________________. Class disparities were reflected in regional differences. The __________ of the West and South were generally poorer than the ______________ and industrialists of the North. In 1795 the ________________ moved many Indians out of the Ohio Valley and allowed for white settlers. American Indian nations of the North tried to band together under the leadership of _________, a Shawnee. For purposes of representation in congress __________ were counted as 3/5 of a person. Many Northern states began to pass __________laws, which set slaves free. In 1793 _____________ invented the cotton gin, which quickly removed the cotton seeds from the fiber. Cotton production in the South could not keep up with demand and this cotton boom increased the need for slaves. Thomas Jefferson thought slavery to be morally wrong, but supported slavery as a “_____________” economically. 1.3 Foreign Affairs President Washington wanted to remain neutral in disputes of foreign nations. He issued a _______________________. When Britain and France went to war, the British started seizing American ships bound for France and taking the sailors forcing them to work on British ships. The US and Britain tried to resolve their differences by signing _____ Treaty. This treaty was weak because the US did not have the military power to force the issue of ____________. In his farewell address, he warned of ____________________, _________________, and ________________. But, we tried to negotiate a treaty with France, but they demanded $10 m to negotiate, this was known as the _________________ Jefferson as President issued the ____________________. This act halted American trade with Britain. The act caused economic panic the America and had little effect of Britain. The act was repealed in 1809. War with Britain was becoming more likely. ____________ like Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun wanted a war to rid the continent of the British, which held _______ in the West. The War of 1812 ensued. It was not a success for either side. The only important battle was the Battle of New Orleans and the war ended with the signing of the _______________. The US also signed two important treaties with Spain: the __________________ opened up the Mississippi River to trade through New Orleans, and the __________________ in which the Spanish gave up claim to Florida. COMPETENCY GOAL 2 EXPANSION AND REFORM 2.1 2.3 2.4 Expansion Jefferson sent ___________________ to explore the Louisiana Purchase. They found a trail that led to the Pacific, the ______________. In 1848 gold was discovered in __________________ and those that sought in were called ______. ________________ became the issue on which the country divided itself. Many were opposed to slavery in the territories and this group founded the Republican Party. The _________ ______________ tried to satisfy the North and the South by admitting Missouri as a slave state, ____________ as a free state, and restricting slavery in the territories. _______________________ founded an antislavery newspaper, _____________ and founded the American Antislavery Society. Escaped slave, ________________, became the antislavery leader, but some slaves took part in revolts like ______________ who led a revolt that killed white masters in Virginia. Turner and his followers were hanged and the South became hardened to protect slavery. Between 1817 and 1825 under ________________we had the __________________. No war. Henry Clay envisioned the “_________________” which was an economic program based on tariffs, a national bank, and improvements in transportation to help commerce and trade. In the election of 1824, ________________ threw his support to JQ Adams, which gave Adams enough votes to defeat _________________. Jackson‟s supporters called this action the “_______________” because JQ Adams appointed Clay Secretary of State. _________ won the 1828 as the Common Man‟s President. He started the ______________system , which gave government jobs to loyal supporters regardless of their qualifications. Jackson‟s presidency was marked by two issues: __________________ and the ___________________. In 1828 Congress passed the _________________, which was called the Tariff of ______________, in South Carolina because it penalized the South, but not the North. South Carolina called a state convention to ________ (not recognize) the Act as unconstitutional. Congress lowered the tariff in 1833. Jackson thought a _____________________ was unconstitutional and fought to get rid of it. The Supreme Court in ___________ ______________ ruled that a national bank was constitutional. During Jackson‟s term expansionists called for the ____________________ Act, which would send the Indians to territories in the West. The Supreme Court case of _____________________ allowed for the Indians to stay, but Georgia with the backing of Jackson sent them on the _____________ to what is now Oklahoma. Relations with Mexico were breaking down. The Mexican Army killed all of the defenders of the ________. Texas was not allowed to join the Union because of the fear that it would become a slave state, so it became a republic. President Polk thought like many Americans that God wanted the US to expand through the theory of _______________ ______________. Inventors changed America: ______________ with the telegraph, ________________ with the steel plow, ____________________ with the mechanical reaper, and _______________ with the steamboat. Cities attracted _________________ and those that opposed them were called “_________”. The nativists even started a political party, the _______________. 2.5 Reform Movements The first _________________ convention was the ______ _______________ organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The goal of the convention was for women to have equal rights with men. ________________: led the fight for “____________________”, started a campaign to abolish drinking, the temperance movement, and co-founded the National Woman Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Social institutions were reformed through people who tried to rehabilitate rather than punish. ______________ worked to get many mentally ill people out of prisons and into mental hospitals. _______________ moved to get public education for all American children. Some people thought they could improve society by forming utopian communities like New Harmony in Indiana, Oneida in New York, and Brook farm in Massachusetts. 2.6 Religion and Slavery ____________________ sought to end slavery in America. This movement was started by Christians believing that black people were also children of God. ___________, a free black man, published a pamphlet against slavery. William Lloyd Garrison founded the antislavery newspaper, ___________. Frederick _____________________, a runaway slave, traveled throughout the North speaking at antislavery meetings. 