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V INSECT CONTROL

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					The 2011 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual is published by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension
Service, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, N.C. State University, Raleigh, N.C. These recommendations apply
only to North Carolina. They may not be appropriate for conditions in other states and may not comply with laws
and regulations outside North Carolina. These recommendations are current as of November 2010. Individuals who
use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and
conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current
product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county Cooperative Extension agent. The
use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this document does not imply
endorsement by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service nor discrimination against similar products or
services not mentioned.

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                                                      V — INSECT CONTROL
Agricultural Uses ...................................................................................................................................................72
    Relative Toxicity of Pesticides to Honey Bees ..................................................................................................72
    Pesticide Use Inside and Around Honey Bee Hives .........................................................................................74
    Reducing the Risk of Pesticide Poisoning to Honey Bees................................................................................74

Field and Forage Crops ........................................................................................................................................76
    Field Corn .........................................................................................................................................................76
    Grain Sorghum .................................................................................................................................................78
    Small Grains .....................................................................................................................................................79
    Cotton, including Cotton Insect Resistance Management ................................................................................80
    Forage Crops ....................................................................................................................................................85
    Peanuts.............................................................................................................................................................87
    Soybeans ..........................................................................................................................................................89
    Flue-Cured and Burley Tobacco .......................................................................................................................90
    Vegetables ........................................................................................................................................................95
    Greenhouse Vegetables .................................................................................................................................136

Stored Products...................................................................................................................................................138
    On Farm..........................................................................................................................................................138
    Commercial Fumigants ...................................................................................................................................141

Livestock and Poultry .........................................................................................................................................142

Specialized Uses .................................................................................................................................................150
   Community Pest Control .................................................................................................................................150
   Industrial and Household Pests ......................................................................................................................152

Ornamentals .......................................................................................................................................................155
   Arthropod Management for Ornamental Plants Grown in Greenhouses ........................................................155
   Arthropod Management Checklist for Ornamental Plants Grown in Greenhouses .......................................159
   Arthropod Management for Ornamental Plants Grown in Nurseries and Landscapes ...................................160
   Arthropod Pest Checklist or Ornamental Plants Grown in Nurseries and Landscapes ..................................166

Christmas Trees ..................................................................................................................................................167

Commercial Turf ..................................................................................................................................................170

Wood and Wood Products..................................................................................................................................175

Home Uses ...........................................................................................................................................................178
   Home Vegetable Garden ................................................................................................................................178
   Household Pests.............................................................................................................................................182
   Home Lawns ...................................................................................................................................................188
   Pets.................................................................................................................................................................190
                                     RELATIVE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES TO HONEY BEES
                                     DAVID R. TARPY, Associate Professor and Extension Apiculturist


Most pesticides are at least somewhat toxic to honey bees; however, the degree of toxicity varies considerably from product to product.
Insecticides are generally the most likely to cause a bee kill; herbicides, fungicides, and defoliants present minor danger to bees if used
according to label directions. Pesticides are listed as common and/or brand name(s).
Sources: Atkins, E. L., 1988 as printed in Atkins, E.L. 1992. Injury to Honey Bees by Poisoning in Hive and the Honey Bee. Dadant and
Sons; Hamilton, IL pp. 1153–1208; Traynor, J., 1998. Revised “Injury to Honey Bees by Poisoning.” The Speedy Bee. 27:13–14.

TABLE 5-1A. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES TO HONEY BEES
GROUP 1 — HIGHLY TOXIC. Severe bee losses may be expected IF the following pesticides are used when bees are present, or the
product is applied near beehives, or within a day after application to foraging bees in the pesticide application area.

 acephate (Orthene)                               dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona)                        methoprene
 aldicarb (Temik)                                 dicrotophos (Bidrin)                             methyl parathion (Penncap-M)
 arsenicals                                       dimethoate (Cygon, DE-FEND)                      methyl parathion EC
 avermectin                                       famoxadone (Famoxate)                            mevinphos (Phosdrin)
 azinphos-methyl (Guthion)                        famphur (Famophos)                               mexacarbate (Zectran)
 bifenthrin (Brigade, Discipline)                 fenitrothion (Sumithion)                         monocrotophos (Azodrin)
 bioethanomethrin                                 fenpropathrin (Danitol, Dasanit)                 naled (Dibrom)
 carbaryl (Sevin 80 S)                            fenthion (Baytex)                                parathion
 carbofuran (Furadan)                             famoxadone (Famoxate)                            permethrin (Ambush, Pounce)
 carbosulfan (Vantage)                            heptachlor                                       phosmet (Imidan)
 chlorpyrifos (Dursban, Lorsban)                  indoxacarb (Steward, Avaunt)                     phosphamidon (Dimecron)
 clothianidin (Poncho 600)                        lindane                                          prallethrin (ETOC)
 cyfluthrin (Baythroid)                           LPOS (Sulfotine, RAID TVK)                       propoxur (Baygon)
 cyhalothrin (Karate)                             malathion (Cythion)                              pyrazophos (Afugan)
 cypermethrin (Ammo, Cymbush)                     methamidophos (Monitor, Tamaron)                 resmethrin (Synthrin)
 d-phenothrin (Sumithrin)                         methidathion (Supracide)                         spinosad (XDE-105, Tracer)
 decamethrin (Decis)                              methiocarb (Mesurol)                             tralomethrin (Scout)
 diazinon (Spectracide)                           methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)


 GROUP 2 — MODERATELY TOXIC. These pesticides can be used in the vicinity of bees IF dosage, timing, and method of application
 are correct; but these products should never be applied directly on bees in the field or at the colony location (apiaries).

 acetamiprid                                      endosulfan (Thiodan)endothion                    propamocarb hydrochloride (Banol)
 aldicarb sulfoxide                               ethoprop (Mocap)                                 pyrethrum
 bifenazate (Floramite)                           fonofos (Dyfonate)                               ronnel
 aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin)                   formetanate (Carzol)                             sumithrin (Anvillollo)
 Bacillius thuringiensis (Di-Beta)                oxamyl (Vydate)                                  tartar emetic
 Biothion                                         oxydemeton-methyl (Metasystox-R)                 temephos (Abate)
 carbophenothion                                  phorate (Thimet)                                 terbufos (Counter)
 coumaphos (Co-Ral)                               phosalone (Zolone)                               thiacloprid (Calypso, YRC-2894)
 crotoxyphos                                      profenofox (Curacron)                            thiazopyr (MANDATE, VISOR)
 crotoxyphos (Ciodrin)                            propamocarb (Carbamult)                          thiodicarb (Larvin)
 demeton (Systox)                                                                                  zephyr




72                                                                                                                 Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-1A. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES TO HONEY BEES

 GROUP 3 — RELATIVELY NON-TOXIC. These pesticides can be used around bees with a minimum risk of injury.
                                         Acaricides, Diseases, IGRs, and Insecticides

 aldoxycarb (Standak)                 cryolite (Kyocide)                                Nosema locustae (Canning)
 allethrin                            cymiazole (Apitol)                                oxythioquinox (Morestan)
 amitraz (Mitac)                      cyromazine (Trigard)                              pirimicarb (Pirimor)
 azadirachtin (Margosan-O)            dibromochloropropane (Nemagon)                    polynactins
 Bacillus thuringiensis (Biotrol)     dicofol (Kelthane)                                propargite (Comite, Omite)
 Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel)       diflubenzuron (Dimilin)                           pymetrozine (Fulfill, Endeavor)
 Bacillus thuringiensis (Thuricide)   dinobuton (Dessin)                                pyrethrum
 B.t. kurstaki (Dipel 4L)             dioxathion (Delnav)                               pyriproxyfen
 B.t. kurstaki (Javelin)              esfenvalerate (Asana)                             rotenone
 B.t. tenebrionis                     ethion (Ethiol)                                   ryania
 chlorobenzilate (Acaraben)           Heliothis virus                                   tetradifon (Tedion)
 chlorobenzilate (Folbex)             methoxychlor (Marlate)                            tetraflubenzuron (CME)
 clofentizine (Apollo)                multimethylalkenols (Stirrup)                     toxaphene
 cryolite (Kyocide)                   nicotine                                          trichlorfon (Dylox)
                                                                                        Z-11-hexadecanol (tomato pinworm pheromone)

                                                               Fungicides

 acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard)      cymoyanil (Curzate 60DF)                          maneb (Manzate)
 anilazine (Dyrene)                   cyprodinil (Vangard WP)                           metiram (Polyram)nabam (Parzate)
 anilazine (Kemate)                   dazomet (Mylone)                                  polyphase P-100 (Troyson)
 azoxystrobin (Heritage)              dicholone                                         prochloraz
 benomyl (Benlate)                    dimethomorph (Acrobat MZ)                         prochloraz/carbendazin (Sportac)
 bordeaux mixture                     diniconazole (Spotless)                           sulfur
 captafol (Difolatan)                 dinocap (Karathane)                               thiram
 captan (Orthocide)                   dithianon (Thynon)                                thiramlmethoxychlor (Atasan)
 chloropicrin                         dodine (Cyprex)                                   trifloxystrobin (Flint, Stratego, Compass)
 copper 8-quinolinate                 fenaminosulf (Lesan)                              triforine (Funginex )
 copper hydroxide                     fenhexamid (Elevate 50 WDG)                       triphenyltin hydroxide (Du-Ter)
 copper oxychloride sulfate           fluazinam (Omega 500F)                            ziram (Zerlate)
 copper sulfate—monohydrated          folpet (Phaltan)                                  zoxamide (Zoxium 80W)
 cuprous oxide                        glyodin (Glyoxide)
 cyclanilide (FINISH)                 mancozeb


                                        Herbicides, Defoliants, Desiccants, and PGRs

 2,3,6-TBA (Trysben)                  EPTC (Eptam)                                      norflurazon (Zorial)
 2,4,5-T                              etephon (Ethrel)                                  ovasyn
 2,4-D (2, 4-D)                       ethalfluralin (Sonalan)                           paraquat
 2,4-DB (Butoxon)                     EXD (Herbisan)                                    pendimethalin
 2,4-DB (Butyrac)                     flufenacet (Axiom DF)                             phenmedipham (Betanal)
 acetochlor                           fluometuron (Cotoran)                             picloram (Tordon)
 alachlor (Lasso)                     flumioxazin (Valor WDG)                           prohexadione calcium (Apogee PGR, Baseline)
 amitrole                             fluridone (BRAKE, Sonar)                          prometryn (Caparol)
 ammonium sulfate                     fluroxypyr (Starane EC)                           pronamide (Kerb)
 atrazine (AAtrex)                    fluthiacet-methyl (Action)                        propanil (Stam F-34)
 benomyl (Benlate)                    foramsulfron (Option)                             propazine (Milogard)
 bentazon (Basagran)                  glyphosate (Roundup)                              propham (Ban-Hoe, IPC)
 bromacil (Hyvar)                     hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex)                       PT807-HCl (Ecolyst)
 butifos (DEF)                        imadagylin (Arsenal)                              quinchlorac (FACET)
 chlorbromuron (Maloran)              imazamox (Raptor)                                 simazine (Princep)
 chloroxuron (Tenoran)                isoxaflutole (Balance)                            sodium chlorate (KNOCK ‘UM OFF)
 clodinafop-propergyl (Discover)      linuron (Lorox)                                   terbacil (Sinbar)
 clofencet (Genesis)                  MCPA (Mapica)                                     terbutryn
 cloproxydim (Select)                 metaldehyde propazine (Milogard)                  terbutryne (Igran)
 cloransulam-methyl (First-Rate)      methazole (Probe)                                 thiadiazuron (DROPP)
 cyanazine (Bladex)                   metribuzin (Lexone)                               tralkoxydim (Achieve 40DG)
 cyhalofop-butyl (Clincher)           metribuzin (Sencor)                               tribufos (DEF)
 dalapon                              mesotrione (Callisto)                             tribuphos (6EC)
 dicamba (Banvel)                     metolachlor                                       tribuphos (Folex)
 dichlobenil (Casoron)                monuron                                           tributyl phosphorotrithioite (Folex)
 diflufenzopyr (Distinct)             naptalam (Alanap)                                 trifluralin
 diquat                               nitrofen (TOK)
 diuron (Karmex)




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                              73
 TABLE 5-1B. PESTICIDE USE INSIDE AND AROUND HONEY BEE HIVES — Formulations for use by the general public, unless
 otherwise noted
                                                                                   Precautions and Remarks (Always follow product label directions for handling, product
 Pests                  Chemical (Brand)               Formulation                 application, and disposal)
 Tracheal Mite          menthol (Mite-A-Thol)          Crystalline granules        Both products generate vapors that kill tracheal mites. Apply onto inner cover/top super according to
                        formic acid (Mite-Away II)     Various delivery            label directions. Best if used when ambient temperatures are above 70oF for menthol and 50oF for
                                                       methods                     formic acid. Use gloves when handling crystals or gel packets.
 Varroa Mite            tau-fluvalinate (Apistan)      Plastic strip; pesticide-   Strips contain contact poison to kill mites. Use protective gloves when handling strips. Hang strips
                                                       impregnated                 in brood-chamber according to label directions. Caution should be used, as mites have evolved a
                                                                                   resistance to this particular chemical, and it may not be effective in many instances.
                        formic acid (Mite-Away II)     Various delivery            Product generates vapors to kill mites. Does not kill mites in sealed brood cells. Treat colonies
                                                       methods                     according to label directions.
                        coumaphos *(Check-Mite+)       Plastic strip; pesticide-    For varroa mites, product should be used only when fluvalinate-resistance has been confirmed by
                                                       impregnated                 NCDA Bee Inspectors. Caution should be used, as mites have evolved a resistance to this particular
                                                                                   chemical and, it may not be effective in many instances.
                        thymol (ApiLife VAR or         Pesticide-impregnated       Essential oils volatilize to kill mites outside of brood cells.
                        Apiguard)                      vermiculite tablets
                                                       or gel
                        sucrose octonoate              Liquid; mix with water      Spray all adult bees with fine mist; must be completely wetted to kill mites.
                        (Sucrocide)
 Small Hive Beetle      coumaphos *(Check-Mite+)       Plastic strip; pesticide-   Use protective gloves when handling strips. Attach to cardboard or other material as specified on label
 (adults)                                              impregnated                 direction and place strip-side down on bottom board to kill adult beetles. Application for varroa mites
                                                                                   (see above) is not simultaneously effective for SHB.
 (larvae and pupae)     permethrin (GardStar)          Liquid; mix with water      For ground treatment around hive(s) only. Kills larvae/pupae during soil-inhabiting phase of beetle life
                                                                                   cycle. Mix and apply to soil according to label directions.
 Wax Moth               paradichlorobenzene (Para-     Crystalline granules        Use to prevent infestation of stored hive equipment (drawn-comb) only. Do not use in hives containing
                        Moth)                                                      honey bees. Use protective gloves when handling crystals. Store product in sealed container when not
                                                                                   in use.
Always follow label directions, which requires the required removal of honey from beehives prior to most pesticide treatments.



REDUCING THE RISK OF PESTICIDE                                                                             b. Spray formulations are usually safer to bees than
POISONING TO HONEY BEES                                                                                       are dusts but there are differences among the
                                                                                                              spray formulation types. Generally water soluble
                                                                                                              formulations are safer than are emulsifiable
Pesticide poisoning of honey bees can usually be kept to a
                                                                                                              formulations, and fine sprays are less dangerous
minimum if the pesticide applicators and the beekeepers take
                                                                                                              than are coarse sprays. Sprays of undiluted technical
several precautions.
                                                                                                              pesticide (ULV) may be more dangerous than diluted
                                                                                                              sprays.
PRECAUTIONS FOR THE PESTICIDE APPLICATOR
                                                                                                           c. Granular applications generally are the least likely to
                                                                                                              drift and accidentally kill bees. Consider a granular
1.       Always read and follow any warning statements
                                                                                                              formulation if it is suitable for destroying the target
         regarding honey bees on the pesticide label.
                                                                                                              pest.
2.       If more than one product gives good control of the
                                                                                                           d. Microencapsulated pesticides present a very distinct
         target pest, select a pesticide from Group 2 or 3 instead
                                                                                                              and serious threat to honey bees. The particle size of
         of Group 1 from the preceding “Relative Toxicity of
                                                                                                              this pesticide formulation is very similar to that of
         Pesticides to Honey Bees.”
                                                                                                              pollen, and adult honey bees may carry this pesticide
3.     Avoid applying any bee toxic pesticides on blooming                                                    back to the hive where it will be combined with
       plants that attract bees. Keep pesticide drift from nearby                                             pollen that is being stored in the hive. This pesticide
       blooming weeds that are attracting bees.                                                               will not kill the adult bees that collected it, but the
4.     Time of pesticide application is very important. Apply                                                 microencapsulated pesticide will kill the brood
       pesticides that are toxic to bees in the late afternoon                                                (immature) stages of the bees and the young adult
       (after 3 p.m.) or in the evening if at all possible. Most                                              (nurse) bees that feed the brood when it is later fed
       honey bees have stopped foraging and have returned to                                                  to those bees. Bees have little protection against this
       their hives by 3 p.m. This allows maximum time for the                                                 product.
       pesticide to decompose before the bees come into contact                                   6.       The mode of pesticide application is also important,
       with it the next day.                                                                               particularly from a drifting standpoint. Aerial
5.       Select the safest formulation of the pesticide that is                                            applications are generally more dangerous than
         available for the intended use. “Drifting” of the pesticide                                       applications by ground equipment. If a pesticide
         from the target pest and/or crop to areas frequented by                                           application is being made by air, it is the contractor’s
         bees should be minimized and formulation selection is the                                         responsibility to notify any beekeepers that have
         key to this problem.                                                                              “registered” apiaries (one or more hives of bees) within
         a. “Dusts” almost always drift more than other pesticide                                          1/2 mile of the area to be aerially sprayed. These
            formulations and are generally more dangerous to                                               regulations are defined in the N.C. Pesticide Laws, and
            bees than are sprays or granular applications.                                                 the person responsible for the notification is the person
                                                                                                           who contracts for the aerial application.


74                                                                                                                                                     Chapter V—Insect Control
7.   Never apply any pesticide directly over a beehive.          3.   Explain the importance of your bees in the pollination
8.   Notify beekeepers who have beehives near an area to              of crops being grown on nearby fields to those growers
     be treated with a pesticide so that they may attempt to          so that they may consider the value of the bees in
     protect their bees.                                              pollination before applying any pesticides that may kill
                                                                      the pollinating insects.
9.   Follow proper precautions in disposing of unused
     pesticides and pesticide containers. Be particularly        4.   Be aware of the precautions that apply to the pesticide
     careful not to contaminate water with pesticides as the          applicator (above) so that you can serve as a resource in
     water may be collected by bees and result in bee kills.          providing solutions to reducing bee kills.
                                                                 5.   Do not place apiaries in areas used to grow crops that
PRECAUTIONS FOR THE BEEKEEPER
                                                                      require heavy and frequent usage of pesticides.