2.7 Nationalism and Sectionalism ________________thought America should have its‟ own language. He set down American words and uses in the American Dictionary of the English Language. Writers of the early 1800‟s moved away from romanticism, which stressed beauty and emotion to ___________________ which stresses nature and self-reliance. ____________________wrote “Nature”, _____________________wrote ________________about his solitary life in the woods. Stories about America and Americans were written by: Washington Irving (Rip Van Winkle), _____________________ ( Last of the Mohicans), Nathaniel Hawthorne, and __________________(The Raven). Many artists that painted landscapes of America formed the ___________________________. COMPETENCY GOAL 3 CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION 3.1 3.2 Causes of the Civil War __________________________ was meant to improve relations between the North and the South, but one part of the Compromise was the ___________________, which made not returning escaped slaves a punishable crime. More controversy over slavery began with the __________________Act, which reversed the __________________ __________, which banned slavery above the Mason-Dixon line. The K-N Act either new state could become a slave state if the people so voted, popular sovereignty. The proslavery forces collided with the antislavery forces in what became known as “______________”. The Lincoln – Douglas debates in Illinois further moved the sentiments on slavery. The ________________ before the Supreme Court affirmed that slaves were property. Lincoln did not want to end slavery, but to keep it from expanding into the North. Douglas supported _____________________ in his Freeport Doctrine. Democrats split with Douglas over popular sovereignty with many forming the new Republican Party. Some members of the Whig Party joined the ________________ while others called the Free Soil party bolted for the Republicans. Antislavery movements included: the Underground Railroad started by their conductor, _________________, ____________ who planned to free slaves by starting a rebellion at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and Harriet Beecher Stowe who wrote “__________________” which exposed in inhumanity of slavery. ______________, Republican, won the election of 1860 without one southern vote. Southerners, who knew that their way of life was about to end, secession (withdrawing from the Union) was the correct course. The South formed a confederation (an association of sovereign states) and chose _____________ as President. Southerners seized most of the federal forts in the South. The Union held Fort _________ in South Carolina until fired upon by the Confederates. Lincoln was determined to ___________________________________. 3.3 Civil War Turning Points Some Northern Democrats called _____________ wanted to compromise with the Confederate states to avoid war, but Lincoln had no intention of letting the South secede. Using his executive powers Lincoln suspended _________ ____________ (the right challenge the legality of being jailed). This move allowed Lincoln to lock up antiwar Democrats and draft resisters. The Supreme Court ruled this move my Lincoln as _______________________ but Lincoln ignored the ruling. The Union devised the “_________________”, which would apply pressure from all sides by cutting off support from the French or British. The Confederacy won the first skirmish at Bull Run with the heroics of ______________________. ______________ took command of the Confederate forces, but was defeated by the Union forces at _______________ in Maryland. On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the _______________ _______________, which freed all slaves in the confederate states. This gave the Union forces a morale boost and allowed freed blacks to join the Union army. General _____________________ captured Vicksburg, Mississippi giving the Union control of the Mississippi River. The turning point of the war came at the Battle of _____________ in Pennsylvania. In 3 days 50,000 soldiers died and the Confederate army was forced to retreat to Virginia never to fight again on Northern soil. Later in 1863, Lincoln gave the __________________ to honor those that died in that battle. Lincoln was re-elected in _____. General William Tecumseh Sherman cut a burning path through _________ destroying everything in his wake. General Lee knew that this was the end and surrendered to Grant at _____________________in Virginia on April 9, 1865. Only 5 days later, Lincoln was assassinated by _______________________. 3.4 3.5 Reconstruction The _____ Amendment abolished slavery. And, the battle began between the Radical Republican led Congress and new President, ___________________ of Tennessee. The Radicals were upset with Johnson‟s lenient approach to restoring the Southern states to the Union. Also troubling the Radical Republicans were the new “black codes” adopted by the Southern states, which limited the rights of African Americans. Congress created the _____________________to assist former slaves with food, medicine, and legal assistance. The _______________________ granted full civil rights to blacks. Johnson vetoed the legislation. Congress overrode the veto and tried to gain more power by trying to remove Johnson from office through _______________. Johnson was saved by one vote. The _____ Amendment granted all men full political rights (citizenship), while the _____ Amendment grated voting rights to all regardless of color. The South was divided into 5 military districts. Northerners who came to the South during reconstruction were called “____________”, and those southerners who helped them were referred to as “__________”. Most white Southerners hated both groups. Reconstruction was not working as planned. Many whites in the South refused to accept changes even though their states had given in to the changes. Violent groups like the _________________ terrorized blacks. Most blacks could only find work in the South as sharecroppers and _______ farmers working the land for others. While the South lay in ruins after the war, the North prospered due to strong __________ with mass production and railroads. The south was left to rely on ______________ to get by. During grant‟s administration scandal began to trouble the Republicans. The scandals of the era and the ___________________effectively ended reconstruction. The election of 1876 ended in a tie between the Republicans and Democrats and was headed to the House. _____________ _____________ bargained that for one vote he would remove the Federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction. As troops left the South, many Southern states passed ____ ____________ aimed at limiting the rights of blacks. These laws segregated the races and prevented blacks from voting. COMPETENCY GOAL 4 THE WEST AND THE DEBTOR 4.1 4.2 In 1862 President Lincoln signed the _____________ giving settlers free land to develop into farms. For a small fee anyone including former slaves, immigrants, and even single women could own land by staying on the land for 5 years. _______________, founder of the Mormon religion, was killed in Missouri for his beliefs, but Brigham Young took up the mantle and led the __________ westward settling in Salt Lake Valley in what is now Utah. In 1889 Oklahoma‟s Indian territories were opened up to settlement in the ______________________ when 50,000 home seekers staked claims on free land. Pioneers on the plains faced many hardships:______________, ____________, and Indians who raided farms, ranches, and wagon trains. They built houses out of sod because there were no trees for log cabins. Indians resented the intrusion into their land and the government was forced to send in soldiers to keep the Indians on the reservations. These troops included _________________(African Americans). The ___________________________________was completed when the ________________ and the _______________ railroads joined tracks at Promontory Point, Utah. The tracks were laid by Irish and Chinese immigrants. The Irish fared OK, but the Chinese were subjected to violence and discrimination. Congress hurt the Chinese further by passing the __________________________________ banning further immigration from China. Some areas of the West were not good for farming, but were good for ranching. And still other land was good for neither, but held valuable mineral deposits including: ___________,____________,and ________The greatest find was the __________________ which sent thousands West looking for riches. Westward expansion caused war between the Indians and the government. Chief ________, leader of the Nez Perce, tried to move his people to Canada, but were intercepted by troops and sent back to their ___________________ reservation. At the Battle of ________________ in the Black Hills of South Dakota, _______________and_____________ led Sioux and Cheyenne warriors in the massacre of the _________________and his 7th U.S. Cavalry. The last battle between the Indians and the government took place at ___________ _______ when the cavalry tried to stop the Sioux from practicing the “_____________” that would hopefully force the ________________ to leave, the ___________ to return, and _____________ to come back from the dead. The army tried to arrest Sitting Bull. He was killed and the cavalry attacked the camp killing hundreds of men, women, and children. This slaughter became known as the _____________________. In her book, Century of Dishonor, __________________ wrote of the mistreatment of the Indians by the U.S. government. The book led to the _______________which converted tribal land to individual ownership, was intended to assimilate the Indians into the white culture. 4.3 4.4 Populism and the American Farmer _______________________ grew out of the farmer‟s discontent with merchants, banks, and railroads. To help the farmers Congress passed the ____________________________________to force railroads to stop charging excessive rates. The railroads got by the law by creating interlocking directorates in which the same men sat on the board of several railroad corporations and allowed for rate fixing by the railroads. The Supreme Court in ________________ ruled that states may regulate private property when necessary for the public interest, as are the railroads. ___________________ practiced ______________integration by buying up all the companies that sold materials to his steel mills and buying up all of the companies that transported his steel to market. He then bought out his competitors in the steel industry, which is called horizontal integration. Farmers began to join together in what were called _______________buying equipment and selling their crops as a group rather than individually. The Grange was transformed into the ________________ Party representing the farmers in the West and South. Western farmers developed new techniques for farming including; ______‟s steel plow, __________________to bring up water from deep wells, barbed wire to keep livestock in, and ______________________________to take meat from the packers in Chicago to the East and the South. The Populist Party challenged the “____________” which bases all currency on gold. They favored “_______________” which uses both gold and silver to back the dollar. Eastern merchants and bankers (usually Republicans) favored the “gold standard” and the farmers and working class folks (usually Democrats) favored using both metals. Famous Populist, _____________________, spoke at the 1896 Democratic Convention for the farmers with the phrase “_______________________________________________”. COMPETENCY GOAL 5 INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY 5.1 Immigrants poured into America through _____________in the harbor of NYC. Those immigrants suffered culture shock. They tried to be Americans as part of the “melting pot” where they would give up their ethnic identities and be a part of the larger identity, American. The other idea was “cultural pluralism” in which immigrant groups would maintain their __________ identities and help America diversify. _________________ feared and disliked foreigners thinking that immigrants would take their jobs. Many immigrants worked in sweatshops in the Northeast and lived in tenement buildings in poor conditions. Jacob Riis published “________________” detailing the lives of immigrants. _______________ tried to help immigrants by founding ____________________ in Chicago a settlement house that provided support for those in poverty. Life changed for many in the late 1800‟s with advent inventions like Alexander Graham __________________and ___________________‟s lights, phonograph, and motion picture projector. 5.2 Wealth and Power ________________________, survival of the fittest, was used in the late 1800‟s to explain why some were rich and others were poor. Believers in this theory wanted the government to stay out of peoples lives and let nature take its‟ course making some rich and others poor. ________________________wrote stories about honest, hard working individuals that succeeded the strength of their own values. A few Americans became multimillionaires: ____________________in shipping and railroads, _________________in steel, ______________________in oil, and __________________in banking. ____________________drilled the first oil well. Rockefeller unified all of the refiners of the oil into one company, ____________________, a monopoly. These captains of industry were also called “__________________” because people saw them as making millions on the backs of the common people. 