1.   If your bees are located in any area where pesticides are   6.   Register your apiary locations with the N.C. Department
     commonly used, then identify yourself as a beekeeper to          of Agriculture if aerial applications of pesticides are used
     your neighbors who may use pesticides.                           in your apiary locations.

2.   Identify your apiaries with your name and address or        7.   Cover (with wet burlap) or move your beehives if
     telephone number if the apiary is not associated with            possible when bee-toxic pesticides are being applied near
     your residence so that you may be notified if pesticides         your apiary.
     are to be used by a neighboring individual.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                          75
                                                           INSECT CONTROL IN FIELD CORN
                                                       D. D. REISIG and J. S. BACHELER, Entomology Extension


TABLE 5-2. INSECT CONTROL IN FIELD CORN
                                        Amount of                               Minimum Interval
INSECT                                Formulation per                           (Days) Between
                                       Acre or 1,000       Active Ingredient    Application and
Insecticide and Formulation             Row Feet*            (lb) Per Acre          Harvest          Precautions and Remarks
BILLBUGS—At Planting Seed Treatments
clothianidin (Poncho 1250)                   —             1.25 mg per kernel           —            Must be special-ordered from a seedsman.
thiamethoxam (Cruiser)                       —             1.25 mg per kernel           —
BROWN STINK BUG
bifenthrin (Capture 2EC)                3.8 to 6.4 oz         0.06 to 0.10              30           On seedlings only, apply to base at 5%+ or plants injured. Seedling injury
encapsulated methyl parathion               3 pt                  0.75                  12           mainly occurs in no-tillage. On larger plants, apply stages V12-V18. Use ground
(Penncap-M) 2 FME                                                                                    application, 15 + GPA. Results may be poor to mediocre depending on application.
gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare)                1.54 oz               0.015                  21
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior)                                  3.8 oz                 0.03                  21
(Warrior II and Karate Z)                  1.92 oz                0.03                  21
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Max             4.0 oz                0.025                  30
EC)
zeta-cypermethrin + bifenthrin             10.3 oz           0.033 + 0.066              30
(Hero)
CORN LEAF APHID
encapsulated methyl parathion             2 to 3 pt          0.50 to 0.75 lb            12           Apply over the top. Seldom an economic problem.
(Penncap-M) 2 FME
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior)                                   3.8 oz                0.03               See label
(Warrior II and Karate Z)                  1.92 oz                0.03               See label
CUTWORM—Postemergence
bifenthrin (Capture 2EC)                2.1 to 6.4 oz        0.033 to 0.10                30          Best to direct spray the plant base and use at least 15 gal volume per acre by
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 E                  2 pt                   1            14 for silage; 35 for ground. Pyrethroids are suggested for organic soils. Use higher rates for heavier
                                                                                        grain         infestations or aerial application. Do not feed Lorsban-treated corn until 35 days
                                                                                                      post-treatment. Do not apply permethrin after ear formation.
encapsulated methyl parathion               4 pt                   1                      12
(Penncap-M) 2 FME
esfenvalerate (Asana XL) 0.66 EC       5.8 to 9.6 fl oz       0.03 to 0.05              21
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior)                              1.9 to 3.2 fl oz      0.015 to 0.025             21
(Warrior II and Karate Z)               1 to 1.6 fl oz       0.015 to 0.025             21
permethrin (Pounce) 25 WP              6.4 to 9.6 fl oz        0.1 t 0.15               30
zeta-cypermethrin                                                                       30
(Mustang Max EC)                        1.3 to 2.8 oz       0.008 to 0.0175
EUROPEAN CORN BORER—1st Generation
B.t. transgenic corn (Yieldgard CB,     See remarks                                     NA           This is transgenic corn seed. Plants will express B.t. endotoxin. Use Yieldgard,
Herculex, Agrisure, Genuity VT)                                                                      Herculex, or Agrisure brands for European corn borer. Observe the refuge
                                                                                                     specifications on the label.

chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 15 G                 6.5 lb                 1                    35           Apply by air or ground. Will handle whorl infestations but effectiveness decreases
                                                                                                     with stalk boring. Rainfall soon after enhances control.
bifenthrin (Capture) 2 EC               2.1 to 6.4 oz        0.033 to 0.10              30
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 E                  2 pt                   1                    35
encapsulated methyl parathion               3 pt                  0.75                  12           Must be applied before borers enter stalk. Apply by ground only and into plant
(Penncap-M)                                                                                          whorls with at least 25 gal water per acre. Use 30 psi or less. A surfactant may
esfenvalerate (Asana XL) 0.66 EC          9.6 fl oz               0.05                  21           improve whorl penetration. Light rainfall or dew soon after enhances control.
lambda-cyhalothrin                                                                                   Spider mites may become a problem after treatment in dry years, especially with
(Warrior)                              2.6 to 3.8 fl oz       0.02 to 0.03              21           Asana, Warrior, and Pounce.
(Warrior II and Karate Z)             1.28 to 1.92 fl oz      0.02 to 0.03              21
                                                                                                     Do not apply permethrin after ear formation.
permethrin (Pounce) 25 WP                 9.6 fl oz               0.15                  30
zeta-cypermethrin                                                                       30
(Mustang Max EC)                        2.7 to 4.0 oz        0.017 to 0.025
EUROPEAN CORN BORER—2nd Generation
B.t. transgenic corn (Yieldgard CB,                          See remarks                —            This is transgenic corn seed. Plants will express B.t. endotoxin. Use Yieldgard,
Herculex, Agrisure, Genuity VT)                                                                      Herculex, or Agrisure brands for European corn borer. Observe the refuge
                                                                                                     specifications on the label.
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 15 G                 6.5 lb                 1                    35           Apply granules by airplane. Treat only in response to scouting reports on ECB
permethrin (Pounce) 25 WP                  9.6 oz                 0.15                  21           eggs or presence of small larvae in leaf axils. Contact extension agent for
                                                                                                     thresholds and scouting procedures. Poor performance will result if ECB are within
                                                                                                     ear or stalk; timing is critical. Apply Pounce prior to dry silks. Expect only moderate
                                                                                                     control from all treatments.
zeta-cypermethrin                                                                       30
(Mustang Max EC)                        2.7 to 4.0 oz        0.017 to 0.025
FALL ARMYWORM, CORN EARWORM—In Whorl
lambda-cyhalothrin                                                                                   Use a minimum of 15 gal per acre by ground for whorl treatment (not by air). Low
(Warrior)                                 3.8 fl oz               0.03                  21           pressure spray and addition of surfactant may help liquid to penetrate into whorl.
(Warrior II and Karate Z)                 1.92 fl oz              0.03                  21           Application to large caterpillars may not give satisfactory results. Best applied
                                                                                                     when dew is on plant.
spinosad (Tracer)                        2 to 3 fl oz        0.062 to 0.094      7 forage; 7 seed;
                                                                                      28 grain




76                                                                                                                                                  Chapter V—Insect Control
    TABLE 5-2. INSECT CONTROL IN FIELD CORN
                                              Amount of                              Minimum Interval
    INSECT                                  Formulation per                          (Days) Between
                                             Acre or 1,000       Active Ingredient   Application and
    Insecticide and Formulation               Row Feet*            (lb) Per Acre         Harvest            Precautions and Remarks
    GRASSHOPPER
    bifenthrin (Capture 2EC)                  2.1 to 6.4 oz        0.033 to 0.10               30           Apply by air or ground uniformly over foliage as a broadcast treatment. Early
    chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 E                 0.5 to 1 pt          0.25 to 0.5                0            morning treatment preferred. Use higher rates for heavy infestation. Grasshoppers
                                                                                                            are often confined to field margins.
    esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                 5.8 to 9.6 fl oz      0.03 to 0.05                21
    zeta-cypermethrin                                                                          30
    (Mustang Max EC)                          2.7 to 4.0 oz       0.017 to 0.025
    SOD WEBWORM, CHINCH BUG
    bifenthrin (Capture 2 EC)                 2.1 to 6.4 oz        0.033 to 0.1                30           Apply to base of seedlings as a directed spray or over the row. Seldom an
    carbaryl (Sevin) XLR                           2 pt                  1                     14           economic problem. Use higher rates for chinch bugs.
    esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                 5.8 to 9.6 fl oz      0.03 to 0.05                21
    lambda-cyhalothrin
    (Warrior)                                2.6 to 3.8 fl oz      0.02 to 0.03                21
    (Warrior II and Karate Z)               1.28 to 1.92 fl oz     0.02 to 0.03                21
    zeta-cypermethrin                                                                          30
    (Mustang Max EC)                          2.7 to 4.0 oz       0.017 to 0.025
    TRUE ARMYWORM—In Whorl and on Foliage
    bifnethrin (Capture 2 EC)                 2.1 to 6.4 oz        0.033 to 0.10               30           Apply into plant whorls where worms are located and use a minimum of 15 gal
    carbaryl (Sevin) XLR                          2 pt                   1                     14           water per acre. Treat when worms are small. Aerial application is satisfactory when
                                                                                                            caterpillars are not in whorl (post tassel). Armyworm problems are usually confined
    chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 EC                   2 pt                   1                     35           to no-till planted corn seedlings. Consult county agent for scouting information.
    esfenvalerate (Asana XL) 0.66 EC            5.8 fl oz              0.03                    21
                                                                                                            Do not apply permethrin after ear formation. See other remarks above.
    lambda-cyhalothrin
    (Warrior)                                1.9 to 3.2 fl oz     0.015 to 0.025               21
    (Warrior II and Karate Z)                 1 to 1.6 fl oz      0.015 to 0.025               21
    methomyl (Lannate)                                                               3 for forage; 21 for
    2.4 LV                                   0.75 to 1.5 pt        0.23 to 0.45             fodder
    90 SP                                    0.25 to 0.5 lb        0.23 to 0.45
    permethrin (Pounce) 25 WP                    6.4 oz                 0.1                    30
    spinosad (Tracer) 4SC                      1 to 3 fl oz       0.031 to 0.094     7 for forag or seed;
                                                                                         28 for grain
    zeta-cypermethrin                                                                          30
    (Mustang Max EC)                          2.7 to 4.0 oz       0.017 to 0.025
    WESTERN or NORTHERN CORN ROOTWORM—At Planting, Seed Treatments

    clothianidin (Poncho)                    1.25 mg/kernel                                                 Must be special-ordered from a seedsman. Rootworms are mainly a problem in
                                                                                                            piedmont and mountain regions where corn is not rotated.
    thiamethoxam (Cruiser)                   1.25 mg/kernel

    Bt transgenic corn (Yieldgard                                  See remarks                              This transgenic corn is designed to prevent root injury from rootworm larvae.
    RW, Herculex XTRA, or Agrisure,                                                                         Usually only needed in corn following corn. Observe the refuge specifications on
    Genuity VT)                                                                                             the label.
    chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 15 G               8 oz/1,000 ft             ***                    —            Rootworms are presently a problem in non-rotated corn in the piedmont and
    phorate (Thimet, Phorate)                                                                               mountains. Apply granules 6- to 7-in. band over the open seed furrow and in front
                                              6 oz/1,000 ft             —                      —            of the planter press wheel at planting time. Consult product label for incorporation
    20 G
                                                                                                            instructions. Counter and Force may be applied directly into the seed furrow. Do
    tefluthrin (Force)                                                                                      not apply phorate into seed furrow as seedling injury may occur. Counter may
    3.0 G                                   4 to 5 oz/1,000 ft          ***                    —            interact with Accent or Beacon and injure plants. Consult label.
    CS                                         0.46 to 0.57
                                                oz/1,000 ft
    terbufos (Counter) 20 G                   6 oz/1,000 ft             ***                    —
    WIREWORM—At Planting, Seed Treatments
    clothianidin (Poncho)                    0.25 mg/kernel                                    —            Must be special-ordered from a seedsman.

    thiamethoxam (Cruiser)                   0.25 mg/kernel                                    —

    WIREWORM—At Planting, In-furrow Treatments
    permethrin (Pounce) 25 WP               0.5 fl oz/1,000 ft       0.1 to 0.2                —            Apply as in-furrow spray (3.2 EC) at planting. Rates vary with row widths from 40
                                                                                                            to 20 inches.
    permethrin 3.2 AG                         8 oz/1,000 ft             0.2                    —            Apply in-furrow.
    phorate (Thimet and other brands)                                                                       Apply only in T-band over open furrows. Results may be poor if approximately 50%
    20 G                                      6 oz/1,000 ft             —                      —            fails to fall with the seed (into seed furrows), however, in-furrow application may
                                                                                                            reduce stand.
    tefluthrin (Force)                                                                                      T-band or in-furrow. If T-banded, some granules must fall with seed for wireworm
    3.0 G                                   4 to 5 oz/1,000 ft          ***                    —            control. Wireworm control improved when used in-furrow. Counter may interact
    CS                                         0.46 to 0.57                                                 with Accent and Beacon when used in-furrow.
                                                 oz/1,000
    terbufos (Counter) 20 G                   6 oz/1,000 ft             ***                    —
*       See calibration section for row feet/acre in differing row spacings.
**      Do not plant any crop for which carbofuran is not registered for at least 10 months.
***     For 30-in. or wider row spacings.

PRECAUTIONS: Always use pesticides according to label directions. Be mindful of reducing the impact of pesticides on wildlife and groundwater. See Extension publication AG-463-2,
Pesticides and Wildlife—Corn, for further information.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                        77
                                                         INSECT CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM
                                                                   S. B. BAMBARA, Entomology Extension

TABLE 5-3. INSECT CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM
                                                                              Minimum Interval
INSECT                                 Amount of                              (Days) Between
                                      Formulation        Active Ingredient    Application and
Insecticide and Formulation             per Acre           (lb) Per Acre          Harvest              Precautions and Remarks
APHID
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 75 WG)            0.5 to 1 pt         0.25 to 0.5                28              Ground application with at least 15 gal water per acre is preferred. Aerial application
dimethoate (Rebelate, Dimethoate)       0.5 to 1 pt         0.25 to 0.5                28              should use at least 5 gal water per acre. At least 300 aphids per plant are
4 EC                                                                                                   necessary to justify treatment.
Seed Treatments: (Cruiser, Gaucho,                                                                     Seed-applied treatments.
Poncho)
CHINCH BUG
carbaryl (Sevin and others)                                                            21              Apply to base of plants where insects congregate.
 80 S                                      2 lb                 1.6
 XLR or 4 F                                3 pt                 1.5
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 75 WG)             1 to 2 pt           0.5 to 1.0                28
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)              5.8 to 9.6 fl oz     0.03 to 0.05                21
zeta-cypermethrin                                                            14 (grain); 45 (forage)
(Mustang Max 0.8 EC)                   3.2 to 4.0 oz       0.02 to 0.025
Seed Treatments: (Cruiser, Gaucho,                                                                     Seed-applied treatments.
Poncho)
CORN EARWORM WEBWORM In Heads
Bacillus thuringiensis (Javelin)                                                       0               Best when larvae are small.
carbaryl (Sevin)                                                                       21              Ground application with at least 15 gal water per acre is preferred. Aerial application
80 S                                       2 lb                 1.6                                    should use at least 5 gal water per acre. Use higher rates by air for serious
XLR                                        3 pt                 1.5                                    infestation. Threshold is one medium to large earworm or armyworm per head or
4F                                         3 pt                 1.5                                    three webworms per head. See label for Asana.
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 2 EC           1.3 to 2.8 fl oz     0.02 to 0.044               14
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)              5.8 to 9.6 fl oz     0.03 to 0.05                21
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior 1 CS)     2.6 to 3.8 fl oz     0.02 to 0.03                30
methomyl (Lannate)                                         0.23 to 0.45                14
2.4 LV                                12.3 to 24.5 oz
90 SP                                  0.25 to 0.5 lb
spinosad (Tracer 4 SC, Entrust)        1.5 to 3.0 oz      0.047 to 0.094       7 (grain, fodder);
                                                                                  14 (forage)
zeta-cypermethrin                                                            14 (grain); 45 (forage)
(Mustang Max 0.8 EC)                   1.8 to 4.0 oz      0.011 to 0.025
FALL ARMYWORM
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior 1 EC)     2.6 to 3.8 fl oz     0.02 to 0.03                30              Difficult to control—ground application only with high volume. Direct spray into
spinosad (Tracer 4 SC, Entrust)        1.5 to 3.0 oz      0.047 to 0.094       7 (grain, fodder);      whorls. Treat at 80% infestation (1 worm per plant) or 40% infestation (multiple
                                                                                  14 (forage)          worms per plant). Treat when worms are small. Addition of surfactant and
                                                                                                       application when dew is on plant may be helpful.
zeta-cypermethrin                                                            14 (grain); 45 (forage)
(Mustang Max 0.8 EC)                   1.8 to 4.0 oz      0.011 to 0.025
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 75 WG)                                                           28
SORGHUM MIDGE
carbaryl (Sevin and others)                                                                            Direct spray to heads and treat 3 to 5 days after heads emerge from the boot.
80 S                                      1.75 lb               1.4                    21
XLR or 4 F                                 3 pt                 1.5                    21
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior T) 1 CS   1.9 to 2.5 fl oz     0.015 to 0.02               30
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Max                                               14 (grain); 45 (forage)
0.8 EC)




78                                                                                                                                                     Chapter V—Insect Control
                                                              INSECT CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS
                                                                     D. D. REISIG, Entomology Extension