5.3 5.4 Labor and Government Regulation Most workers in the late 1800‟s worked for hourly wages on average 12 hours per day in poor conditions. _____________________ were formed to help give methods to improve their pay and working conditions. Unions used: __________________________where owners and workers hammered out contracts, _____________________where a third party helps in the process, and _________where the third party makes a decision binding on both owners and labor. Unions were of two types: _________________included different types of workers like bricklayers, painters, electricians in the same industry or business; ____________________were made up workers that performed the same task in many industries or businesses. The AFL (American Federation of Labor) was the first craft union and was organized by Samuel Gompers. The ___________________ was organized in 1869 listing 700,000 members fighting for an 8 hour work day, the end of child labor, equal pay for equal work, and the end of private banks. Unions used different weapons against owners: ______________where all workers must belong to the union, and ____________________ where workers refused to work in order to get their demands from ownership. Owners and big business fought unions by using: __________________contracts, in which workers agree not to join a union, __________________, keeping workers out, _____________________which put workers with bad reputations on a list of those not to be hired in an area, and __________issued by the courts to stop strikes. The late 1800‟s had many labor strikes like the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 when the workers effectively shut down the railroads. The ___________________in Chicago where a bomb killed 8 policemen and several workers were executed or imprisoned. The Pullman Strike where workers got pay cuts setting off violence forcing the government to step in and arrest the strike leaders. The urban poor turned to big city political machines for help like Boss Tweed‟s _____________________in NYC. Political machines would help the poor in return for votes in local elections. These “______________” were corrupt and took cities for millions of dollars in ______________, taking money intended for city projects and putting that money in the pockets of the politicians. The ______________________Act outlawed monopolies because they eliminated competition. Corruption also happed in politics. The ________________scandal under Grant defrauded the government of tax revenues, and Credit Mobilier scandal under Grant also allowed men to take money intended for the building of railroads for their own benefit. Some tried to make reforms in the political system to end corruption by proposing: __________________________which the public could use to propose legislation, _________________________by which an issue may stand for a vote of the public, and __________________which would allow voters to remove an elected official from office by a special election. COMPETENCY GOAL 6 EMERGENCE OF THE U.S. IN WORLD AFFAIRS 6.1 The U.S. in World Affairs _______________________the idea of pride in one‟s country and ______________ the idea that a country should expand its‟ sphere of influence led the US to expand in the late 1800‟s and early 1900‟s. Several factors played a role in imperialism: The military factors included a strong ______________________. __________________argued in his book “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History” that to enlarge the global market a strong navy must stand to protect American vessels. The humanitarian/cultural factor that sent missionaries and doctors to help native people live by American standards. The idea started by Rudyard Kipling was that it was “___________________________” to spread civilization to other areas. White man‟s burden was based on the belief of Anglo-Saxon superiority. The economic factors including the need for ___________________(iron, rubber, cotton) needed for________________, and new markets for American products. 6.2 6.3 Involvement and Influence of the U.S. In 1895 Cuban patriot Jose Marti led a rebellion against ____________. Spain sent 150,000 troops to put down the rebellion. The American press reported atrocities committed by the Spanish and called for war against Spain. The journalists used two tactics to incite the public; ___________________ (where publishers like ________________________ and __________________ sought out sensational stories; true or not) and jingoism (the idea that one‟s county is the best). Cuba provided good stories and better photos to sell newspapers. On February 15, 1898 the ________________________ exploded in Havana harbor. No one knew what caused the explosion, but the papers accused Spain and the war was on. _________________________ led his “_____________________ ” up San Juan Hill, the US navy sank every Spanish ship in Santiago harbor, and according to President ______________________we had won a “_________little war”. In Treaty of _________, Spain recognized Cuban independence, gave up claim to the _______________, ______________________, and ___________________. The US gained both politically and economically from the war. In 1904 the ____________________ to the Monroe Doctrine put the world on notice that the US would interfere hemispheric affairs as it sees fit. This would be known as “________________________” diplomacy. The most notable imperialist move of the period was the commitment to build a ______________________. The canal took many years of negotiations with Colombia and 10 years to build. In 1891, economic interests led the US to annex _____________ by overthrowing its‟ Queen _________________________ and turning the islands into a midway point for trade with Asia. Trade with Asia, especially ________________, became increasingly important. The US proposed an ______________ Policy with China in which all nations wishing to trade with China would share a “_______________________”. The Chinese resisted outsiders and staged the Boxer Rebellion against westerners. The US with other countries sent in troops to crush the rebels. In the early 1900‟s, President Taft moved away from the Big Stick toward a policy that substituted dollars for bullets in what was known as “_______________”. This was an attempt to influence Latin America to exhibit good will toward America. COMPETENCY GOAL 7 PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT 7.1 Rise of Progressivism ____________________ wrote an essay “______________________” in which he set forth his philosophy that the very wealthy should give some of their riches back to society. Mark Twain wrote about the unflattering side of wealth in “________________”. He meant that the riches seen were just a veneer covering poverty and corruption. A great _____ existed between the very wealthy and the poor. In 1890 the top 1% of the population controlled 25% of assets in America. The top 10% controlled 70%. The ____________________ adopted an approach called the ________________ movement (people had an obligation to help those in need). Progressives used ___________________ to tell their story in books, magazines, and newspapers. These muckrakers drew attention to the ___________________ and ___________ of businesses and government. The muckrakers included: ___________________ on municipal corruption in cities, ____________________ on the Standard Oil Company, _________________________ on meatpacking in ________________________, and Jacob Riis in __________________________. The muckrakers got it right on many occasions. After 145 women died in a fire at the _______________________ in NYC, the muckrakers generated so much publicity that laws were changed for better workplace safety. 7.2 Beneficiaries of Progressivism The ______________________________ started to limit the power of monopolies. The ____________________________ further supported unions against companies. _________________________ were outlawed in several cities and Illinois prohibited child labor and reduced the number of hours women could work. New progressive laws were passed: the _____Amendment gave Congress the power to collect __________taxes, the 17th Amendment called for states to allow the people to directly elect ________________, the 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of _______________________. The _____ Amendment gave ____________________________(suffrage) in 1919. 