TABLE 5-4. INSECT CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS
                                                                                       Minimum Interval
                                         Amount of                                     (Days) Between
INSECT                                 Formulation per        Active Ingredient (lb)   Application and
Insecticide and Formulation                Acre                     Per Acre               Harvest        Precautions and Remarks
APHID—At Planting
imidacloprid                                                                                              Early season protection against aphids. Has shown barley yellow dwarf
(Gaucho) 480 FS seed treatment          1 to 3 fl oz/cwt                                                  suppression. Most effective on early planted grains. Do not graze for 45
(Gaucho) 600 FS seed treatment        0.8 to 2.4 fl oz/cwt                                                days after planting. Acknowledge plant-back restrictions. See Hessian fly
(Gaucho) XT                              3.5 fl oz/cwt                                                    section.
thiamethoxam (Cruiser) 5 FS             0.75 to 1.33 fl
seed treatment                          oz/100 lb seed
APHID—Foliar
dimethoate (Dimethoate) 4 E              0.5 to 0.75 pt            0.25 to 0.37              35           Will not reduce barley yellow dwarf virus infection. Consult county extension
encapsulated methyl parathion              2 to 3 pt               0.5 to 0.75               15           agent for scouting and threshold suggestions. Keep Warrior away from
(Penncap-M) 2 FME                                                                                         waterways.
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior)                                  2.56 fl oz                 0.02                   30
(Warrior II and Karate Z)                  1.28 fl oz                 0.03                   21
methyl parathion 4 EC                        1.5 pt                   0.75                   15
CEREAL LEAF BEETLE
carbaryl (Sevin 4 F)                          1 pt                     0.5                   21           Use where beetle eggs/larvae are above threshold. Application of
beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid XL)                                                            7 (forage)      insecticide with topdress fertilizer for preventative control is not advised.
                                        1.0 to 1.8 fl oz         0.008 to 0.014                           The lowest rates of Mustang Max and Warrior are usually adequate.
                                                                                         30 (harvest)
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior)                                  2.56 fl oz                 0.02                   30
(Warrior II and Karate Z)                  1.92 fl oz                 0.03                   21
malathion 57 EC                              1.5 pt                   0.75                    7
methomyl (Lannate)
LV                                         1 to 2 pt               0.22 to 0.45               7
SP                                       0.25 to 0.5 lb            0.22 to 0.45               7
spinosad
(Tracer)                                  1 to 3 fl oz             0.03 to 0.09          14 (forage)
(Entrust)                                0.5 to 2 fl oz            0.025 to 0.1          21 (harvest)     Entrust is OMRI listed.
zeta-cypermethrin                                                                            14
(Mustang Max EC)                        1.6 to 4.0 fl oz          0.011 to 0.025
HESSIAN FLY—Fall Generation
imidacloprid                                                                                              Early season protection against Hessian fly. Seed usually treated by
(Gaucho) 600 seed treatment           1.2 to 2.4 fl oz/cwt                                                seedsman. Do not graze for 45 days after planting. Acknowledge plant-back
(Gaucho XT)                              3.5 fl oz/cwt                                                    restriction.
thiomethoxam (Cruiser) 5 SF           0.75 to 1.33 oz/cwt
seed treatment
HESSIAN FLY—Fall and Late Winter Generations
beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid XL)          1.8 to 2.4 fl oz         0.013 to 0.019                           Apply to fields with high egg count in fall; preferable at or before the 2-3 leaf
gamma-cyhalothrin and                       13 fl oz              0.005 to 0.25           7 (forage)      stage. In spring, apply to infested fields as flies emerge. Use high rates for
chlorpyrifos (Cobalt)                                                                     30 (feed)       heavy infestations.
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior)                               2.6 to 3.8 fl oz           0.02 to 0.03              30
(Warrior II, Karate Z)                    1.92 fl oz                  0.03                   21
zeta-cypermethrin
 (Mustang Max EC)                        1.6 to 4 fl oz           0.011 to 0.025
TRUE ARMYWORM—Spring
carbaryl (Sevin) XLR                         1.5 pt                   0.75                   21           Apply by air or ground when armyworms are at two per sq ft or greater. Use
encapsulated methyl parathion                 2 pt                     0.5                   15           higher rates when caterpillars are very numerous. High volume (3 to 5 gal
(Penncap-M) 2 FME                                                                                         per acre) may be beneficial in thickly planted wheat. Poor performance may
lambda-cyhalothrin                                                                                        result when temperatures are cool or when rainfall washes residues from
Warrior                                 2.6 to 3.8 fl oz           0.02 to 0.03              30           plants. Best to apply when conditions are warm (60oF+) and armyworms are
(Warrior II, Karate Z)                 1.28 to 1.92 fl oz          0.02 to 0.03              21           active. Carbaryl may stimulate aphid populations.

methomyl (Lannate)
                                                                                                          Entrust is OMRI listed.
LV                                           1.5 pt                   0.45                    7
90 SP                                        0.5 lb                   0.45                    7
spinosad (Tracer, Entrust)                1 to 3 fl oz             0.03 to 0.09          14 (forage)
                                                                                         21 (harvest)
zeta-cypermethrin
(Mustang Max EC)                         1.6 to 4.0 oz            0.011 to 0.025             14
WIREWORM—At Planting
imidacloprid                                                                                              See remarks under Aphids. Seed treatments must be applied by seedsman.
Gaucho 480 FS seed treatment              1 fl oz/cwt
Gaucho 600 FS seed treatment             0.8 fl oz/cwt
Gaucho XT                                3.5 fl oz/cwt
thiamethoxam (Cruiser) 5 SF            0.75 fl oz/100 lb
seed treatment                               seed
*   Carbaryl is registered only for wheat and proso millet.

CAUTION: Always use pesticides according to label directions. Be mindful of reducing the impact of pesticides on wildlife and groundwater. See Extension publication AG-463-6,
Pesticides and Wildlife—Small Grains, for further information.



Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                  79
                                                                        INSECT CONTROL ON COTTON
                                                          J. S. BACHELER and D. D. REISIG, Entomology Extension
NOTE: A Mode of Action code has been added to the Insecticide and Formulation column of this chart. Use this designation by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee,
to combat the development of insecticide resistance.

TABLE 5-5A. INSECT CONTROL ON COTTON
                                                  Per Acre                                            Pre-
INSECT                               Amount                  Active lb          Acres/gal (lb)      harvest
Insecticide, Mode of Action                                                                         interval
(MOA), and Formulation                                                            *           **     (days)    Precautions and Remarks
BEET ARMYWORM
emamectin benzoate, MOA 6            6 to 8 oz             0.0075 to 0.01         21.3 to 16          21       Bollgard II and WideStrike varieties show high resistance to beet armworm
(Denim) 0.16 EC                                                                                                damage.
indoxacarb, MOA 22                9.2 to 11.3 oz            0.09 to 0.11          14 to 11.5          14
(Steward) 1.25 SC
methoxyfenozide, MOA 18A                  4.0                  0.06                    33             14
(Intrepid) 2F
spinosad, MOA 5                   2.14 to 2.9 oz           0.067 to 0.089          60 to 45           28
(Tracer) 4 SC
Rynaxypyr, MOA 28                  3.5 to 7.0 oz           0.045 to 0.09         36.5 to 18.3         21
(Coragen) 1.67 SC
flubendiamide, MOA 28                    2.0 oz               0.0625                   64             28       Do not exceed 9.0 oz per season.
(Belt) 4 SC
BOLLWORM* TOBACCO BUDWORM
Bollgard II, MOA 11B2                                                                                          CyrlA(c) and Cry2A(b) genes in Bollgard II produce two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
(varous varieties)                                                                                             delta endotoxins. High activity against all pest caterpillar species on cotton except
                                                                                                               cutworms. No activity against insects other than caterpillars.
WideStrike, MOA 11B2                                                                                           CrylA(c) and CrylF genes in WideStrike produce two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
(various varieties)                                                                                            delta endotoxins. High activity against all pest caterpillar species on cotton except
                                                                                                               cutworms. No activity against insects other than caterpillars.
bifenthrin, MOA 3                2.6 oz         6.4 oz      0.04        0.1      50          20       14       High pressure (50 to 70 psi) and low volume (6 to 10 gpa) advised.
(Brigade, Capture, Discipline)                                                                                 .
2 EC
cyfluthrin, MOA 3                1.6 oz         2.6 oz     0.013       0.021     77          47.6      0
(Baythroid XL) 1.0 EC
cypermethrin, MOA 3               2 oz          5 oz        0.04        0.1     62.5         25       14
(Ammo) 2.5 EC
deltamethrin, MOA 3              1.6 oz         2.6 oz     0.019       0.03      79          50       14
(Decis)1.5 EC
esfenvalerate, MOA 3             5.8 oz         9.6 oz      0.03       0.05      22          13.2     21
(Asana XL) 0.66 EC
flubendiamide, MOA 28              2.0 to 3.0 oz           0.063 to 0.094          64 to 43           14       Do not exceed 12.0 oz per season
(Belt) 4 SC
gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3          1.28          2.05       0.0125      0.02     100          62.5     21
(Prolex) 1.25 EC
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3
(Karate Z) 2.08 CS               1.6 oz      2.56 oz       0.025       0.04      83          52       21
(Karate) 1.0 EC                   3.2         5.12         0.025       0.04      40          25       21
zetamethrin, MOA 3               2.64 oz        3.6 oz     0.0165      0.0225   48.5         35.5     14
(Mustang Max) 0.8 EC

spinosad, MOA 5                  1.4 oz         2.9 oz     0.045       0.089     90          45       28       For second generation tobacco budworms, 0.045 lb active per acre Tracer is
(Tracer) 4 SC                                                                                                  adequate; for post-bloom bollworms, use the 0.067 to 0.089 lb Tracer rate. Tracer
                                                                                                               must be applied to early stage larvae for effective control.
indoxacarb, MOA 22                 9.2          11.3 oz     0.09        0.11    13.9         11.4     14       Steward must be applied to early stage larvae for effective control. Use lower rate
(Steward) 1.25 SC                                                                                              for Bt cottons.
methomyl, MOA 1A                                                                                               Curacron, Larvin, and Lannate are best suited for mixed populations of bollworms
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                  24 oz (1.5 pt)               0.45                    5.3            15       and fall armyworms. Do not apply more than 1.8 lb active of Lannate per acre.
(Lannate) 90 SP                       0.5 lb                   0.45                     2             15
profenophos, MOA 1B                16 oz (1 pt)
                                                                   1                   8              14
(Curacron) 8 EC
thiodicarb, MOA 1A               30 oz (1.875 pt)              0.75                    4.3            28
(Larvin) 3.2F
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 7.0 oz           0.045 to 0.09         36.5 to 18.3         21
(Coragen) 1.67 SC
COTTON APHID
acetamiprid, MOA 4A                0.6 to 1.1 oz           0.025 to 0.05           28 to 14           28       Due to a high potential for cotton aphid resistance to insecticides, treat for cotton
(Assail) 70 WP                                                                                                 aphids only as a last resort.
flonicamid, MOA 9C                 1.4 to 2.8 oz           0.044 to 0.089        22.7 to 11.2         30
(Carbine) 50 WG
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                1 to 1.5 oz            0.03 to 0.047          128 to 85           14
(Trimax) 4.0 F
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A              1.25 to 2.5 oz            0.03 to 0.06          13.3 to 8           21       Natural control from predators, parasites, and a fungus usually superior to
(Centric) 40 WG                                                                                                insecticides.




80                                                                                                                                                           Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-5A. INSECT CONTROL ON COTTON
                                               Per Acre                                       Pre-
INSECT                             Amount                 Active lb     Acres/gal (lb)      harvest
Insecticide, Mode of Action                                                                 interval
(MOA), and Formulation                                                    *            **    (days)    Precautions and Remarks
COTTON APHID and BOLLWORM
imidacloprid, MOA 4A +            3 to 3.75 oz       0.037 to 0.05       42.7 to 34.1         14       May be used with threshold levels of both cotton aphids and bollworms.
cyfluthrin, MOA 3
(Leverage) 2.7 SE
imidacloprid, MOA 4A +           3.8 to 6.1 oz       0.06 to 0.095        33.7 to 21          14
bifenthrin, MOA 3
(Brigadier) 2 EC
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A +           3.5 to 5.5 oz        0.03 to 0.05         37 to 23           21
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3
(Endigo ZC) 2.06 SE
EUROPEAN CORN BORER
Bollgard II, MOA 11B2                                                                                  CyrlA(c) and Cry2A(b) genes in Bollgard II produce two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
(varous varieties)                                                                                     delta endotoxins. High activity against all pest caterpillar species on cotton except
                                                                                                       cutworms. No activity against insects other than caterpillars.
WideStrike, MOA 11B2                                                                                   CrylA(c) and CrylF genes in WideStrike produce two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
(various varieties)                                                                                    delta endotoxins. Good to high activity against budworms and European corn
                                                                                                       borers; high activity against all pest caterpillar species on cotton except cutworms.
                                                                                                       No activity against insects other than caterpillars.
bifenthrin, MOA 3                   3.2 oz                 0.05                40             14       European corn borers are generally more of a problem in rank, non-Bt cotton.
(Capture, Brigade, Discipline)                                                                         Multiple applications may be necessary. Other bollworm materials may provide
2 EC                                                                                                   some control.
cyfluthrin, MOA 3                1.8 to 2.1 oz      0.028 to 0.033      71.4 to 60.6           0
(Baythroid) 2 EC
cypermethrin, MOA 3              3.1 to 4.1 oz       0.06 to 0.08       41.7 to 31.3          14
(Ammo) 2.5 EC
deltamethrin, MOA 3              1.6 to 2.6 oz      0.019 to 0.030        79 to 50            14
(Decis) 1.5 EC
lamda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3            1.6 oz                 0.025               80             21
(Karate Z) 2.08 CS
tralomethrin, MOA 3              2.6 to 3.4 oz      0.018 to 0.024       50 to 37.5           28
(Scout X-tra) 0.9 EC
zetamethrin, MOA 3                                                                             14
(Mustang Max) 0.8 EC             2.9 to 3.55 oz     0.018 to 0.025       44.4 to 32
                                                          oz
FALL ARMYWORM
chlorpyrofos, MOA 1B               1 to 2 pt              0.5 to 1            8 to 4          14       Various rates and combinations may be recommended, depending upon cotton
(Lorsban) 4 E                                                                                          phenology and the age distribution and population levels of larvae. Pyrethroids
emamectin benzoate, MOA 6         8 to 12 oz        0.01 to 0.015        16 to 10.7           21       keep some fall armyworms from hatching. Fall armyworms may have more
(Denim) 0.16 EC                                                                                        difficulty becoming established following Karate or Capture treatments used for
                                                                                                       bollworm control. All of these materials, except Tracer, Steward, and Intrepid will
indoxacarb, MOA 22               9.2 to 11.3 oz      0.09 to 0.11        14 to 11.5           14       likely provide poor beet armyworm control.
(Steward) 1.25 SC
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 +      6.5 to 12.5 oz      0.04 to 0.08       19.7 to 10.2          21       Bollgard II and WideStrike varieties show high resistance to fall armworm
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28                                                                            damage.
(Voliam xpress) 2.4 ZC
methomyl, MOA 1A
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                     1.5 pt                0.45                5.3            15
(Lannate) 90 SP                      0.5 lb                0.45                 2             15
methoxyfenozide, MOA 1BA            4 to 10          0.06 to 0.16        33 to 12.5           14
(Intrepid) 2F
novaluron, MOA 15                 6 to 12 oz         0.04 to 0.08       21.3 to 10.7          30
(Diamond) 0.83 EC
profenofos, MOA 1B                0.5 to 1 pt             0.5 to 1        16 to 8             14
(Curacron) 8 EC
spinosad, MOA 5                  2.14 to 2.9 oz     0.067 to 0.089        60 to 45            28
(Tracer) 4 SC
thiodicarb, MOA 1A                24 to 36 oz         0.6 to 0.9         5.3 to 3.6           28
(Larvin) 3.2 F
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28      3.5 to 7.0 oz      0.045 to 0.09       36.5 to 19.3          21
(Coragen) 1.67 SC
flubendiamide, MOA 28               2.0 oz                0.0625               64             28
(Belt) 4 SC
PLANT BUG
acephate, MOA 1B                                                                                       Prebloom treatment not recommended if square retention is in excess of 80%. If
(Orthene and other brands                                                                              square retention is less than 80%, confirmation of threshold levels of plant bugs
75 S                              0.3 to 1.3 lb        0.25 to 1          3.3 to 0.77         21       should be met prior to treatment.
90 S                              0.25 to 1 lb        0.225 to 0.9           4 to 1           21       Postbloom treatment more likely in low-spray environment, such as with Bollgard
                                                      0.24 to 0.97                                     cotton.
97 ST                             0.25 to 1 lb                               4 to 1           21
                                                                                                       Fields adjacent to Irish potatoes, weed fields, and other sources of plant bugs
acetamiprid, MOA 4A                  1.1 oz                   0.5               14            28       may be at higher risk of plant bug injury.
(Assail) 70 WP
chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                 6.1 oz                  0.19               21            14
(Lorsban) 4 EC
dicrotophos, MOA 1B                 4 to 8 oz             0.25 to 0.5         32 to 16        10
(Bidrin) 8 EC
flonicamid, MOA 9C                1.7 to 2.8 oz      0.054 to 0.089      75.3 to 45.7         30
(Carbine) 50 WG
imidacloprid, MOA 4A               1 to 1.5 oz        0.03 to 0.047       128 to 85           14
(Trimax Pro) 4 F




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                     81
TABLE 5-5A. INSECT CONTROL ON COTTON
                                               Per Acre                                     Pre-
INSECT                             Amount                 Active lb    Acres/gal (lb)     harvest
Insecticide, Mode of Action                                                               interval
(MOA), and Formulation                                                   *           **    (days)    Precautions and Remarks
PLANT BUG (continued)
methomyl, MOA 1A                                                                                     Prebloom treatment not recommended if square retention is in excess of 80%. If
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                     12 oz                  0.225             10.7          15       square retention is less than 80%, confirmation of threshold levels of plant bugs
(Lannate) 90 SP                     0.25 lb                 0.225              4            15       should be met prior to treatment.
methyl parathion, MOA 1B              8 oz                  0.25               16            7       Postbloom treatment more likely in low-spray environment, such as with Bollgard
4 EC                                                                                                 cotton.
                                                                                                     Fields adjacent to Irish potatoes, weed fields, and other sources of plant bugs
oxamyl, MOA 1A                      8.5 oz                  0.25               15           21       may be at higher risk of plant bug injury.
(Vydate) 3.77 C-LV
profenofos, MOA 1B                   4 oz                   0.25               32            7
(Curacron) 8 EC
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                 2 oz                   0.047               8           21
(Centric) 40 WP
SOYBEAN AND CABBAGE LOOPER
emamectin benzoate, MOA 6         6 to 12 oz          0.01 to 0.015      10.6 to 16         21       Cabbage loopers usually controlled by naturally occurring diseases.
(Denim) 0.16 EC
indoxacarb, MOA 22               6.7 to 9.2 oz        0.065 to 0.09          19 to 14       14       Bollgard II and WideStrike varieties show high resistance to looper damage.
(Steward) 1.25 SC
methoxyfenozide, MOA 18A            4 to 10           0.06 to 0.16       33 to 12.5         14
(Intrepid) 2F
spinosad, MOA 5                  2.14 to 2.9 oz      0.067 to 0.089          60 to 45       28
(Tracer) 4 SC
Rynaxypyr, MOA 28                5.0 to 7.5 oz       0.065 to 0.098     25.6 to 17.1        21
(Coragen) 1.67 SC
Flubendiamide, MOA 28               2.0 oz                 0.0625              64           28
(Belt) 4 SC
SPIDER MITE
bifenthrin, MOA 3                   3.8 oz                  0.06               33           14       Control rarely necessary because of beneficial arthropods and fungi. Apply with
(Brigade, Capture, Discipline)                                                                       20-plus gal of water.
2 EC
dicofol, MOA UNC                 0.8 to 1.6 qt            0.8 to 1.6         5 to 2.5       14
(Dicofol) 4 E
entoxazole, MOA 10B              0.66 to 1 oz         0.03 to 0.045          45 to 30       28
(Zeal) 72 WP
fenpropathrin, MOA 3             10.7 to 16 oz            0.2 to 0.3         12 to 8        21
(Danitol) 2.4 EC
propargite, MOA 12C                   1 qt                   1.6                4           14
(Comite) 6.55 L
methidathion, MOA 1B                  2 qt                    1                 2           60       Do not apply after bolls begin to open. Use 20+ gal of water.
(Supracide) 2E
spiromesifen, MOA 23              6 to 16 oz          0.094 to 0.25       21.3 to 8         30       Use 6 oz only in early season to control low populations.
(Oberon) 2 SC
STINK BUG
acephate, MOA 1B                                                                            21       Stink bugs may be more prevalent on unsprayed or less sprayed Bollgard cotton.
(Orthene) 75 S                        1                     0.75                1                    Bidrin and methyl parathion are more effective against brown stink bugs than
(Orthene) 97 S                       0.75                   0.75               1.3                   other products.
dicrotophos, MOA 1B                4 to 8 oz                                                10
(Bidrin) 8 EC                     0.25 to 0.5              32 to 16
methyl parathion, MOA 1B                                                                             Penncap-M is highly toxic to bees. Do not apply this product or allow to drift to
4 EC                                  1 pt                   0.5                8            7       blooming cotton if bees are in treated areas.
(Penncap-M) 2 FM                      2 pt                   0.5                4            7
oxamyl, MOA 1A                       17 oz                   0.5               7.5          21
(Vydate) 3.77 SL
pyrethroids, MOA 3               (see bollworms above for rates)               —            —        Pyrethroids control green stink bugs, but are less effective against brown stink
                                                                                                     bugs.
THRIPS (at planting treatment)
aidicarb, MOA 1A                   3 to 5 lb          0.45 to 0.75             —            —        Temik often provides extended control compared to other products and
(Temik) 15 G                                                                                         sometimes results in higher yield and earlier maturity. Use higher rates for earlier
                                                                                                     planted cotton. Read label and follow rotational restrictions. Phosphate systemic
                                                                                                     insecticides may promote build-up of early-season aphids.
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                  —              0.375 mg/seed             —            —        Gaucho Grande seed treatment lacks persistence and may require a
(Gaucho Grande) 600 FS                                                                               supplemental foliar treatment within 3 weeks after planting.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                  —              0.320 mg/seed             —            —        Cruiser seed treatment lacks persistence and may require a supplemental foliar
(Cruiser) 5 FS                                                                                       treatment within 3 weeks after planting.
imidacloprid, MOA 4A +                —              0.375 mg/seed                                   Aeris seed treatment lacks persistence and may require a supplemental foliar
thiodicarb, MOA 1A                                                                                   treatment within 3 weeks after planting.
(Aeris) 48DS
abamectin, MOA 6, +                   —               0.15 mg/seed                                   Aeris seed treatment lacks persistence and may require a supplemental foliar
thiamethoxam MOA 4A                                                                                  treatment within 3 weeks after planting.
(Avicta) 500FS