7.3 Racial Segregation _____________________________ banned segregation in public places, but Democrats in the South tried to _________________________ (take the rights of citizens away) from former slaves by the use of the _____________ (pay to vote) and __________________ which discriminated against blacks who could not read. The Supreme Court in ________________________ ruled that “separate but equal” facilities were not a violation of the 14th Amendment. In 1895, _______________________ suggested that blacks instead of activism to change the world should concentrate on economic independence. Washington was a gradualist who promoted vocational education. ___________________ called for full and immediate racial equality. DuBois founded the Niagara Movement, which eventually became the _________________________, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The ________________________________came back in the 20‟s, but included Jews, Catholics, Communists, and immigrants to their list of hated people. Blacks began to move to the North in great numbers in 1916, in order to get away from the Klan and to find better paying jobs. This was the ____________________. _____________________ led a nationalist movement for blacks advocating creation of small business for African Americans and a movement for a black homeland in Africa. DuBois thought the idea of moving back to Africa was not a good one. He favored fighting for change here in America. 7.4 The Rise of Technology ______________ borrowed ideas from many industries to create the ____________ which made production more efficient and cut the cost of automobiles to the point where ordinary families could afford a car. Many workers thought that doing the same task over and over was too boring, so Ford doubled their salary to $5 per day and shortened the hours. COMPETENCY GOAL 8 WORLD WAR I AND ITS AFTERMATH 8.1 U.S. Involvement ________________ started in Europe when the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, _________________________ was assassinated in Sarajevo, Serbia. A system of alliances divided Europe into two camps: the _________________________ (Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire) and the ____________________ (Britain, France, Italy, and Russia). America under President ________________ tried to remain neutral in the conflict, but the American public was eventually drawn to take sides by the German use of ___________________ on shipping, especially the sinking of the ____________ with 128 Americans on board. The U.S. entered the war on the side of the Allies because: we had loaned out so much _________ to the Allies, the Germans sank more ships, and Germany tried to enlist the help of Mexico in a war against the USA through a letter known as the ________________________. In 1917, laws were passed that infringed on personal freedoms: _______________ and the ______________________ that made it illegal to say or write anything against the government or military. Over 1000 people were arrested for E/S violations. World War I also changed the role of ___________ in the workforce. Women took the place of men in factories and businesses, but were paid less than men for their work. 8.2 Turning Points of World War I The _________________________ (AEF) led by _________________________ reached France in the summer of 1917. On July 4, the ______________ marched into Paris. The US sent soldiers, marines, seamen, and women working as nurses to France. The war was basically fought in and between large ____________ dug into the mud. The area between the trenches was called “___________________”. The Yanks arrived just in time to save France from defeat because the __________ Revolution had broken out and new leader Lenin had come to a truce with Germany. That truce allowed Germany to send all of its‟ men and equipment to the Western front. With fresh troops the Allies were able to beat back the German advances and take the offensive in 1918. The Germans signed the _____________________ on November 11, 1918 (11-11-11-1918). Woodrow Wilson made a plan for called the _____________. In that plan Wilson called for: free trade and access to the seas, self determination by countries, and an organization where international differences could be resolved by debate rather than bullets, _______________________________. At ______________________ in France the Big Four (Wilson of the US, George of Britain, Clemenceau of France, and Orlando of Italy) met to hammer out the Treaty. 8.3 Effects of the Great War At Versailles, the European leaders sought to punish the Germans by forcing them to admit ____________ for starting the war, and pay for their debts due to the war. Wilson objected. He gave in on the two points and gained acceptance of his idea for a League of Nations. Wilson could not convince the Republican senators to vote for ______________ of the Treaty because they thought that a League of Nations would interfere with American foreign policy in the future. Wilson went on a nation wide train tour to gain support for the League, but suffered a stroke. The League went on without US membership. The costs of the war were incalculable (can‟t be measured) in Europe: ___,000,000 died or went missing, France, Belgium, and Holland were in ruin, and the world lost its‟ innocence of the 1800‟s. The US came out of the war relatively undisturbed: the US had profited economically with more jobs and money, and was now known as a superpower far stronger than any European nation. When the war ended, the men came home and the women were forced to give up their jobs. Resentment grew. Unemployment soared to 12% and the cost of living doubled. ________________ were everywhere. 1919 and 1920 became known as the era of the __________________(a fear of Communism). Since our economy was based on free enterprise, anyone promoting communism was thought to be treasonous. Attorney General ____________ tried to crack down on the suspected radicals. On January 20, 1920 thousands of radicals (mostly poor immigrants) were arrested in the _____________________. No charges were ever brought against them, but hundred were deported. COMPETENCY GOAL 9 PROSPERITY AND DEPRESSION 9.1 Economic Boom and Bust There were many causes of the stock market crash and subsequent depression: 1. There was huge _____ between the haves and have-nots. In 1929 1% of the population had an annual income over $10,000 while 65% earned less than $2,000 annually. .01% of the population controlled 35% of the countries‟ savings. 2. ____________________ was huge in many industries like coal and textiles. 3. The _______________ economy was “sick”. Farm prices fell to all-time lows and many farmers lost their farms, because they could not pay their ____________. 4. There was ______________________ in this period and unsold goods were stacked up in warehouses. 5. Consumers were buying on _________ for the first time and personal debt mounted. 6. People were trying to get rich quick in the stock market by “_______________”; putting down a small down payment and paying off the remaining debt with parts of the profits. On October 24, 1929, GE stock went down by a third. Investors panicked and all stocks lost $4,000,000,000. On the 29th, ______________, the bottom fell out and the market crashed. 9.2 The Extent of Prosperity The roaring 20‟s were a prosperous time for Americans. But, the 30‟s saw millions suffer in the Dust Bowl of the mid-west caused by the great ___________________. Banks called in loans, businesses closed and by 1933 16,000,000 people (1/3 of the population) were unemployed. The homeless gathered in ____________________, cities made up of cardboard boxes. ___________ and __________________________ passed out food to the lines of the poor. President Hoover thought that the government should stay out of the problem. He thought that “___________________”; people rescuing themselves would end the crisis. In the end he did try to offer some government relief, but it was too little and too late. 9.3 The Lifestyles of the 20‟s and 30‟s The 20‟s were called the “__________________’ from the music of the time. The 20s saw the advent of radio, spectator sports with heroes like _________ Ruth, and talking movies. In 1919, the ___th Amendment had banned alcohol, but it did not stop drinking. _______________________ smuggled liquor into cities and speakeasies serve it up. ________________________also caused the growth of organized crime. 9.4 Challenging Convention Women began to change their role in American life. New hairstyles, new fashions, new make-up, and a new attitude caused many women to be referred to as „___________________”. Blacks moved to the north end of Manhattan, Harlem. ______________________ was a cultural movement the promoted artists, musicians like Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, and writers like Langston Hughes. ________________________________ gained popularity during this time with the words of the Bible being taken literally. ______________________ in Tennessee took the nations‟ attention. Scopes taught evolution breaking a Tennessee law. He was tried and convicted ($100 fine), but the trial was really not about Scopes; it was about ___________________. 9.5 The New Deal _______________, _______________, and ________________ (the 3 elements of the New Deal) were the cornerstones of FDR‟s attempt to get the country back on its‟ feet. Elected in 1932, FDR wanted to provide: 1. Relief to the people with food, shelter, medicine, and jobs, 2. Recovery of industry and the stock market, and 3. Reforms that would insure that the causes of the depression would not reoccur. Acts and agencies created during the New Deal were: FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation that protects ______ accounts. SEC – Securities and Exchange Commission that regulates the _____________. AAA – The Agricultural Adjustment Act to support _________ prices. TVA – Tennessee River Authority that provide ____________ to the Southeast. NRA – National Recovery Act promoting new businesses in industries. WPA – Works Progress Administration that put people back to work on projects. SSA – Social Securities Act, which was to establish insurance for the _________. REA – Rural Electrification Act, which made electrical service a necessity. CCC – Civilian Conservation Corps, which put ________ men to work in forests. FDR was very popular and was re-elected in a landslide in 1936. He was re-elected in 1940 and 1944 making him the only man to be elected President ____ times COMPETENCY GOAL 10 WORLD WAR II AND THE COLD WAR 10.1 Causes of World War II 1. The ________________________ by demanding so much of Germany that it gave rise to ______________ and the ______________________. 2. The rise of ________________ (putting the state above individual liberties and the glorification of the military) in both Germany and Italy led to great armies. 3. The _____________________ (giving in to demands) of Hitler by the French and English gave Hitler the green light to move and conquest. The US had no desire to become involved in another war in Europe. Congress passed ________________________ prohibiting the sale of weapons to warring nations. The _____________________ Act of 1941 allowed for loans of ships and planes to the Allies in exchange for leases on naval bases around the world. But, on December ___, 1941 the US naval fleet was attacked by the Japanese aircraft at ____________________ in the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific. FDR said that this „date ______________________________’ and declared war on Japan while Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. 10.2 Turning Points of the War The Germans used “_____________________” or lightning war to take Poland, France, and the rest of Europe in 1939 and 1940. Every country used ____________________ to gain support from the masses by using radio, pamphlets, and posters. The US joined the Allies of England, France, and the Soviet Union, but the ______ Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan held the upper hand through late 1942. In 1943 the tide turned when the Brits defeated German _________________ in North Africa. On June 6, 1944, the Allies commanded by General ________________ landed on ___________________ Beach in France on what was coded “__________________________”, __-Day. By August Paris was liberated troops commanded by _________________________ and the march to Germany was on. In April, Hitler committed suicide, and on May 8 the German army surrendered, _____- Day (Victory in Europe). In the Allied march into Germany many concentration camps were liberated and the discovery that the Nazis had killed millions of Jews in what has become known as the ______________________. In the Pacific, the Marines, under the command of General ________________, island hopped across the ocean toward Japan. The Japanese refused to surrender and President ____________________ allowed the military to drop __________ bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On September 2, 1945 the Japanese surrendered ending World War II. 10.3 Effects of World War II on the United States On the homefront, jobs were plentiful to help build planes, tanks, and jeeps. Women did most of the factory jobs in the defense industry and were symbolized by the name “_______________________”. Americans were forced to _______________ consumer goods such as gasoline, rubber, nylon, butter, and meat. The war effort was financed by the sale of war _________. During WWII some civil liberties were suspended. 120,000 Japanese-Americans were sent to _________________________ because their loyalty was questioned. The _____________________ of 1940 banned racial discrimination in the recruitment and training of soldiers and sailors, but the military continued to have segregated units. After the war the GIs returned and were helped in finding jobs, housing, and education by the ________________________. The return of the soldiers also started what became a “___________________” in America. 