82                                                                                                                                                 Chapter V—Insect Control
    TABLE 5-5A. INSECT CONTROL ON COTTON
                                                     Per Acre                                   Pre-
    INSECT                                Amount                Active lb   Acres/gal (lb)    harvest
    Insecticide, Mode of Action                                                               interval
    (MOA), and Formulation                                                    *        **      (days)    Precautions and Remarks
    THRIPS (post- emergence)
    acephate, MOA 1B                                                                            21       Not suggested to replace at-plant insecticides in conventional cotton. In ultra-
    (Orthene) 75 S                         3 to 4 oz        0.14 to 0.19     5.3 to 4 (lb)               narrow row cotton, foliar treatment for thrips may be primary control measure.
    (Orthene) 90 S                           0.2 lb             0.18             5 (lb)                  With the high thrips populations often found in North Carolina, consider 0.25 lb a.i.
    (Orthene) 97 S                        2.5 to 3 oz       0.15 to 0.18    6.4 to 5.3 (lb)              per acre the standard rate for Orthene.
    (Orthene) 97 ST***                        6 oz             0.375           2.67 (lb)
    dicrotophos, MOA 1B                      4 oz                 0.25            32            10
    (Bidrin) 8 EC
    dimethoate, MOA 1B                       8 oz                 0.25            16            10
    4 EC
    methamidophos, MOA 1B                   6.4 oz                 0.2            20            50
    (Monitor) 4 EC
    phosphorothioate, MOA 1B                16 oz                 0.25            8             14
    (Metasystox-R)
Dosages may need to be increased during heavy infestations or in extremely rank cotton. Do not exceed full labeled rate.
*     Lowest labeled rates for bollworms and budworms
** Highest labeled rates for bollworms and budworms
*** 2 (ee) state local need label for higher rates
NOTE: Upper or lower rate ranges do not indicate equivalent activity.




                                                        COTTON INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT
                                                                   J. S. BACHELER, Entomology Department


Resistance occurs when some insects in a population survive a chemical treatment and are therefore able to pass on an
inherited gene for this survival to its offspring. Because these offspring are better able to survive the insecticide than those
that are not resistant, the resistant individuals increase their numbers faster in the presence of the insecticide. After several
generations, the resistant insects can outnumber the susceptible ones, and the insecticide becomes ineffective. Because
the genes that allow insects to survive an insecticide are often initially present in a few individuals out of a very large
population of susceptible insects, resistance development may take years. One to 20 years would be a common range for
effectiveness of many insecticides.
          Insects vary greatly in their “ability” to develop resistance to insecticides. For example, cotton aphids have been
able to develop resistance to various classes of chemicals rapidly, while the boll weevil remains susceptible to several
organophosphate insecticides after more than 50 years of exposure.
          Insects develop resistance to insecticides in several ways. Some are able to break down (metabolize) insecticides,
while others are able eliminate the toxins. Some can sequester insecticides (move them to a less harmful place in or on the
body), and still others can avoid the toxin (behavioral resistance). The above are examples of different modes of action
(MOA). Unfortunately, once an insect develops resistance to one insecticide, in most cases the insect is also resistant
to others in the same class or group of insecticides. For example, if tobacco budworms are resistant to the pyrethroid
Baythroid, they are also resistant to the pyrethroid Karate. To make matters worse, some insects may be resistant to several
classes of insecticides, such as is presently the case with plant bugs in the Midsouth.
          As you can see from the table below, many different kinds possible insecticide resistance have been identified.
Most have complicated, hard-to-remember names. To make it easy to recognize different classes or modes of actions that
can lead to resistance development, each chemical has been identified with a number, and occasionally subdivided with a
letter. Products sharing the same number or letter and number combination have the same mode of action.
          One major strategy in managing resistance is to avoid using products with the same mode of action (sharing
the same number in the table) in the same year. Also, tank mixing insecticides with different modes of action may delay
resistance development. Additionally, if only a single class of insecticides is listed for control of an insect (e.g., Assail,
Centric, and Trimax Pro – all chloronicotinoids – for cotton aphids), one should try to either limit insecticide use to a
single spray or try to avoid treatment.
          Listed below are the economically important cotton pests found in North Carolina, followed by the chemical and
brand names and mode of action.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                    83
 Table 5-5B. Cotton Insecticide Modes of Action (MOA); Insecticide Resistance Action Committee Designations
 Insect                               Chemical Name (Brand Name)                                                                                            Mode of Action
 BEET ARMYWORM                        indoxacarb (Steward)                                                                                                  22
                                      methoxyfenozide (Intrepid)                                                                                            18A
                                      spinosad (Tracer)                                                                                                     5
 BOLLWORM/TOBACCO BUDWORM             Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bollgard II and Widestrike: delta endotoxin expressed by various varieties)     11B2
                                      bifenthrin (Brigade, Capture, Discipline, others)                                                                     3
                                      cyfluthrin (Baythroid)                                                                                                3
                                      cypermethrin (Ammo)                                                                                                   3
                                      deltamethrin (Decis)                                                                                                  3
                                      esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                                                                                              3
                                      flubendiamide (Belt)                                                                                                  28
                                      gamma-cyhalothrin (Prolex)                                                                                            3
                                      lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate, Karate Z)                                                                                 3
                                      zetamethrin (Mustang Max)                                                                                             3
                                      spinosad (Tracer)                                                                                                     5
                                      indoxacarb (Steward)                                                                                                  22
                                      methomyl (Lannate)                                                                                                    1A
 COTTON APHID                         acetamiprid (Assail)                                                                                                  4A
                                      flonicamid (Carbine)                                                                                                  9C
                                      imidacloprid (Trimax Pro)                                                                                             4A
                                      thiamethoxam (Centric)                                                                                                4A
 COTTON APHID & BOLLWORM              imidacloprid + cyfluthrin (Leverage)                                                                                  4A + 3
                                      thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin (Engigo)                                                                            4A + 3
 EURPOEAN CORN BORER                  Bollgard II (various varieties)                                                                                       11B2
                                      Widestrike (various varieties)                                                                                        11B2
                                      bifenthrin (Brigade, Capture, Discipline, others)                                                                     3
                                      cyfluthrin (Baythroid)                                                                                                3
                                      cypermethrin (Ammo)                                                                                                   3
                                      deltamethrin (Decis)                                                                                                  3
                                      esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                                                                                              3
                                      gamma-cyhalothrin (Prolex)                                                                                            3
                                      lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate, Karate Z)                                                                                 3
                                      zetamethrin (Mustang Max)                                                                                             3
                                      spinosad (Tracer)                                                                                                     5
                                      indoxacarb (Steward)                                                                                                  22
                                      methomyl (Lannate)                                                                                                    1A
 FALL ARMYWORM                        chlorantraniliprole (Coragen)                                                                                         28
                                      chlopyrofos (Lorsban)                                                                                                 1B
                                      indoxacarb (Steward)                                                                                                  22
                                      methomyl (Lannate)                                                                                                    1A
                                      methoxyfenozide (Intrepid)                                                                                            18A
                                      profenofos (Curacron)                                                                                                 1B
                                      spinosad (Tracer)                                                                                                     5
                                      thiodicarb (Larvin)                                                                                                   1A
 PLANT BUG                            acephate (Orthene, and others)                                                                                        1B
                                      acetamiprid (Assail)                                                                                                  4A
                                      chlopyrofos (Lorsban)                                                                                                 1B
                                      dicrotophos (Bidrin)                                                                                                  1B
                                      flonicamid (Carbine)                                                                                                  9C
                                      imidacloprid (Trimax Pro)                                                                                             4A
                                      methomyl (Lannate)                                                                                                    1A
                                      methyl parathion (Methyl parathion, Penncal-M)                                                                        1B
                                      oxamyl (Vydate)                                                                                                       1A
                                      thiamethoxam (Centric)                                                                                                4A
 SOYBEAN & CABBAGE LOOPER             emamectin benzoate (Denim)                                                                                            6
                                      indoxacarb (Steward)                                                                                                  22
                                      methoxyfenozide (Intrepid)                                                                                            18A
                                      spinosad (Tracer)                                                                                                     5
 SPIDER MITE                          bifenthrin (Brigade, Capture, Discipline, others)                                                                     3
                                      dicofol (Dicofol)                                                                                                     UNC*
                                      entoxazole (Zeal)                                                                                                     10B
                                      fenpropathrin (Danitol)                                                                                               3
                                      propargate (Comite)                                                                                                   12C
                                      methidathion (Supracide)                                                                                              18
                                      spiromesfen (Oberon)                                                                                                  23
 STINK BUG                            acephate (Orthene, and others)                                                                                        1B
                                      dicrotophos (Bidrin)                                                                                                  1B
                                      methyl parathion (Methyl parathion, Penncal-M)                                                                        1B
                                      oxamyl (Vydate)                                                                                                       1A
                                      pyrethroids                                                                                                           3
 THRIPS (at-planting)                 aldicarb (Temik)                                                                                                      1A
                                      imidacloprid (Gaucho Grande)                                                                                          4A
                                      thiamethoxam (Cruiser)                                                                                                4A
                                      thiamethoxam + abamectin (Avicta)                                                                                     4A + 6
                                      imidacloprid + thiodicarb (Aeris)                                                                                     4A + 1A
 THRIPS (postemergence)               acephate (Orthene, and others)                                                                                        1B
                                      dicrotophos (Bidrin)                                                                                                  1B
                                      dimethoate (Dimethoate)                                                                                               1B
                                      methamidophos (Monitor)                                                                                               1B
                                      phosphorothioate (Metasystox-R)                                                                                       1B

*UNC: Compound with unknown mode of action.




84                                                                                                                                              Chapter V—Insect Control
                                                        INSECT CONTROL ON FORAGE CROPS
                                                                   S. B. BAMBARA, Entomology Extension

TABLE 5-6. INSECT CONTROL ON FORAGE CROPS
                                                                      Minimum
                                                                      Interval (Days)
                                  Amount of         Active            Between
INSECT                            Formulation       Ingredient (lb)   Application and
Insecticide and Formulation       Per Acre          per Acre          Harvest              Precautions and Remarks
ALFALFA WEEVIL
azinphos-methyl (Guthion) 3 F     0.67 to 1.5 pt    0.38 to 0.5       16 to 21             Use at least 10 gal of water per acre; 20 gal per acre for heavy growth. Do not make more than
                                                                                           one application per cutting. Higher rates provide longer seasonal protection.
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 75 WG      1 to 2 pt         0.5 to 1          7 to 21              Use 20 gal of water per acre; do not make more than one application per cutting. Higher rates
                                                                                           provide longer seasonal protection, but could show some phytotoxicity.
cyfluthrin                        1.6 to 2.8 oz     0.025 to 0.044    7
(Baythroid) 2                                                                              Restricted use pesticide. One application per cutting.
(Renounce 20 WP)                                                                           Not for alfalfa grown for seed. Not for alfalfa-grass mixed stands.
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior)      2.56 to 3.84 oz   0.02 to 0.03      1 (forage); 7 (hay) Consult label for restrictions.
malathion 57 EC                   1 qt              1.25              0
permethrin (Ambush) 2 E           6.4 to 12.75 oz   0.1 to 0.2        up to 14             Do not apply more than 0.2 lb active ingredient per cutting.
permethrin (Pounce) 3.2 EC        4 to 8 oz         0.1 to 0.2        up to 14
phosmet (Imidan)                                    1                 7                    Do not apply more than one application per cutting. Do not apply during bloom.
50 WP                             2 lb
70W                               1 lb
zeta-cypermethrin                 3.0 to 4.3 oz     0.035 to 0.05     3 (cutting,          Do not apply more than once per cutting. Three applications per year allowed. 12 hr REI. See
(Mustang MAX)                                                         grazing)             label.
ARMYWORM—(a) wheat hay
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior)                                          30                   Consult label for details and restrictions.
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F)     4 to 8 oz         0.06 to 0.12      0 (graze); 7 (hay)
ARMYWORM—(b) alfalfa
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior)                                          1 (forage); 7 (hay) Consult label for details and restrictions.


chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 75 WG      1 to 2 pt         0.5 to 1          7 to 12 depending Do not apply more than once per cutting. Phytotoxicity may appear on young plants. See label
                                                                      on rate           for other restrictions, water volumes, and preplant options.
cyfluthrin (Renounce 20 WP)                                           7                    Restricted Use Pesticide. Consult label. Listed for armyworm complex. Best on early instars.
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang        3.0 to 4.3 oz     0.035 to 0.05     3 (cutting,          Do not apply more than once per cutting. Three applications per year allowed. 12 hr REI. See
MAX)                                                                  grazing)             label.
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F)     4 to 8 oz         0.06 to 0.12      0 (graze); 7 (hay)
malathion (5 or 57)               2 to 2.25 pt                        0
Bacillus thuringiensis (Agree                       0.5 to 2          0                    Best when larvae are small. Suitable for organic production.
WG, DiPel DF, Javelin, Xentari)
azadirachtin (Azatin XL Plus,     0.5 to 1.5 gal                      0                    4-hour REI. Reapply 7 to 10 days as needed. OMRI-approved.
Neemix 4.5)
carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WSP           1.25 to 1.5 lb                      7
spinosad (Entrust)                0.63 to 1.25 oz   0.031 to 0.062    0 (forage); 7 (hay) OMRI listed. Do not apply more than 3.75 oz/season. Roate with other products.
ARMYWORM—(c) clover
carbaryl (Sevin)                                                      0                    Do not apply to wet foliage. One application per cutting.
80 WSP                            1.25 to 1.5 lb
XLR                               1 to 1.5 qt
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F)     4 to 8 oz         0.06 to 0.12      0 (graze); 7 (hay
malathion                                                             0
5                                 2 to 2.25 pt
57                                2 pt
ARMYWORM—(d) pasture, grass, grass hay, other forage crops
azadirachtin (Azatin XL Plus,     0.5 to 1.5 gal                      0                    4-hour REI. Reapply 7 to 10 days as needed. OMRI-approved.
Neemix 4.5)
malathion                                                             0
5                                 2 to 2.25 pt
57                                2 pt
Bacillus thuringiensis (Agree                       0.5 to 2          0                    Best when larvae are small.
WG, DiPel DF, Javelin, Xentari)
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid 2F)     4 to 8 oz         0.06 to 0.12      0 (graze); 7 (hay)
spinosad (Entrust)                0.63 to 1.25 oz   0.031 to 0.062    3 (harvest) 0        OMRI listed. For grass crops and pasture.
                                                                      (graze)
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang                                            0 (forage); 7        See additional restrictions on label.
Max)                                                                  (straw, seed)
ARMYWORM—(e) pasture
azadirachtin (Azatin XL Plus,     0.5 to 1.5 gal                      0                    4-hour REI. Reapply 7 to 10 days as needed. OMRI-approved.
Neemix 4.5)


carbaryl (Sevin)                                                      14 (ground)          Do not apply to wet foliage. One application per cutting.
80 WSP                            1.25 to 1.75 lb
XLR or SL                         1 to 1.5 qt