10.4 Foreign Policy and the Cold War In 1945 FDR met with ____________________of Britain and _______________of the Soviet Union (USSR) to decide on the makeup of a new Europe. Stalin and the soviets would not leave any of the territories they had conquered during the war. The establishment of communism in these countries under soviet control led the start of the ________War pitting democracy and capitalism of the West with totalitarianism and communism of the Soviet Bloc. An “________________” had fallen across Europe. President Truman announced a foreign policy that became known as the___________________________. The policy of the West would be the _________________ of communism. The ___________________ was designed to assist Europe to recover economically from the war. When the USSR blockaded Berlin the US began the ____________________which provided supplies of food, and medicine to Berliners that were cut off from the West. In 1950 the _________________War began pitting the North Koreans supported by communist China against the South Koreans supported by the United Nations including the United States. 155,000 Americans were killed or wounded to keep South Korea from falling into the hands of the communists. The 1950s saw the start of the _________________________(CIA) and the failed effort to overthrow___________________ and the communists from Cuba in 1961. In 1962 the USSR tried to move missiles into Cuba (90 miles from Miami), but Kennedy stood his ground and forced the removal of the missiles in what became known as the_______________________. 10.5 Peacekeeping In 1945 delegates from 50 nations met to organize the _________________(UN). The first problem the UN faced was that of___________and____________. The Un divided the territory between the Arabs and Israelis, but the problem was really never solved. ____________________(NATO) was formed to provide a mutual defense against the communists of Eastern Europe who organized themselves into the Warsaw Pact. President _________________started a program to provide assistance to poor countries by sending volunteers on 2 year missions, the___________________. COMPETENCY GOAL 11 RECOVERY, PROSPERITY, AND TURMOIL 11.1 Cold War‟s Effects on the Home Front Americans in the 50‟s were worried about communists trying to take over our government. People afraid of nuclear attack built fallout shelters in their yards. The House __________________ Committee began going after communists and suspected communists. Many Hollywood writers and directors were brought in for questioning. They were all released but found themselves ____________ so that they could not work in the profession. Senator _____________________made sensational accusations about the number of communists in the government. McCarthy held hearings and his charges were proved false. He was then censured for his conduct. The cold War had little effect on the rising economy. Earnings increased 50%. People were buying houses in the __________. Life was good for most, but not all. 11.2 The Civil Rights Movement In 1951, the Supreme Court was asked to hear a challenge to the separate-but-equal doctrine found in ________vs.____________. Linda Brown, a black girl, was denied admission to her local school because of her race. Her attorneys argued that separate-but-equal is inherently unequal. The Supreme Court overturned Plessy in__________vs._________________, and ruled that segregated public schools were a violation of the 14th Amendment. In December of 1955, _________________ refused to give her seat on a bus to a white man in______________________. Blacks staged a bus boycott for 381 days. In the end, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on city buses was illegal. In Little Rock, Arkansas, schools refused to enroll black children with the Arkansas National Guard barring the doors. President ____________________ then sent in the US Army to move the National Guard and enforce desegregation. In 1960, young civil rights activists staged sit-ins at segregated lunch counters and restaurants. ______________________(SNCC) staged sit-ins throughout the South. In 1962, a federal court ordered that ______________________, a black man, must be allowed to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. led ______________ marches throughout the South. He led the March on ________________ at which he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. He accomplished a great deal in his short life, but that effort ended when he was ____________________ in Memphis, Tennessee in April of 1968. In contrast to Dr. King‟s methods were the methods of _____________ started the Black Muslims. He believed in confrontation, but was assassinated himself by the Black Legionaires because hed had gone to Mecca and learned that Islam preached equality of the races. Stokely Carmichael started a black power group known as the________________. This group practiced self-defense and chanted “______________________”. After JFK‟s assassination in 1963, President Johnson expanded the civil rights programs to become______________________, which outlawed racial discrimination. ____________________________banned the use of poll taxes and literacy tests to keep blacks from voting. 11.4 The Viet Nam War President Eisenhower believed in the _________________that when one country falls to the communists the others in the regions will fall also. Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon all sent troops to Viet Nam. President Johnson asked Congress to authorize the use of military force against North Viet Nam. Congress gave in a gave away its‟ power to declare war. Johnson put he US on the offensive with massive bombing raids on the North and supply lines in the South. The US Army used __________and_________________ to defoliate the jungle so that we could find and destroy the Viet Cong guerillas. Press coverage of the war started huge anti-war ____________at home. The war went on and the protests intensified. In 1973, President Nixon declared that only the President could commit troops to war for 60 days without congressional approval. In November of 1969, American soldiers wiped out an entire village of Vietnamese in what became known as the ______________ (meelye) massacre. In 1973, The Paris Peace Accords set the rules for ending the war: 1. Both sides would lay down their arms. 2. The US would withdraw all ______________. 3. The US would help pay for _______________. 