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                  85
TABLE 5-6. INSECT CONTROL ON FORAGE CROPS
                                                                      Minimum
                                                                      Interval (Days)
                                 Amount of          Active            Between
INSECT                           Formulation        Ingredient (lb)   Application and
Insecticide and Formulation      Per Acre           per Acre          Harvest              Precautions and Remarks
FALL ARMYWORM—(a) bermudagrass (also see pasture)
diflubenzuron (Dimilin 2L)                                            0 (graze); 1 (hay)   Early instars only.
methomyl (Lannate) 90 SP         0.25 to 1.0 lb                       7 (graze); 3 (hay)   Consult label for details and restrictions. REI 48 hr.
spinosad (Tracer, Entrust)       1 to 2 oz          0.031 to 0.062    3 (hay and           Do not allow cattle to graze until spray has dried.
                                                                      fodder)              Entrust is OMRI listed.
zeta-permethrin                                                       0 (forage, hay);     See label for additional restrictions.
(Mustang Max)                                                         7 (straw, seed)
FALL ARMYWORM—(b) rye and pasture
carbaryl (Sevin)                                                      14 (ground)          Consult label for details.
 80 WSP                          1.25 to 1.75 lb
 XLR or SL                       1 to 1.5 qt
diflubenzuron (Dimilin 2L)                                                                 Early instars only.
spinosad (Entrust)               0.63 to 1.25 oz    0.031 to 0.062    3 (harvest); 0       OMRI listed. For grass and pasture.
                                                                      (graze)
FALL ARMYWORM—(c) alfalfa and clover
carbaryl (Sevin)                                                      7 (alfalfa); 0       Do not apply to wet foliage. One application per cutting. Consult label for details and
 80 WSP                          1.25 to 1.5 lb                       (clover)             restrictions.
 XLR or SL                       1 to 1.5 qt
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior)                                          30 (harvest)         Consult label for directions. RUP. Alfalfa only. Not for clover.
methomyl (Lannate) 90 SP         0.5 lb                               7                    REI 48 hr.
(d) wheat hay
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior)                                          30 (harvest)         Consult label for details. Wheat hay only.
spinosad (Entrust)               0.63 to 1.25 oz    0.031 to 0.062    3 (harvest); 0       OMRI listed. For grass and pasture.
                                                                      (graze)
FIRE ANTS—(pasture)
fenoxycarb (Award)                                                                         Slow acting bait. May not be used on grazed land except horse farms where horses are not
                                                                                           used for human consumption.
hydramethylnon (Amdro Pro or                                           7 (cut or bale)     Special label in North Carolina. Consult label for restrictions and directions in using this bait in
Siege Pro)                                                                                 pasture.
methoprene (Extinguish)                                                                    Bait. See label for restrictions.
methoprene + hydramethylnon                                           7 (cut or bale)      Consult label for restrictions.
(Extinguish Plus)
pyriproxyfen (Esteem Ant Bait)   1.5 to 2 lb                          0                    Bait. Mound or broadcast application. See supplemental label for application
                                                                                           recommendations.
carbaryl (Sevin)                                                                           Some formulations of Sevin are labeled as mound drench in pasture. Do not make application
                                                                                           simultaneously with a bait.
GRASSHOPPER, CRICKET
carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WSP          1.25 lb            1                 0                    Grasshoppers are especially destructive to young seedlings in the fall.
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 E       1 pt               0.5               14                   Apply no more than one application per cutting.
diflubenzuron (Dimilin 2 L)                                                                Grassland pasture. Restricted use pesticide.
malathion 57 EC                  1.5 pt             1                 0
GRUB, GREEN JUNE BEETLE
carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WSP, XLR     2.5 lb             2                 0                    Apply in damaged fields as surface treatment. Use 30 gal spray per acre. Treatment rarely
                                                                                           justified. Most effective in September.
LEAFHOPPER (also see Potato Leafhopper)
carbaryl (Sevin) 80 WSP          1.25 lb            1                 0                    Usually potato leafhoppers occur in July and August but since they migrate from the Gulf
                                                                                           region they may appear in high numbers in June.
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 EC      1 pt               0.5               14                   Apply no more than one application per cutting.
dimethoate 400                   1 pt               0.5               10                   Do not apply more than one application per cutting. Do not apply during bloom.


diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 2 L                                                                Grassland pasture. Restricted use pesticide.

PEA APHID, SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior)                        0.02              1 (forage); 7 (hay) Restricted use pesticide.
malathion 57 EC                  1.5 pt             1                 0                    Cutting hay as soon as practical minimizes damage by aphids.
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang       1                  0.025             3 (cutting or        Restricted use pesticide.
MAX)                                                                  grazing)
POTATO LEAFHOPPER
carbaryl (Sevin SLR, OWSP)                                                                 Follow label directions.
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) XL or                                          7                    Restricted Use Pesticide. One application per cutting.
(Renounce) 20 WP
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior)                                                               Follow label directions.
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang                                                                 Follow label directions.
Max)
SPITTLEBUG
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 EC      1 pt               0.5               14                   Spray at first signs of spit masses. Threshold is one mass per plant. Most alfalfa weevil
                                                                                           chemicals are also labeled for spittlebug.
*Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system. Do not plant with any crop for which carbofuran treatment is not registered for at least 10 months. Do not rotate with
any cropo on soil treated at greater than 30 lb active ingredient per acre for at least 10 months.




86                                                                                                                                                      Chapter V—Insect Control
                                                               INSECT CONTROL ON PEANUTS
                                                        R. L. BRANDENBURG, Entomology Extension and Research

TABLE 5-7. INSECT CONTROL ON PEANUTS
                                   Amount of
 Insecticide and Formulation       Formulation Per Acre      Precautions and Remarks
                                                                 Seasonal Control of Thrips and Leafhoppers
APPLY AT PLANTING (To control thrips, leafhoppers, aphids, and wireworms)
acephate (Orthene 97)              0.75 to 1 lb              Apply as in-furrow spray in 3 to 5 gal of water per acre. State (24c) label must be in possession at time of application.
(generics available)
aldicarb (Temik)                   6.6 lb of 15% granules    Use a row applicator to apply in furrow at planting. Taken up by plants and translocated to kill aphids, thrips, and
                                                             leafhoppers. Note current plant-back restrictions on aldicarb label.
disulfoton (Di-Syston)             6.6 lb of 15% granules
phorate (Thimet) (generics          5.0 lb of 20%
available)                         granules
                                                                              Control of Specific Pests
BEET ARMYWORM
Bacillus thuringiensis (Xentari)   0.5 to 2 lb               Apply to small caterpillars. Use highest rate for larger worms or high populations; 0 day harvest restriction.
gamma-cyhalothrin                                            Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
(Prolex)                           1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
(Proaxis)                          2.56 to 3.84 fl oz
methomyl (Lannate LV)              0.75 to 3 pt              Apply broadcast in sufficient water for good coverage when worms are small. Do not apply within 21 days of harvest. See
                                                             fall armyworm for additional restrictions.
indoxacarb (Steward)               9.2 to 11.3 oz            Do not apply more than 45 oz per acre per crop. 14-day preharvest interval.
spinosad (Tracer)                  1.5 to 3 fl oz            Do not apply more than 9 fl oz per season or make more than three applications. 3-day preharvest interval.
CORN EARWORM, SOUTHERN ARMYWORM, GREEN CLOVERWORM, VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR
acephate (Orthene) 97 (generics 0.75 to 1 lb                 Do not feed or graze livestock on acephate-treated vines. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest (digging).
available)
Bacillus thuringiensis                                       For velvetbean caterpillar control only. Apply to small caterpillars and use highest rate for larger worms and/or high
(Dipel DF)                         0.5 to 2 lb               populations; 0 day harvest restriction. Xentari also controls southern armyworm.
(Dipel ES)                         1 to 2 pt
(Xentari)                          0.5 to 2 lb
carbaryl (Sevin) 80 S (generics    1 to 2 lb                 Apply to foliage when four or more worms are present per foot of row and preferably when worms are small. Do not apply
available)                                                   methomyl within 21 days of harvest. Do not feed methomyl-treated vines to livestock. Use minimum of 3 gal of water for
                                                             aerial application.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)           2.9 to 5.8 oz             Do not feed Asana-treated vines or graze livestock on treated plants.
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 2.4 EC     10.67 to 16 fl oz         Do not exceed 2.67 pt per acre per season. Use 10 to 50 gal per acre by ground and 5 to 10 gal per acre by air. Repeat no
                                                             more often than every 7 days. Do not apply within 14 days of digging and do not feed or graze vines within 14 days of last
                                                             application.
gamma-cyhalothrin                                            Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
(Prolex)                           1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
(Proaxis)                          2.56 to 3.84 fl oz
indoxacarb (Steward)               9.2 to 11.3 oz            Do not apply more than 45 oz per acre per crop. 14 day preharvest interval. For corn earworm.
lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate Z)      1.28 to 1.92 oz           Do not feed or graze livestock on Karate-treated plants.
methomyl (Lannate LV)              0.75 to 3 pt              Apply to foliage when four or more worms are present per foot of row and preferably when worms are small. Do not apply
                                                             methomyl within 21 days of harvest. Do not feed methomyl-treated vines to livestock. Use minimum of 3 gal of water for
                                                             aerial application.
spinosad (Tracer)                  2 to 3 fl oz              Do not apply more than 9 fl oz per season or make more than three applications. 3-day preharvest interval.
CUTWORM
carbaryl (Sevin) 80 S (generics    2.5 lb
available)
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 15 G        1.33 lb                   Apply in 16- to 18-in. band over row when infestation is first seen. May be applied by air. Do not graze or feed immature crop
                                                             to livestock.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)           5.8 to 9.6 oz             Do not feed treated vines to livestock.
gamma-cyhalothrin
(Prolex)                           0.77 to 1.28 fl oz
(Proaxis)                          1.92 to 3.20 fl oz
indoxacarb (Steward)               9.2 to 11.3 oz            Do not apply more than 45 oz per acre per crop. 14 day preharvest interval.
lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate Z)      0.96 to 1.6 oz            Do not use treated vines or hay for animal feed.
methomyl (Lannate LV)              1.5 to 3 pt               Do not apply within 21 days of harvest. Do not feed treated vines to livestock.
FALL ARMYWORM
acephate (Orthene) 97 (generics 0.75 to 1 lb                 Do not apply within 14 days of harvest (digging). Do not feed or graze livestock on vines treated with acephate. Apply 10 to
available)                                                   50 gal spray solution per acre. Do not apply more than 4.13 lb per acre (4 lb a.i. per acre per season).
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 2.4 EC     10 2/3 to 16 fl oz        Do not exceed 2.67 pt per acre per season. Repeat no more often than every 7 days. Do not apply within 14 days of digging
                                                             and do not feed or graze vines within 14 days of last application.
gamma-cyhalothrin                                            Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
(Prolex)                           1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
(Proaxis)                          2.56 to 3.84 fl oz
indoxacarb (Steward)               9.2 to 11.3 oz            Do not apply more than 45 oz per acre per crop. 14 day preharvest interval.
lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate Z)      1.28 to 1.92 oz
methomyl (Lannate LV)              0.75 to 1.5 pt            Effective against all sizes of worms. Use minimum of 3 gal of water for aerial application. Do not apply within 21 days of
                                                             harvest. Do not feed methomyl-treated vines to livestock.
spinosad (Tracer)                  2 to 3 fl oz              Do not apply more than 9 fl oz per season or make more than three applications. 3-day preharvest interval.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                  87
    TABLE 5-7. INSECT CONTROL ON PEANUTS
                                       Amount of
     Insecticide and Formulation       Formulation Per Acre   Precautions and Remarks
    LEAFHOPPERS
    acephate (Orthene) 97 (generics 0.75 to 1 lb              See remarks under THRIPS.
    available)
    carbaryl (Sevin) 80 S (generics    1.25 lb                See remarks under THRIPS. May be applied up to day of harvest.
    available)
    esfenvalerate (Asana XL)           2.9 to 5.8 oz          Do not feed livestock Asana-treated vines or graze livestock on treated plants.
    fenpropathrin (Danitol) 2.4 EC     6 to 10.67 fl oz       Do not exceed 2 2/3 pt per acre per season. Repeat no more often than every 7 days. Do not apply within 14 days of digging
                                                              and do not feed or graze vines within 14 days of last application.
    gamma-cyhalothrin
    (Prolex)                           0.77 to 1.28 fl oz
    (Proaxis)                          1.92 to 3.20 fl oz
    lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate Z)      0.96 to 1.6 oz         Do not use treated vines or hay for animal feed.
    methomyl (Lannate LV)              0.75 to 3 pt           Do not apply within 21 days of harvest. Do not use treated vines as feed.
    LESSER CORNSTALK BORER
    chlorpyrifos (Lorsban, Pilot) 15   7 to 14 lb             Apply as directed spray to base of plants in 8- to 10-inch band in 50 gal water per acre.
    G (generics available)
    SOUTHERN CORN ROOTWORM
    chlorpyrifos (Lorsban, Pilot) 15   13.3 lb                Apply in a 16- to 18-inch band over the row just before pegging. Work immediately into top few inches of soil. Do not graze
    G (generics available)                                    or feed crop to livestock. If NC6 peanut is planted, use only one-fourth the suggested amount per acre.
    phorate (Thimet) 20 G (generics 10 lb
    available)
    SPIDER MITE
    propargite (Comite) 73 L           2 pt                   Apply in at least 25 gal of water per acre. Spider mite outbreaks are less likely to develop if foliar insecticides are not used
                                                              during July and August and copper fungicides are used for Cercospora leafspot. Do not apply propargite within 14 days of
                                                              harvest.
    fenpropathrin (Danitol) 2.4 EC     10.67 to 16 fl oz      Do not exceed 2.67 pt (42 2/3 fl oz) per acre per season. Use 10 to 50 gal per acre by ground and 5 to 10 gal per acre by
                                                              air. Repeat no more often than every 7 days. Do not apply within 14 days of digging and do not feed or graze vines within 14
                                                              days of last application.
    THRIPS
    acephate (Orthene) 97              0.375 to 0.75 lb       Do not feed or graze livestock on treated vines. Apply 10 to 50 gal spray solution per acre to foliage.
    (generics available)                                      Do not apply more than 4.125 lb per acre ( 4 lb a.i. per acre) per season.
    carbaryl (Sevin) 80 S (generics    1.25 lb                Do not feed or graze livestock on treated vines. Apply 10 to 50 gal spray solution per acre to foliage.
    available)
    gamma-cyhalothrin                                         Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
     (Prolex)                          1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
     (Proaxis)                         2.56 to 3.84 fl oz
    lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate Z)      1.28 to 1.96 oz        Do not use treated vines or hay for animal feed.
    malathion 57 EC                    0.8 qt                 Apply 20 to 25 gal spray solution per acre to foliage.

See N.C. Cooperative Extension Service publication AG-463-5, Pesticides and Wildlife—Peanuts, for additional information on minimizing pesticide impact on wildlife.


.




88                                                                                                                                                      Chapter V—Insect Control
                                                           INSECT CONTROL IN SOYBEANS
                                                   D. D. REISIG and J. S. BACHELER, Entomology Extension

TABLE 5-8. INSECT CONTROL ON SOYBEANS
                                                                          Minimum Interval
                                   Amount of               Active         (Days) Between
INSECT                           Formulation per       Ingredient (lb)    Application and
Insecticide and Formulation          Acre                 Per Acre            Harvest        Precautions and Remarks
BEAN LEAF BEETLE
acephate (Orthene 97)               0.75 to 1 lb          0.75 to 1             14           Treat when defoliation reaches threshold levels or buildup is obvious. Threshold
chlorpyrifos + gamma-                 19 fl oz           0.37 + 0.01            30           is 30% prebloom defoliation or 15% bloom, podfill defoliation. Pod skinning by this
cyhalothrin (Cobalt)                                                                         insect can be a concern in soybeans grown for seed. Selected pyrethroids will
                                                                                             suppress bean leaf beetle.
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 E             1 pt                  0.5                14
cyfluthrin (Baythroid XL)            2.8 fl oz              0.022               45
lambda-cyhalothrin                   1.6 fl oz              0.026               30
(Karate Z and Warrior II)
lambda-cyhalothrin +                 3.5 fl oz          0.024 + 0.032           30
thiamethoxam (Endigo)
BEET ARMYWORM
indoxacarb (Steward SC)          5.6 to 11.3 fl oz       0.06 to 0.11           21           Ground application only for larger caterpillars. Control of large armyworms is difficult.
                                                                                             Steward and Tracer are the superior products.
methomyl (Lannate LV)
2.4                                   1.5 pt                0.45                14
SP                                    0.5 lb
methoxyfenozide, MOA 18A             4 to 8 oz           0.06 to 0.12        14 (grain)
(Intrepid) 2F                                                                 7 (hay)
spinosad (Tracer) 4 F              1.5 to 2 fl oz        0.05 to 0.06           28
thiodicarb (Larvin) 3.2 F              1 pt                  0.4                21
CORN EARWORM
carbaryl (Sevin XLR)                                                            14           Treat when earworm numbers exceed threshold as determined by scouting. Be sure
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 EC         1.5 to 2 pt           0.75 to 1             14           worms are present when treatment is applied. Use low rates for light infestations.
                                                                                             Use higher rates by air.
cyfluthrin (Baythroid 2 XL)       1.6 to 2.8 fl oz     0.0125 to 0.022          45
                                                                                             Synthetic pyrethroids are again recommended for use in soybean due to the diversity
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)          5.8 to 9.6 fl oz       0.03 to 0.05           21
                                                                                             of transgenic B.t. cotton varieties now available to growers.
flubendiamide (Belt SC)             2 to 3 fl oz         0.06 to 0.09         3 (hay)
                                                                                             B.t. transgenic cotton varieties provide resistance management benefits and reduce
                                                                             14 (grain)
                                                                                             the amount of insecticide used in cotton, thus extending the life of pyrethroids.
gamma-cyhalothrin                                                                            Distinguishing between corn earworm and tobacco budworm is important as
(Prolex)                         0.77 to 1.28 fl oz    0.0075 to 0.0125         45           pyrethroids provide poor control of tobacco budworm.
(Declare)                           1.54 fl oz              0.015               21           Go to Web page http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/Plymouth/ and click on “entomology” and
imidacloprid + beta-cyfluthrin       2.8 fl oz           0.04 + 0.02            15           then “soybean insect management.”
(Leverage 360)
indoxacarb (Steward) EC          5.6 to 11.3 fl oz       0.06 to 0.11           21
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior)                        1.92 to 3.2 fl oz      0.015 to 0.025          30
(Karate Z and Warrior II)        0.96 to 1.6 fl oz      0.015 to 0.025          30
(Endigo)                          2.5 to 3.5 fl oz     0.017 + 0.023 to         30
                                                        0.024 + 0.032
methomyl (Lannate) LV              12 to 24 fl oz        0.22 to 0.45           14
permethrin (Pounce 25 WP)        6.4 to 12.8 fl oz        0.1 to 0.2            60
spinosad (Tracer)                  1.5 to 2 fl oz       0.047 to 0.063          28
thiodicarb (Larvin) 3.2 F          10 to 30 fl oz        0.25 to 0.75           28
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang         2.8 to 4 fl oz      0.0175 to 0.025          21
Max EC)
zeta-cypermethrin + bifenthrin       10.3 oz            0.033 + 0.066           30
(Hero)
GRASSHOPPER
acephate (Orthene 97)               0.25 to 0.5          0.25 to 0.5            14           Apply by air or ground uniformly over foliage as a broadcast treatment. Early
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 E          0.5 to 1 pt          0.25 to 0.5            28           morning treatment is preferred. Use higher rates for heavy infestations.
GREEN CLOVERWORM
Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel,          —                    —                   0           Treat when defoliation reaches threshold. This insect is seldom an economic pest.
Javelin, Xentari, and others)                                                                See label of specific B.t. products. Thresholds are listed under bean leaf beetle.
carbaryl (Sevin XLR)                   1 pt                  0.5                14           Pyrethroid insecticides are labeled for green cloverworm control at, or below, the
indoxacarb (Steward EC)           8 to 11.3 fl oz        0.08 to 0.11           21           rates shown under Corn Earworm.
spinosad (Tracer)                  1.5 to 2 fl oz       0.047 to 0.063          28
thiodicarb (Larvin) 3.2 F             20 fl oz               0.5                28
SOYBEAN LOOPER
Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel,                                                   0           Treat when thresholds are reached or when buildup is obvious. Thresholds is 15%
Javelin, Xendari, and others)                                                                defoliation. Ground application is superior. Resistance is occurring in this species
flubendiamide (Belt SC)             2 to 3 fl oz         0.06 to 0.09         3 (hay)        and B.t. and other insecticides work best on small caterpillars: See specific B.t.
                                                                             14 (grain)      product label for use rates. There is no resistance to indoxacarb and spinosad.

indoxacarb (Steward EC)          5.6 to 11.3 fl oz       0.06 to 0.11           21
methoxyfenozide, MOA 18A            4 to 6 fl oz         0.06 to 0.12         7 (hay)
(Intrepid) 2F                                                                14 (grain)
spinetoram (Radiant SC              2 to 4 fl oz        0.016 to 0.12         7 (hay)
                                                                             14 (grain)
spinosad (Tracer) 4 F              1.5 to 2 fl oz       0.047 to 0.063          28
spinosad + gamma cyhalothrin        2 to 3 fl oz          See label          See label
(Consero)
thiodicarb (Larvin) 3.2 F         18 to 30 fl oz         0.45 to 0.75           21


Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                            89
TABLE 5-8. INSECT CONTROL ON SOYBEANS
                                                                                    Minimum Interval
                                      Amount of               Active                (Days) Between
INSECT                              Formulation per       Ingredient (lb)           Application and
Insecticide and Formulation             Acre                 Per Acre                   Harvest            Precautions and Remarks
STINK BUG (Southern Green, Green, and Brown)
acephate (Orthene 97)                    0.5 to 1                0.5 to 1                   14             Treat when bug numbers exceed one per row foot or 6 per 25 sweeps (narrow-row
encapsulated methyl parathion            2 to 3 pt            0.5 to 0.75                   20             beans). Orthene and Penncap-M are preferred for brown stinkbug. Stinkbugs are
(Penncap-M)                                                                                                often late-season pests so be aware of the preharvest interval of Karate. Reduce
                                                                                                           thresholds by 50% in soybeans intended for seed use.
gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare)              1.54 oz                 0.015                      21
                                                                                                           Go to Web page http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/Plymouth/ and click on “entomology” and
lambda-cyhalothrin
                                                                                                           then “soybean insect management.”
(Warrior)                            1.92 to 3.2 fl oz    0.015 to 0.025                    30
(Karate Z and Warrior)               0.96 to 1.6 fl oz    0.015 to 0.025                    30

methyl parathion 4 EC                      2 pt                     1                       15
zeta-cypermethrin
(Mustang Max EC)                       3.2 to 4 oz           0.02 to 0.025                  21
zeta-cypermethrin + bifenthrin           10.3 oz          0.033 + 0.066                     21
(Hero)
VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR (start here)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel,                                                              0              See specific labels for use rates.
Javelin, Xentari and others)
carbaryl (Sevin and others)                                                                                Treat when defoliation exceeds 15% or when caterpillar threshold is found. Use high
80 S                                   0.67 to 1 pt           0.5 to 0.8                    0              rates for severe populations only.
XLR or 4 L                               1 to 2 pt             0.5 to 1                     0              Pyrethroid insecticides are labeled for green cloverworm control at, or below, the
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 4 EC            0.5 to 1 pt            0.25 to 0.5                   14             rates shown under Corn Earworm.
indoxacarb (Steward 1.25 SC)         5.6 to 11.3 fl oz       0.06 to 0.11                   21
spinosad (Tracer) 4 F                 1.5 to 2 fl oz               —                        28
thiodicarb (Larvin) 3.2 F                 8 fl oz                  0.2                      21
GRAPE COLASPIS BLISTER BEETLE, JAPANESE BEETLE, MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE, SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE, THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER, THRIPS

acephate (Orthene 97)                   0.75 to 1              0.75 to 1                    14             These insects are rarely pests; exercise care in determining if a problem exists. Do
                                                                                                           not spray Mexican bean beetle when many eggs and pupae are present; wait 4 to
carbaryl (Sevin and others)                                                                 0              5 days.
80 S                                       1 lb                   0.8
XLR or 4 L                                1.5 pt                  0.75
lambda-cyhalothrin                                                                          45
(Karate 2.08 CS)                       1 to 1.6 oz        0.015 to 0.025
(Warrior 1 CS)                         2 to 3.2 oz        0.015 to 0.025
zeta-cypermethrin                                                                           21
(Fury 1.5 EC)                         3.4 to 4.3 oz       0.035 to 0.05
(Mustang Max 0.8 EC)                  2.8 to 4.0 oz      0.0175 to 0.025

CAUTION: Always use pesticides according to label directions. Be mindful of reducing the impact of pesticides on wildlife and groundwater. See Extension publication AG-463-1,
Pesticides and Wildlife—Soybeans, for further information.




                                    INSECT CONTROL ON FLUE-CURED AND BURLEY TOBACCO
                                                                     H. J. BURRACK, Entomology Extension

The Insect Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) has grouped insecticides sharing the same mode of action (MOA) into categories. The
MOA categories are listed following insecticide and formulation names. To minimize the likelihood of resistance development, avoid
successive treatment with insecticides having the same MOA. The Organic Materials Registry Institute (OMRI) lists products acceptable for
use in organic production. These products are identified inthe Precautions and Remarks section.
TABLE 5-9A. INSECT CONTROL ON FLUE-CURED AND BURLEY TOBACCO IN GREENHOUSES
                                                                             Minimum
                                                                         Interval (Hours)
INSECT                                       Amount of                    Application to
Insecticide, Formulation1, and              Formulation                  Worker Reentry
MOA Group                                  Per 1,000 sq ft                   Into Area          Precautions and Remarks
APHID, FLEA BEETLE
acephate, MOA 1B                                                               24               Apply in 3 gal water per 1,000 sq ft. Even and thorough coverage is necessary for good control.
(Orthene) 75 SP                                1 tbsp
(Orthene) 97 PE                         3/4 tbsp (3/4 lb/acre)
(several other formulations)




90                                                                                                                                                        Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-9A. INSECT CONTROL ON FLUE-CURED AND BURLEY TOBACCO IN GREENHOUSES
                                                                            Minimum
                                                                        Interval (Hours)
INSECT                                          Amount of                Application to
Insecticide, Formulation1, and                 Formulation              Worker Reentry
MOA Group                                     Per 1,000 sq ft               Into Area           Precautions and Remarks
SLUG OR SNAIL
hydrated or air-staked lime                           —                           —             Apply lime in a band 3 to 4 in. wide around margins of beds.
metaldehyde bait (Deadline Bullets)            0.2 to 0.6 lb                      12            At dusk scatter bait around margins of beds and in walkways and open spaces. TO AVOID
                                                                                                PLANT INJURY, DO NOT PUT BAIT ON PLANTS.
Iron phosphate bait (Sluggo)                    0.54 to 1 lb                      0             OMRI listed. TO AVOID PLANT INJURY, DO NOT PUT BAIT ON PLANTS.
Sanitation is important in controlling greenhouse pests. Keep all trash, equipment, etc., out of and away from the greenhouse. Growing plants other than tobacco can introduce difficult-
to-control pests. Leaving the empty greenhouses open during cold periods and closed during the summer can help reduce insect pest.
1
    Some insecticides are available in several formulations. Those listed are generally the most commonly used or available. Other formulations may or may not be suitable for use on
    tobacco or a specific pest. Check labels carefully.




TABLE 5-9B. INSECT CONTROL ON FLUE-CURED AND BURLEY TOBACCO IN THE FIELD
                                                            Minimum Interval           Minimum Interval
INSECT                                 Amount of          (Hours) Application          (Days) Between
                                      Formulation          to Worker Reentry           Last Application
Insecticide and Formulation 1           per Acre                Into Field               and Harvest        Precautions and Remarks2
APHID (preventative control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                                      24                       3            Apply in a minimum of 100 gal of transplant water/acre. To avoid plant injury, do
(Orthene) 75 SP                            1 lb           If significant foliar                             not exceed 0.75 lb a.i. acephate per acre. Provides 3 to 4 weeks of control, but
(Orthene) 97                              3/4 lb          contact will occur,                               this often fails to prevent aphid population exceeding threshold prior to topping.
(several other formulations)                              gloves must be worn                               SUPPRESSION ONLY.
                                                          for 14 days after
                                                          treatment.
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                               12                         14            Apply 0.6 to 1.2 fluid oz Admire Pro per 1,000 plants to trays or flats IN THE
(Admire Pro)                          3.6 to 7.2 oz                                                         GREENHOUSE prior to transplanting (within 3 days) OR apply in transplant water at
(several products) 2 F                    6 oz                                                              0.6 to 1.2 fl oz per 1,000 plants (3.6 to 7.2 fl oz per acre at a plant density of 6,000
                                                                                                            plants per acre). For greenhouse applications, mix with water prior to application;
                                                                                                            do not add wetting agents or defoamers and do not use in combination with other
                                                                                                            pesticides. Immediately after application, wash the material off the plants to transfer
                                                                                                            it to the potting soil. Use 0.8 oz Admire Pro per 1,000 plants for TSWV suppression.
                                                                                                            Apply 2 F formulations at 1 oz per 1,000 plants.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                1.02 to 2.58 oz                12                     none given        Apply 0.17 to 0.43 oz per 1,000 plants to trays IN THE GREENHOUSE within 2
(Platinum, T-Moxx) 75 SG                                                                                    days of transplanting. Immediately after application, wash the material off the plants
                                                                                                            onto the potting soil OR apply in transplant water at 0.17 to 0.43 oz per 1,000 plants
                                                                                                            (0.12 to 2.58 oz per acre at a plant density of 6,000 plants per acre).
APHID (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                                      24                       3            Begin treatment as soon as the threshold is reached (10% of plants with 50 or more
(Orthene) 75 SP                            1 lb           If significant foliar                             aphids on any one leaf). Use at least 25 gal per acre at 60 PSI. Using hollow cone
(Orthene) 97 PE                           3/4 lb          contact will occur,                               or small solid cone nozzles, cover entire plant with spray. If control 4 days after
(several other formulations)                              gloves must be worn                               treatment is not adequate, choose another MOA for subsequent applications.
                                                          for 14 days after
                                                          treatment.
acetamiprid, MOA 4A                    1.5 to 4 oz                 12                          7            Make no more than four applications of acetamiprid per season, and do not apply
(Assail) 30 SG                                                                                              more than once every seven days.
                                                                                                            Avoid using only Group 4A materials for season long control of insects with more
                                                                                                            than 1 generation. Following treatments of Group 4A materials, rotate to a different
                                                                                                            MOA before making additional applications of a Group 4A material.
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                    2 to 4 oz                  12                         14            Avoid using only Group 4A materials for season long control of insects with more
(several products) 1.6 F                                                                                    than 1 generation. Following treatments of Group 4A materials, rotate to a different
                                                                                                            MOA before making additional applications of a Group 4A material.
pymetrozine, MOA 9B                      2.75 oz                   12                         14            Make no more than two applications of pymetrozine.
(Fulfill) 50 WG
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                    2 to 3 oz                  12                         14            Make only one application of thiamethoxam per season.
 (Actara) 25 WDG                                                                                            Avoid using only Group 4A materials for season long control of insects with more
                                                                                                            than 1 generation. Following treatments of Group 4A materials, rotate to a different
                                                                                                            MOA before making additional applications of a Group 4A material.
methomyl, MOA 1A                                                   48                   5 flue-cured; 14    Initial control fair to good but aphids may rebound quickly.
(Lannate) 90 SP                           0.5 lb                                             burley
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                          1.5 pt
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3A                                         24                         40            NOTE LONG PREHARVEST INTERVAL.
(Warrior)                             2.5 to 3.0 oz
(Karate Xeon)                       0.96 to 1.92 fl oz




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                         91
TABLE 5-9B. INSECT CONTROL ON FLUE-CURED AND BURLEY TOBACCO IN THE FIELD
                                                        Minimum Interval    Minimum Interval
INSECT                              Amount of         (Hours) Application   (Days) Between
                                   Formulation         to Worker Reentry    Last Application
Insecticide and Formulation 1        per Acre               Into Field        and Harvest       Precautions and Remarks2
APHID (organic remedial control)
pyrethrins                                                    12                    0           Aphid control in organic production should be initiated upon first aphid appearance,
(Pyganic) 1.4 EC                  16 to 64 fl oz                                                and treatment should continue on 7-10 day intervals until topping. Data on specific
(Pyganic) 5.0 EC                  4.5 to 18 fl oz                                               organic aphid controls are limited. Organic tobacco with aphid populations should
                                                                                                be topped as early as feasible. Sucker control treatments provide some degree of
                                                                                                aphid control.
                                                                                                Pyganic should be buffered to pH 5.5 to 7. OMRI listed.
sorbitol octanoale               0.8 to 1.0% v/v              48                    0           OMRI listed.
(SucraShield)
Azadirachtin                           1-2 pt                 4                     0           Optimal pH range 5.6 - 6.5. OMRI listed.
(Aza Direct)
rosemary and pepperment oil            2-4 pt                 0                     0           OMRI listed.
(Ecotec)
petroleum oil                         1-2 gal                 4                     0           OMRI listed.
(Saf-T-Side)
ARMYWORM (remedial control)
emamectin benzoate, MOA 6            8 to 12 oz               48                   14           Apply by ground only in a minimum of 20 gal per acre of finished spray.
(Denim) 0.16EC
flubendiamide                       2 to 3 fl oz                                                Data on armyworm control in tobacco are limited. Do not apply more than 3 fl oz/
(Belt) SC                                                                                       acre every 5 days or 12 fl oz per acre per season.
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3A                                    24                   40           NOTE LONG PREHARVEST INTERVAL.
(Warrior)                          2.5 to 3.0 oz
(Karate Xeon)                    0.96 to 1.92 fl oz
methomyl, MOA 1A                                              48             5 flue-cured; 14   Good coverage of plants, especially lower leaves, is essential. Also, treat vacant
(Lannate) 90 SP                        0.5 lb                                     burley        rows when weeds and grasses are present.
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                       1.5 pt
BUDWORM (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                              24                    3           Coverage is important for budworm management. Use 1 or 3 full cone nozzles 6 to
(Orthene) 75 SP                        1 lb                                                     12 in. above bud and a minimum of 25 gal water per acre.
(Orthene) 97 PE                       0.75 lb
(several other formulations)
acetamiprid, MOA 4A                1.5 to 2.5 oz              12                    7           Assail provides ovicidal activity only.
(Assail) 30 SG
Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11     Follow label             4 or 12                 0           Trade names of B.t. include, Agree, Biobit, Condor, Crymax, Deliver, Dipel, Javelin,
several products/formulations                                                                   and Lepinox. Highest labeled rates are generally needed for budworm control. Many
                                                                                                B.t. formulations are OMRI listed.
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 7 fl oz             4                     1           Make no more than 4 applications per season (with at least 3 days between
(Coragen)                                                                                       applications), and apply no more than 15.4 fl oz per season.
emamectin benzoate, MOA 6            8 to 12 oz               48                   14           Apply by ground only in a minimum of 20 gal per acre of finished spray. In North
(Denim) 0.16EC                                                                                  Carolina tests, 8.0 oz per acre was effective against small budworms.
flubendiamide, MOA 28               2 to 3 fl oz              12                   14           Do not apply more than 3 fl oz per acre every 5 days, or 12 fl oz per acre per
(Belt SC)                                                                                       season.
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3A                                                                      To avoid build-up of resistance, rotate use of this product with other insecticides.
(Warrior) 1CS                      2.5 to 3.0 oz              24                   40           NOTE THE LONG PREHARVEST USE RESTRICTION.
(Karate Xeon)                    0.96 to 1.92 fl oz           24                   40
methomyl, MOA 1A                                              48             5 flue-cured; 14
(Lannate) 90 SP                        0.5 lb                                     burley
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                       1.5 pt
spinosad, MOA 5                     1.4 to 2 oz               4                     3
(Tracer) 4 L
Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11                                4                     0
(Dipel) 10 G Commercial bait                                                                    Apply in continuous band over center of row.Apply pinch of bait to each bud. DO
Applied by granular applicator       5 to 10 lb                                                 NOT USE BARE HANDS TO DISTRIBUTE BAITS.
Applied by hand                          —
CUTWORM (preventative control)
chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                          24                   NA           Preplant soil application only. Apply 15G formulation broadcast 1 week before
(Lorsban) Advanced                   2 to 3 qt                                                  setting. Incorporate immediately. Apply liquid (Advanced) formulation 24-48 hours
(Lorsban) 15 G                     13.5 to 20 lb                                                before bedding in at least 10 gal water per acre.
CUTWORM (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                              24                    3           Spray over row, directing spray to base of plants. Treat in late afternoon or at dusk.
(Orthene) 75 SP                        1 lb
(Orthene) 97 PE                       0.75 lb
(several other formulations)
flubendiamide                       2 to 3 fl oz              12                   14           Do not apply more than 3 fll oz/acre every 5 days or 12 fl oz per acre per season.
(Belt) SC
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3A                                    24                   40           NOTE LONG PREHARVEST INTERVAL.
(Warrior)                           2.5 to 3 oz
(Karate Xeon)                    0.96 to 1.92 fl oz
FLEA BEETLE (preventative control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                              24                    3           Apply in a minimum of 100 gal of transplant water per acre. To avoid plant injury, do
(Orthene) 75 SP                         1 lb                                                    not exceed 0.75 lb a.i. of acephate per acre.
(Orthene) 97 PE                        3/4 lb
(several other formulations)