4. ___________ would be released and sent home. In 1975, the capital of South Viet Nam, ______________fell to the North Vietnamese army. Over 100,000 South Vietnamese fled to America. The war had been a disaster for both sides. Viet Nam was in ruins and the returning Viet Nam Vets were greeted as something less than heroes by many back home. 11.6 Political Upheaval and Government JFK‟s domestic program was called the____________________. Kennedy wanted to do much for the common man, but couldn‟t finish the job because he was assassinated in Dallas on____________________. VP _____________________took over and pushed much of the program through as part of his __________________ program. Johnson started ________________for children, ______________ for the elderly, and ____________________ for the poor. Johnson had done a lot on the domestic front, but the war in Viet Nam took away from his legacy. He could have run for re- election in 1968, but chose not to so that people would not think he was conducting the war for political reasons. ________________________ won the presidency in 1968 and was re-elected in 1972. But the re-election was tainted because of the _____________ scandal that included a break-in of the Democratic Headquarters and the subsequent cover up. Nixon denied knowledge of the break-in, but refused to turn over tapes of his office conversations. Impeachment was considered by Congress, but Nixon ___________ office in August of 1974. _________________, never elected to national office became President. He _______________ Nixon for any crime he might have committed knowing full well that granting the pardon would assure him of not being elected on his own. 11.5 The Atomic Age President Eisenhower started the _________________________________(NASA) to promote exploration of outer space. In 1957, the USSR sent the first satellite into space, ________. The US rushed to catch up and in 1958 the US launched Explorer. In 1961, the USSR sent a man into space, Yuri Gagarin. The US then sent _________________________into space, and the space race was on. In 1969, the US sent Apollo ___ to the moon where ________________became the first man to set foot on the moon. Under President Nixon the US began to try to wean itself away from foreign oil by turning to clean _____________ power. By 1974 there were 40 nuclear plants operating in the US and another 150 under construction. COMPETENCY GOAL 12 THE UNITED STATES SINCE VIET NAM 12.1 Foreign Policy After the Viet Nam War In 1977, Jimmy Carter took over the Presidency and returned control of the Panama to Panama. The Arabs and the Israelis have fought for 60 years, but in the 1970s Israel and Egypt did sign a peace treaty negotiated by President Carter called the Camp David Accords. In 1979, the Ayatollah Khomeni seized power in Iran by overthrowing the Shah and storming the American embassy taking the staff as hostages. Ronald Reagan defeated Carter in the election of 1980. The Iranians fearing Reagan might invade Iran released the hostages during the inauguration ceremony. Reagan wanted return the US to military supremacy in the world. He proposed a Strategic Defense Initiative called Star Wars. The USSR under Mikhail Gorbachev decided it was better to negotiate than compete with the US under Reagan. Reagan called for the soviets to tear down the Berlin Wall and end the Cold War. They did tear it down in 1989 as people all over the world watched on television. In 1990, Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. UN forces led by the US drove out the Iraqis in Operation Desert Storm. The US tried to help the poor people of Somalia and Ethiopia starving because of a drought and famine. We sent help, but accomplished little. 12.2 Recent Legislative and Judicial Activity In 1981, Reagan nominated Sandra Day O’Connor as the first woman on the Supreme Court. Another woman was appointed to the court in 1993, Ruth Bader Ginsburg. In 1971, the Court heard Swann vs. Charlotte-Mecklenburg, a case concerning segregation and busing forced by the courts. The Supreme Court ruled that courts could take broad measures to eliminate segregation in the schools. In 1989, the case of Texas vs. Johnson dealt with flag-burning. The Court ruled that burning his flag was protected under the 1st Amendment, which allows for free expression, no matter how unpopular. In 1990, President George H.W. Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act into law requiring all public buildings and transportation be accessible to all. Between 1971 and 1992, two more amendments were passed. The 26th that reduced the voting age from 21 to 18, and the 27th that stated that Congress could not vote itself raises. Any raises would not go into effect until after the next election. 12.3 The Information Age The 70‟s under Presidents Ford and Carter witnessed a great deal of inflation. When Reagan took office he supported a theory called “trikle-down” economics, which theorized that if you cut the taxes on businesses those businesses would invest the savings in new plants, more workers who would have more money to spend. Reagan‟s plan did reduce inflation and the stock market went up. In 1993, President Bill Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This law lifted trade barriers such as tariffs for trade with Mexico and Canada. Many argued that NAFTA also sent many American jobs out of the country. Today, retail stores like Wal-Mart have replaced manufacturing as the leading industries in America. The internet has is now the leading means of communicating in the world. 12.4 Contemporary Mores Political changes have shown us the power of Christian fundamentalists and conservatives called the New Right. Reagan and Bush were very conservative believing that government was not the solution to problems; government was the problem. Bill Clinton was elected in 1992 promising to be a New Democrat. In the election of 2000, VP Al Gore sought to replace Clinton, but lost the election due to recounts in Florida and losing in his home state of Tennessee. The recount in Florida went to the Supreme Court where Gore lost the case. 12.5 Diversity in America The Bilingual Education Act of 1974 required the student be instructed in Spanish until the English skill are sufficient to succeed. Affirmative action programs have attempted to compensate of decades of discrimination by using gender and race as a means of advancement. Many people supported affirmative action, but others criticized it saying that applicants for jobs and schools should be judged on their merits only. The Supreme Court heard a case of “reverse discrimination” in California vs. Bakke, in which Mr. Bakke claimed he was denied entrance to the University of California medical school because minorities with lower test scores were moved ahead of him. The Court ruled in Bakke‟s favor, but allowed that race and gender may be used in hiring and applications for schools, but now quotas may be used in the process. During the 1980s over 7,000,000 immigrants came to the US. This influx of immigrants placed cities and border states under great strain. Many Americans resented the immigrants for taking jobs away from Americans. George Bush supported and act called No Child Left Behind which expanded standardized testing as a means promotion from one grade to another, and for graduation. 12. 6 Terrorism in the 21st Century In 1988, a bomb blew up an American plane over Scotland killing 270. In 1993, a bomb went off in the basement of the World Trade Center in NYC killing 6 people. On September 11, 2001 Islamic terrorists flew two jet liners into the WTC killing thousands. These terrorist attacks were the work of an organization called al Qaeda, which is headed up by a Saudi exile named Osama bin Laden. The US stepped up security by the creation of the Office of Homeland Security and the Patriot Act. The United States and other civilized countries are trying to defend themselves against terrorist attacks. The United States attacked the forces of Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein, crushing the Iraqi army, but getting bogged down in the messy aftermath both in Iraq and here at home Good Luck !
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