92                                                                                                                                              Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-9B. INSECT CONTROL ON FLUE-CURED AND BURLEY TOBACCO IN THE FIELD
                                                        Minimum Interval    Minimum Interval
INSECT                              Amount of         (Hours) Application   (Days) Between
                                   Formulation         to Worker Reentry    Last Application
Insecticide and Formulation 1        per Acre               Into Field        and Harvest       Precautions and Remarks2
FLEA BEETLE (preventative control) (continued)
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                          12                   14           Apply 0.6 to 1.2 fluid oz Admire Pro per 1,000 plants to trays or flats IN THE
(Admire Pro)                       3.6 to 7.2 oz                                                GREENHOUSE prior to transplanting (within 3 days) OR apply in transplant water at
(several products) 2 F                                                                          0.6 to 1.2 fl oz per 1,000 plants (3.6 to 7.2 fl oz per acre at a plant density of 6,000
                                                                                                plants per acre). For greenhouse applications, mix with water prior to application;
                                                                                                do not add wetting agents or defoamers and do not use in combination with other
                                                                                                pesticides. Immediately after application, wash the material off the plants to transfer
                                                                                                it to the potting soil. Use 0.8 oz Admire Pro per 1,000 plants for TSWV suppression.
                                                                                                Apply 2 F formulations at 1 oz per 1,000 plants.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A               4.8 to 7.8 oz              12               None given       Apply 0.27 to 0.43 oz per 1,000 plants to trays IN THE GREENHOUSE within 2
(Platinum, T-Moxx) 75 SG                                                                        days of transplanting. Immediately after application, wash the material off the plants
                                                                                                onto the potting soil OR apply in transplant water at 0.27 to 0.43 oz per 1,000 plants
                                                                                                (1.02 to 2.58 oz per acre at a plant density of 6,000 plants per acre).
FLEA BEETLE (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                              24                    3           Treat small plants when beetles average four or more per plant. Treat large plants
(Orthene) 75 SP                       0.67 lb                                                   when beetles average 60 or more per plant, or when bases of lowest leaves begin
(Orthene) 97 PE                       0.5 lb                                                    to look lacy from feeding damage. Use 25 gal of water per acre or more on large
(several other formulations)                                                                    plants.
carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                                                Do not use carbaryl on small plants as injury may result. If carbaryl is used, monitor
(Sevin) XLR Plus                     1 to 2 qt                48                    2           aphid populations closely.
(Sevin) 80 S                       1.25 to 2.5 lb             12                    0
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                 2 to 4 oz                12                   14           Avoid using only Group 4A materials for season long control of insects with more
(several products) 1.6 F                                                                        than 1 generation. Following treatments of Group 4A materials, rotate to a different
                                                                                                MOA before making additional applications of a Group 4A material.

methomyl, MOA 1A                                              48             5 flue-cured; 14
(Lannate) 90 SP                       1.5 pt                                      burley
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                   0.25 to 0.5 lb
FLEA BEETLE (remedial control, continued)
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3A                                    24                   40           NOTE LONG PREHARVEST INTERVAL.
(Warrior) 1CS                      2.5 to 3.0 oz
(Karate Xeon)                    0.96 to 1.92 fl oz
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                          12                   14           Make only one application of thiamethoxam per season.
(Actara) 25 WDG                      2 to 3 oz                                                  Avoid using only Group 4A materials for season long control of insects with more
                                                                                                than 1 generation. Following treatments of Group 4A materials, rotate to a different
                                                                                                MOA before making additional applications of a Group 4A material.
GRASSHOPPER (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                              24                    3           Apply spray evenly to tobacco foliage and (if permitted by the label) to barrier strips
(Orthene) 75 SP                   0.33 to 0.67 lb                                               15- to 30-ft wide around tobacco. Nymphs (young) are more easily controlled than
(Orthene) 97                       0.25 to 0.5 lb                                               adults.
(several other formulations
HORNWORM (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                              24                    3           Treat for hornworms when five or more larvae longer than 1 in. and without cocoons
(Orthene) 75 SP                       0.67 lb                                                   are found per 50 plants. If treatment is necessary during harvesting, be certain to
(Orthene) 97 PE                       0.5 lb                                                    follow all labeled preharvest intervals.
(several other formulations)
Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11     Follow label             4 or 12                 0           B.t. products include Agree, Biobit, Condor, Crymax, Deliver, Dipel, Javelin, and
several products/formulations                                                                   Lepinox. Generally, lower labeled rates are adequate for hornworm control. Many
                                                                                                B.t. formulations are OMRI listed. See specific labels.
carbaryl, MOA 1A                                              12                    0           To avoid plant injury, do not use carbaryl on small plants. If carbaryl is used, monitor
(Sevin) 80 S                       1.25 to 2.5 lb                                               aphid populations closely.
(Sevin) XLR Plus                     1 to 2 qt
(Sevin) 4 F                          1 to 2 qt
chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28                                   4                     1           Make no more than 4 applications per season (with at least 3 days between
(Coragen)                          3.5 to 7 fl oz                                               applications), and apply no more than 15.4 fl oz per season.
emamectin benzoate, MOA 6               8 oz                  48                   14
(Denim) 0.16EC
methomyl, MOA 1A                                              48             5 flue-cured; 14
(Lannate) 90 SP                    0.25 to 0.5 lb                                 burley
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                   0.75 to 1.5 pt
spinosad, MOA 5                      1 to 2 oz                4                     3
(Tracer) 4 L
flubendiamide, MOA 28               2 to 3 fl oz              12                   14           Do not apply more than 3 fl oz per acre every 5 days, or more than 12 fl oz per acre
(Belt SC)                                                                                       per season.
JAPANESE BEETLE (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                              24                    3           Infestations may be spotty within field.
(Orthene) 75 SP                        1 lb
(Orthene) 97                          0.75 lb
(several other formulations)
carbaryl, MOA 1A                                              12                    0           Infestations may be spotty within field. If carbaryl is used, monitor aphid populations
(Sevin) 80 S                       1.25 to 2.5 lb                                               closely.
(Sevin) XLR Plus                     1 to 2 qt
(Sevin) 4 F                          1 to 2 qt




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                               93
TABLE 5-9B. INSECT CONTROL ON FLUE-CURED AND BURLEY TOBACCO IN THE FIELD
                                                           Minimum Interval    Minimum Interval
INSECT                                 Amount of         (Hours) Application   (Days) Between
                                      Formulation         to Worker Reentry    Last Application
Insecticide and Formulation 1           per Acre               Into Field        and Harvest         Precautions and Remarks2
JAPANESE BEETLE (remedial control) (continued)
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 2A                                                                           To avoid build-up of resistance, rotate use of this product with other insecticides.
(Warrior) 1CS                          2.5 to 3 oz               24                    40            NOTE THE LONG PREHARVEST USE RESTRICTION.
(Karate Xeon)                       0.96 to 1.92 fl oz           24                    40
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                    2 to 4 oz                12                    14            Foliar applications of group 4A insecticides should not be used on tobacco
(several products) 1.6 F                                                                             previously treated with a long-acting systemic soil application of the same or another
                                                                                                     group 4A insecticide.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                    2 to 3 oz                12                    14            Avoid using only Group 4A materials for season long control of insects with more
(Actara) 25 WDG                                                                                      than 1 generation. Following treatments of Group 4A materials, rotate to a different
                                                                                                     MOA before making additional applications of a Group 4A material.
LOOPER (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                                 24                     3
(Orthene) 75 SP                            1 lb
(Orthene) 97                             0.75 lb
(several other formulations)
Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11        Follow label             4 or 12                  0            Good coverage of plants, especially lower leaves, is essential. Treat when worms
(several products/formulations)                                                                      are small. Trade names of B.t. include Agree, Biobit, Condor, Crymax, Deliver,
                                                                                                     Dipel, Javelin, and Lepinox. Highest labeled rates are generally needed for control,
                                                                                                     especially of large worms.
methomyl, MOA 1A                                                 48              5 flue-cured; 14
(Lannate) 90 SP                           0.5 lb                                      burley
(Lannate) 2.4 LV                          1.5 pt
spinosad, MOA 5                       1.4 to 2.9 oz              4                      3
(Tracer) 4 L
SLUG (remedial control)
metaldehyde bait (Deadline             12 to 40 lb               12                    —             Apply at dusk to soil surface between rows and around margins of field. DO NOT
Bullets)                                                                                             PUT BAIT ON PLANTS.
STINK BUG (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                                 24                     3            Stink bugs rarely cause economic damage to tobacco.
(Orthene) 75 SP                           1 lb
(Orthene) 97                             0.75 lb
bifenthrin, MOA 3 (Capture           3.4 to 6.8 fl oz            12             Do not apply after   NOTE THE LONG PREHARVEST USE RESTRICTION.
LFR)                                                                                 Layby
bifenthrin + imidacloprid, MOA          6.4 fl oz                12             Do not apply after   NOTE THE LONG PREHARVEST USE RESTRICTION.
3, 4A                                                                                Layby
(Brigadier) 2SC
lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3A                                                                           To avoid build-up of resistance, rotate use of this product with other insecticides.
(Warrior) 1CS                          2.5 to 3 oz               24                    40            NOTE THE LONG PREHARVEST USE RESTRICTION.
(Karate Xeon)                       0.96 to 1.92 fl oz           24                    40
SUCKFLY (remedial control
carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                                                     Sometimes needed on late planted tobacco or in northern areas. Apply thoroughly
(Sevin) 80 S                          1.25 to 2.5 lb             12                     0            to all parts of plant. Repeat if necessary. Carbaryl is the only material labeled for
(Sevin) XLR Plus                        1 to 2 qt                                                    suckfly in tobacco.
VEGETABLE WEEVIL (remedial control)
acephate, MOA 1B                                                 24                     3            Treat plants in late afternoon for best control. Spray a band over center of row using
(Orthene) 75 SP                            1 lb                                                      a good volume of water.
(Orthene) 97                             0.75 lb
(several other formulations)
WIREWORM (preventative control)
bifenthrin + imidacloprid, MOA          6.4 fl oz                12             Do not apply after   Use as described above for transplant water treatments for imidacloprid. Brigadier is
3, 4A                                                                                Layby           not intended for greenhouse use. (Data on wireworm control is limited.)
(Brigadier 2SC)
bifenthrin, MOA 3 (Capture           3.4 to 6.8 fl oz            12             Do not apply after   Apply as a pretransplant soil treatment and incorporate into 4 inches of soil OR
LFR)                                                                                 Layby           apply in transplant water at 3.4 to 6.8 fl oz per acre. (Data on wireworm control is
                                                                                                     limited.)
chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                             24                    NA            Preplant soil application only. Apply 15G formulation broadcast 1 week before
(Lorsban) Advanced                        2 pt                                                       setting. Incorporate immediately. Apply liquid formulation 24-48 hours before
(Lorsban) 15 G                        13.5 to 20 lb                                                  bedding in at least 10 gal water per acre.
ethoprop, MOA 1B                                                 48                    NA            Preplant soil application only.
(Mocap) 10 G                              20 lb
(Mocap) 6 EC                            0.33 gal
imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                             12                    14            Use Admire Pro as described above for aphid and flea beetle control. Data on
(Admire Pro)                             7.2 oz                                                      wireworm control is limited but indicate some control. Use 2 F formulations at 1.4 to
(several products) 2 F               8.4 to 16.8 oz                                                  2.8 oz per 1,000 plants.
thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                    2.58 oz                  12                    NA            Use Platinum as described above for aphid and flea beetle control. Data on
(Platinum, T-Moxx) 75 SG                                                                             wireworm control is limited but indicate some control (2.58 oz per acre at a plant
                                                                                                     density of 6,000 plants per acre).


     1
         Some insecticides are available in several formulations. Those listed are generally the most commonly used or are readily available. Other formulations may or may not be
         suitable for use on tobacco or a specific pest. Check labels carefully.
     2
         Many soil-applied insecticides can injure plants under some conditions. Some soil-applied insecticides are very soluble and pose a threat to surface and groundwater; check
         labels carefully for warnings.




94                                                                                                                                                   Chapter V—Insect Control
                                           INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                    M. R. ABNEY and J. F. WALGENBACH, Entomology Extension; G. G. KENNEDY, Entomology Research

Read the pesticide label before application. High pressure (200 psi) and high volume (50 gallons per acre) aid in vegetable insect
control. Ground sprays with airblast sprayers or sprayers with hollow cone drop nozzles are suggested. Incorporate several
methods of control for best results. In recent years, the number of generic products has increased significantly. For brevity,
these generic products typically are not listed within each section. The trade names listed are intended to aid in identification of
products and are neither intended to promote use of specific trade names nor to discourage use of generic products.
Insecticides are placed into IRAC MOA classes based on their mode of action (insecticides in the same MOA class have the
same mode of action). Effective insecticide resistance management involves the use of alternations, rotations, or sequences of
different insecticide MOA classes. To prevent the development of resistance, it is important not to apply insecticides with the
same MOA to successive generations of the same insect.


TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                Minimum Interval
                                                           Amount of             Active         (Days) Between
CROP                   Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation        Ingredient Per     Last Application
Insect                 Code, and Formulation                Per Acre              Acre            and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
ASPARAGUS
Aphid                  chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                        1 lb                —          Apply during the fern stage. Do not make more than 2 applications
                       (Lorsban) 75 WG                        1.33 lb                                             during the fern stage.
                       (Lorsban) 4 E                           2 pt
                       dimethoate 400, MOA 1B                  1 pt               0.5 lb              180         Do not exceed 5 pt per acre per year.
                       malathion, MOA 1B                       2 pt                1 lb                1          Aphid colonies appear by early September. The use of carbamates
                       (various) 57% EC                                                                           may result in aphid buildup.
                       pymetrozine, MOA 9B                   2.75 oz            0.086 lb               —          For aphid control on ferns after harvest.
                       (Fulfill) 50 WDG
Asparagus beetle,      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                         1 to 2 lb              1          Low rate to be used on seedlings or spears. Do not apply more
Japanese beetle,       (Sevin) 50 WP                         2 to 4 lb                                            often than once every 3 days. With established beetle populations,
Grasshopper            (Sevin) 80 S                       1.25 to 2.5 lb                                          three consecutive weekly sprays are required. Manage beetles and
                       (Sevin) XLR Plus                     1 to 2 qt                                             grasshoppers in the fall.
                       dimethoate 400, MOA 1B                  1 pt               0.5 lb              180         Do not exceed 5 pt per acre per year.
                       malathion, MOA 1B                       2 pt               1.5 lb               1          Apply as needed.
                       (various) 57% EC
                       methomyl, MOA 1A                       1.5 pt             0.45 lb               1          Let a row on edge of field near overwintering sites of asparagus
                       (Lannate) 2.4 LV                                                                           beetles fern out. This will attract and hold beetles for that directed
                                                                                                                  insecticide spray (trap and destroy).
                       permethrin, MOA 3                                          0.1 lb               1          Apply as needed with ground equipment. Do not apply more than 0.4
                       (various) 25 WP                         6 oz                                               lb a.i. per acre per season.
                       (various) 3.2 EC                        4 oz
                       spinetoram, MOA 5                     4 to 8 oz       0.03 to 0.06 lb           60         For asparagus beetle only. This use is only for asparagus ferns; do
                       (Radiant) 1 SC                                                                             notapply within 60 days of spear harvest.
Beet armyworm,         Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11B2     0.5 to1 lb        0.5 to 1.5 lb            0
Cutworm, Yellow-       (Dipel) DF
striped armyworm
                       chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                        1 lb                —          Do not make more than 1 preharvest application per season.
                       (Lorsban) 75 WG                        1.33 lb
                       (Lorsban) 4 E                          2.0 pt
                       methomyl, MOA 1A                                       0.45 to 0.9 lb           1          Apply as needed.
                       (Lannate) 2.4 LV                     1.5 to 3 pt
                       (Lannate) 90 SP                      0.5 to 1 lb
BEANS (Snap, Lima, Pole)
Aphid                  acephate, MOA 1B                                                                14         Do not apply more than 2.66 lb per acre per season. Will not control
                       (Orthene) 97 PE                      0.5 to 1 lb      0.49 to 0.97 lb                      black bean aphid. Lima bean may be treated and harvested the same
                       (Orthene) 75 WSP                   0.66 to 1.33 lb      0.5 to 1 lb                        day.
                       bifenthrin, MOA 3                  1.6 to 6.4 fl oz    0.02 to 0.1 lb           3
                       (various) 2 EC
                       dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B              0.5 to 1 pt       0.25 to 0.5 lb           7          On foliage as needed.
                       gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3            2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb          7          Do not apply more than 0.06 lb active ingredient per acre per season.
                       (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                        fl oz                                              Do not feed treated foliage to animals.
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                  0.25 to 0.375 lb          21         Apply Admire postseeding or as transplant drench with sufficient water
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                 7 to 10.5 fl oz                                         to reach root zone. As a sidedress, apply 24 in. to the side of the
                       (various) 2F                       16 to 24 fl oz                                          row and incorporate 1 or more inches. May also be applied in drop
                                                                                                                  irrigation system. Also controls leafhoppers and thrips.
                       (various) 1.6 F                        3.5 oz             0.04 lb               7          1.6 formulation is for foliar application only.
                       lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3          2.56 to 3.84 lb    0.02 to 0.03 lb      7 (succulent)   Do not apply more than 0.12 lb active ingredient per acre per season.
                       (Warrior) 1 CS                                                               21 (dried)    Do not feed treated foliage to animals.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                   95
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                            Minimum Interval
                                                       Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                   Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                 Code, and Formulation            Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
BEANS (Snap, Lima, Pole) (continued)
Bean leaf beetle,      bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb             3
Japanese beetle        (various) 2 EC
Thrips                 acephate, MOA 1B                                                            14          Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day. Do not apply
                       (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP           0.666 to           0.5 to 1 lb                         more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season.
                                                        1.333 lb
                       (Orthene) 97 PE                 0.5 to 1 lb       0.49 to 0.97 lb
                       bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb             3
                       (various) 2 EC
                       methomyl, MOA 1A                                                             1
                       (Lannate) 90 SP                    0.5 lb             0.45 lb
                       (Lannate) 2.4 LV                   1.5 pt             0.45 lb
                       novaluron MOA 15                  12 fl oz           0.078 lb                1
                       (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                       spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 6 oz        0.03 to 0.06 lb      3 (succulent);   Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent
                       (Radiant) 1 SC                                                           28 (dried)     beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.
Corn earworm,          acephate, MOA 1B                                                            14          Do not apply more 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may be
European corn borer,   (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP         1 to 1.333 lb       0.75 to 1 lb                         treated and harvested the same day.
Lesser cornstalk       (Orthene) 97 PE                 0.75 to 1 lb       0.73 to 0.97
borer, Looper
                       bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb             3
                       (various) 2 EC
                       esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb            3          Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated
                       (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                                      plants to livestock. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only.
                       gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb            7          Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.
                       (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz
                       lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3      2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb      7 (succulent)    Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.
                       (Warrior) 1 CS                     fl oz                                 21 (dried)
                       novaluron MOA 15                6 to 12 fl oz    0.039 to 0.078 lb           1
                       (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                       spinetoram, MOA 5               4.5 to 6 oz       0.03 to 0.06 lb      3 (succulent);   Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent
                       (Radiant) 1 SC                                                           28 (dried)     beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.
                       zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3      2.72 to 4.0 oz     0.017 to 0.25 lb     1 (succulent or   PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or edible-podded beans and 21
                       (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC                                                   edible pod);     days for dried shelled beans.
                                                                                                21 (dried)
Cowpea curculio        lambda-cyhalothrin             2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb      7 (succulent)
                       (Warrior) 1 CS                     fl oz                                 21 (dried)
                       zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3      2.72 to 4.0 oz     0.017 to 0.25 lb     1 (succulent or   PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or edible-podded beans and 21
                       (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC                                                   edible pod);     days for dried shelled beans.
                                                                                                21 (dried)
Cucumber beetle        carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                       3 (succulent)
                       (Sevin) 50 WP                       4 lb               2 lb              21 (dried)
                       80 S                               2.5 lb              2 lb
                       XLR Plus                            1 qt               1 lb
                       esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb            3          Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated
                       (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                                      plants to livestock. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only.
                       zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3      2.72 to 4.0 oz     0.017 to 0.25 lb     1 (succulent or   PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or edible-podded beans and 21
                       (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC                                                   edible pod);     days for dried shelled beans.
                                                                                                21 (dried)
Cutworm                acephate, MOA 1B                                                            14          Do not apply more 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may be
                       (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP           0.666 to           0.5 to 1 lb                         treated and harvested the same day.
                                                        1.333 lb
                       97 PE                           0.5 to 1 lb        0.49 to 0.97
                       carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                             0
                       (Sevin) 50 WP                    2 to 2.5 lb        1 to 1.5 lb
                       80 S                          1.25 to 1.875 lb      1 to 1.5 lb
                       XLR Plus                            1 qt               1 lb
                       esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb            3          Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated
                       (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                                      plants to livestock. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only.
Grasshopper            bifenthrin, MOA 3             1.6 to 6.4 fl oz    0.02 to 0.1 lb             3
                       (various) 2 EC
Leafminer              cryomazine, MOA 17                2.66 oz             0.125                  7
                       (Trigard) 75 WP
                       naled, MOA 1B                       1 pt               1 lb                  3
                       (Dibrom) 8 EC
                       spinetoram, MOA 5               4 to 8 fl oz       0.03 to 0.06        3 (succulent);   Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent
                       (Radiant) 1 SC                                                           28 (dried)     beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.




96                                                                                                                                               Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                               Minimum Interval
                                                          Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation                Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
BEANS (Snap, Lima, Pole) (continued)
Lygus bug             acephate, MOA 1B                                                                14           Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may
                      (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP               0.67 lb              0.5 lb                             be treated and harvested the same day.
                      97 PE                               0.5 to 1 lb       0.49 to 0.97 lb
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                5.12 to 6.4 fl oz    0.08 to 0.1 lb     3, succulent; 14,
                      (various)                                                                      dried
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                                 0           On foliage when pods begin to form.
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                          3 lb               2.5 lb
                      80 S                                 1.875 lb             2.5 lb
                      XLR Plus                               2 qt                2 lb
                      dimethoate, MOA 1B                     1 pt               0.5 lb                 7           Do not apply if bees are visiting area to be treated when crops or
                      (Dimethoate) 4 EC                                                                            weeds are in bloom.
Mexican bean beetle   acephate, MOA 1B                                                                14           Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may
                      (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP               0.67 lb              0.5 lb                             be treated and harvested the same day.
                      (Orthene) 97 PE                     0.5 to 1 lb       0.49 to 0.97 lb
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                 2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb             3
                      (various) 2 EC
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                                 3           On foliage as needed. Use low rate on young plants.
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                       1 to 2 lb           0.5 to 1 lb
                      (Sevin) 80 S                     0.625 to 1.25 lb       0.5 to 1 lb
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                      1 qt                 1 lb
                      dimethoate, MOA 1B                     1 pt               0.5 lb                 7
                      (Dimethoate) 4 EC
                      disulfoton, MOA 1B                 0.9 to 1.9 oz/        1 to 2 lb              60           Apply in furrow below seed at planting time. Avoid contact of
                      (Di-Syston) 8 EC                    1,000 ft row                                             insecticide with seed. Make only one application. Also controls apids,
                                                                                                                   leafhoppers, and thrips.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3               4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb            3           Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                                           plants to livestock.
                      novaluron MOA 15                    9 to 12 oz       0.058 to 0.078 lb           1           Controls immature stages only.
                      (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                      phorate, MOA 1B                    4.9 to 9.4 oz/        1 to 2 lb              60           Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed.
                      (Thimet) 20 G                      1,000 ft row
Potato leafhopper     acephate, MOA 1B                                                                14           Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may
                      (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP               0.666 to           0.5 to 1 lb                          be treated and harvested the same day.
                      (Orthene) 97 PE                      1.333 lb         0.49 to 0.97 lb
                                                          0.5 to 1 lb
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                 1.6 to 6.4 fl oz    0.02 to 0.1 lb             3
                      (various) 2 EC
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                                 3           On foliage as needed.
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                           4 lb               2 lb
                      (Sevin) 80 S                           2.5 lb              2 lb
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                        1 qt               1 lb
                      dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B             0.5 to 1 pt       0.25 to 0.5 lb             7
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3               4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb            3           Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                                           plants to livestock. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only.
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                                                                             Do not graze before 3 days or use for hay before 7 days.
                      (Lannate) 90 SP                       0.5 lb             0.45 lb                  1
                      (Lannate) 2.4 L                     1.5 to 3 pt       0.45 to 0.9 lb           1 to 3
                      phorate, MOA 1B                    4.9 to 9.4 oz/        1 to 2 lb              60           Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed.
                      (Thimet) 20 G                      1,000 ft row
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3          2.72 to 4.0 oz     0.017 to 0.25 lb      1 (succulent);    PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or edible-podded beans and 21
                      (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC                                                         21 (dried)      days for dried shelled beans.
Seedcorn maggot       Use seed pretreated with chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B (Lorsban), and a fungicide.                    Seed can be purchased pretreated.
                      phorate, MOA 1B                    4.9 to 9.4 oz/        1 to 2 lb              60           Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed.
                      (Thimet) 20 G                       1,000 ft row

Spider mite           bifenthrin 2 EC, MOA 3            5.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.08 to 0.1 lb             3
                      bifenazate MOA 25                  16 to 24 fl oz     0.5 to 0.75 lb             3
                      (Acramite) 4 SC




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                  97
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                             Minimum Interval
                                                       Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                   Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                 Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
BEANS (Snap, Lima, Pole) (continued)
Stink bug              bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz     0.033 to 0.1 lb           3
                       (various) 2 EC
                       gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84       0.01 to 0.015 lb           7          Do not feed treated foliage to animals.
                       (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz

                       lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb      7 (succulent)   Do not feed treated foliage to animals.
                       (Warrior) 1 CS                      fl oz                                 21 (dried)

                       naled, MOA 1B                  1.5 pt/100 gal          1.5 lb                1
                       (Dibrom) 8 EC                      water

Whiteflies             bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz     0.02 to 0.1 lb            3         Preharvest interval for hand harvest is 9 days.
                       (various) 2 EC                                                        9 (hand harvest)
                       buprofezin, MOA 16              9 to 13.6 oz       0.225 to 0.34             14         For use on snap beans only.
                       (Courier) 40 SC
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.25 to 0.375 lb           21         Apply Admire as a postseed or transplant drench with sufficient water
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 fl oz                                          to reach root zone. As a sidedress, apply 24 in. to the side of the
                                                                                                               row and incorporate 1 or more inches. May also be applied in drop
                       (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz                                           irrigation system.
                       (various) 1.6 F                    3.5 oz              0.04 lb               7          1.6 F formulation is for foliar application only.
Wireworm               phorate, MOA 1B                  4.9 to 9.4           1 to 2 lb              60
                       (Thimet) 20 G                 oz/1,000 ft row
BEET
Aphid                  imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.156 to 0.375 lb          21         Must be applied to the soil. May be applied via chemigation into
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             4.4 to 10.5 oz                                           the root zone through low-pressure drip, trickle, micro-sprinkler, or
                       (various) 2 F                  10 to 24 fl oz                                           equivalent equipment; in-furrow spray or shanked in 1 to 2 in. below
                                                                                                               seed depth during planting; or in a narrow (2 in. or less) 1 to 2 in.
                                                                                                               band directly below the eventual seed row in a bedding operation
                                                                                                               14 or fewer days before planting. Higher rates provide longer lasting
                                                                                                               control. See label for information on approved application methods
                                                                                                               and rate per 100 row feet for different row spacings. Will also control
                                                                                                               flea beetle.
                       (various) 1.6 F                    3.5 oz              0.04 lb               7          1.6 F formulation is for foliar application only.
                       thiamethoxam, MOA 4A            5 to 12 fl oz      0.04 to 0.09 lb                      Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or
                       (Platinum) 2 SC                                                                         transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                               drip irrigation. Do not exceed 12 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                               Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
                       (Actara) 25 WDG                 1.5 to 3 oz        0.023 to 0.047            7
Armyworm, Beet         spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 8 oz        0.047 to 0.063 lb          7          Do not apply more than 32 fl oz per acre per season.
webworm                (Radiant) 1 SC
Blister beetle, Flea   carbaryl, MOA 1A
beetle                 (Sevin) 50 WP                       3 lb               1.5 lb                7
                       80 S                              1.875 lb             1.5 lb
                       XLR                                 1 qt                1 lb
                       beta-cyfluthrin MOA 3               2.8                0.022                 0
                       (Baythroid) XL
Leafminer              spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 10 oz       0.047 to 0.163 lb          7          Control will be improved with addition of a spray adjuvant.
                       (Radiant) 1 SC
BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL SPROUTS, CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER
Aphid, Flea beetle     acetamiprid, MOA 4A              2 to 3 oz        0.038 to 0.056 lb          7
                       (Assail) 30 SG

                       chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                                         21         On foliage when insects appear. Repeat as needed.
                       (Lorsban) 50 W                     2 lb                 1 lb
                       75 WG                             1.33 lb               1 lb
                       clothianidin, MOA 4A          9 to 12 oz (soil) 0.15 to 2.0 (soil)       21 (foliar)    Soil application at plant only.
                       (Belay) 2.13 SC               3 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                                            (foliar)
                       dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B          0.5 to 1 pt       0.25 to 0.5 lb            7
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.16 to 0.375 lb           21         Do not follow soil applications of Admire with foliar applications of any
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            4.4 to 10.5 fl oz                                         neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Admire
                       (various) 2 F                  10 to 24 fl oz                                           Pro may be applied via chemigation into the root zone, in-furrow
                                                                                                               spray at planting directed on or below the seed, a narrow row directly
                                                                                                               below the eventual row in seedbed operation 14 days or fewer before
                                                                                                               planting, as a post-seeding or transplant drench, or as a subsurface
                                                                                                               side-dress on both sides of the row. Imidacloprid also controls
                                                                                                               whiteflies.
                       (various) 1.6 F                  3.75 fl oz            0.05 lb               7          1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications. Imidacloprid also controls
                                                                                                               whiteflies. Not effective against flea beetle.




98                                                                                                                                                Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                Minimum Interval
                                                          Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation                Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL SPROUTS, CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER (continued)
Aphid, Flea beetle    pymetrozine, MOA 9B                   2.75 oz             0.023 lb               7
(continued)           (Fulfill) 50 WDG
                      spirotetramat, MOA 23               4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb           1        Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.Will not
                      (Movento) 2 SC                                                                            control flea beetle.
Armyworm              chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz      0.45 to 0.65 lb           3
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz         0.0075 to               7
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                         0.015 lb
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                   2 oz               0.48 lb               1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22                     3.5 oz             0.065 lb               3        For control of low numbers of beet armyworms; not for corrective
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                           treatments of higher numbers of larvae. Add a wetting agent to
                                                                                                                improve spray. Do not apply more than 14 oz (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per
                                                                                                                crop. The minimum interval between sprays is 3 days.
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18              4 to 10 oz       0.063 to 0.156 lb          1        Use lower rates (4 to 8 oz) for early season applications or on
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                            small plants. Use higher rates (8- to 10 oz) for mid- to late-season
                                                                                                                applications or for heavy infestations. Do not exceed 64 fl oz per acre
                                                                                                                per season. See rotational crop restrictions on label.
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                   5 to 10 fl oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Diamondback moth      Insecticide-resistant populations, widespread in North Carolina, may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. To manage resistance, avoid
                      transplants from Georgia and Florida, and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides
                      destroys natural enemies and often aggravates diamondback moth problems. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are
                      initiated
                      Bacillus thuringiensis                                                           0        .
                      (Dipel) DF, MOA 11B 2                   8 oz               0.5 lb
                      (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1              0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz      0.45 to 0.65 lb           3
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz         0.0075 to               7
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                         0.015 lb
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                   2 oz               0.48 lb               1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22                     3.5 oz             0.065 lb               3        Add a wetting agent to improve spray coverage. Do not apply more
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                           than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. The minimum
                                                                                                                interval between sprays is 3 days.
                      novaluron, MOA 15                   6 to 12 fl oz     0.09 to 0.078 lb           7        Use lower rates when targeting eggs or small larvae, and use higher
                      (Rimon) 0.83 EC                                                                           rates when larvae are large. Make no more than three applications, or
                                                                                                                24 fl oz per acre, per season.
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                   5 to 10 fl oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Cabbage               Bacillus thuringiensis                                                           0        On foliage every 7 days. On summer or fall plantings, during periods
looper, Imported      (Dipel) 2X, MOA 11B2                    8 oz               0.5 lb                         when eggs and larvae are present. This usually occurs when true
cabbageworm, Corn     (Dipel) 4 L, MOA 11B2                 1 to 2 qt          0.5 to 1 lb                      leaves appear; on other plantings, it may occur later. A spreader-
earworm, Cross-       (Javelin) WG, MOA 11B2               0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb                      sticker will be helpful.
striped cabbageworm   (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1              0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.1 to 6.4 oz      0.033 to 0.10 lb           7
                      (various) 2 EC
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz      0.045 to 0.065            3
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          3.2 to 4.8 oz      0.01 to 0.015 lb           7
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3               4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb           3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                   2 oz               0.48 lb               1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      fenproparthrin, MOA 3             10.66 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb            7        Apply in spray volume of 20 to 50 gal per acre. Insect control may be
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                          improved by adding NIS. Use higher rate under high pest pressure.
                      gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3          1.92 to 3.2 fl oz      0.0075 to               1
                      (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                                         0.0125 lb
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22                 2.5 to 3.5 oz      0.045 to 0.065 lb          3        Add a wetting agent to improve spray. Do not apply more than 14 oz
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                           (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. The minimum interval between sprays
                                                                                                                is 3 days.
                      lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3         1.92 to 3.84 oz     0.015 to 0.03 lb           1        Do not exceed 1.92 pt of Warrior per acre per season.
                      (Warrior) 1 CS




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                               99
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                            Minimum Interval
                                                       Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                   Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                 Code, and Formulation            Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL SPROUTS, CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER (continued)
Cabbage             methoxyfenozide, MOA 18             4 to 10 oz      0.063 to 0.156 lb          1         Use lower rates (4 to 8 oz) for early-season applications or on
looper, Imported    (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                           small plants. Use higher rates (8 to 10 oz) for mid- to late-season
cabbageworm, Corn                                                                                            applications or for heavy infestations. Do not exceed 64 fl oz per acre
earworm, Cross-                                                                                              per season. See rotational crop restricitons on label.
striped cabbageworm
(continued)


                       novaluron, MOA 15               6 to 12 fl oz    0.09 to 0.078 lb           7         Use lower rates when targeting eggs or small larvae, and use higher
                       (Rimon) 0.83 EC                                                                       rates when larvae are large. Make no more than three applications, or
                                                                                                             24 fl oz per acre, per season.
                       permethrin, MOA 3                                     0.1 lb                1
                       (various) 25 WP                     6 oz
                       (various) 3.2 EC                    4 oz
                       spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz       0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                       (Radiant) 1 SC
                       zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3        2.24 to 4 oz     0.014 to 0.025 lb          1
                       (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Harlequin bug, Stink   clothianidin, MOA 4A          9 to 12 oz (soil) 0.15 to 2.0 (soil)      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
bug                    (Belay) 2.13 SC               3 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                                            (foliar)
                       dinotefuran, MOA 4A              3 to 4 oz       0.132 to 0.179 lb          1         Do not exceed 6 oz of Venom per season.
                       (Venom 70 SG)

                       lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3     1.92 to 3.84 oz    0.015 to 0.03 lb           1         Do not exceed 1.92 pt of Warrior per acre per season.
                       (Warrior) 1 CS
Root maggot            chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                   1 lb                 —         Directed spray to transplants: Spray the base of the plant immediately
                       (Lorsban) 4 EC                  2 pt/100 gal                                          after transplanting, using a minimum of 40 gal per acre.
                       (Lorsban) 75 WG                    1.33 lb
                       chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                                                  Direct seeded: Apply in a 4-in. wide band behind planter shoe and in
                       (Lorsban) 4 EC                1.6 to 2.75 oz/           —                   —         front of press wheel for shallow incorporation.
                                                      1,000 ft row
                       (Lorsban) 15 G                 4.6 to 9.2 oz/           —                             Direct seeded: Place across seed row in 4-in. band behind planter
                                                      1,000 ft row                                           shoe and in front of press wheel.
                       diazinon, MOA 1B               0.25 to 0.5 lb/          —                   —         Transplant water: Apply in transplant water of drench water at 4 to
                       (Diazinon 50 W) 50 WP             50 gal                                              6 oz per plant at transplanting. Root maggots are of concern in the
                                                                                                             higher elevations in western North Carolina.
Thrips                 dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B          0.5 to 1 pt      0.25 to 0.5 lb            7         Dimethoate and methomyl are most effective against thrips.
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A              3.75 oz             0.04 lb               7         Check label for rates for other formulations. Foliar applications only.
                       (various) 1.6 F
                       methomyl, MOA 1A                   1.5 oz             0.45 lb               1
                       (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                       novaluron, MOA 15               6 to 12 fl oz    0.09 to 0.078 lb           7         Make no more than three applications, or 24 fl oz, per acre per
                       (Rimon) 0.83 EC                                                                       season.
                       spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 10 fl oz    0.047 to 0.08 lb           1
                       (Radiant) 1 SC
Webworm                emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz        0.0075 to               7
                       (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                    0.015 lb
                       indoxacarb, MOA 22            2.5 to 3.5 fl oz 0.045 to 0.065 lb            3
                       (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                       methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         4 to 10 fl oz    0.06 to 0.156 lb           1
                       (Intrepid) 2F
Whitefly               acetamiprid, MOA 4A            2.5 to 4.0 oz     0.047 to 0.075 lb          7         Use s spreader stick to improve control.
                       (Assail) 30 SG
                       dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar 0.045 to 0.179 lb           1         Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any
                       (Venom) 70 SG                 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb            21        neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                                             apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications,
                                                                                                             or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications
                                                                                                             may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at
                                                                                                             planting; a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to
                                                                                                             ensure incorporation to the root zone; or through drip irrigation.
                       spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.1 to 0.133 lb           7         Do not exceed 25.5 fl oz per acre per season.
                       (Oberon) 2 SC
                       spirotetramat, MOA 23           4 to 5 fl oz      0.06 to 0.08 lb           1         Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                       (Movento) 2 SC




100                                                                                                                                            Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                              Minimum Interval
                                                         Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action       Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation               Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CANTALOUPE, MUSKMELON
Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production
recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.
Aphid, Leafhopper     acetamiprid MOA 4A                 2.5 to 4.0 oz    0.047 to 0.075 lb          0         Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.
                      (Assail) 30SG
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A             9 to 12 oz (soil) 0.15 to 2.0 (soil)      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                     3 to 4 fl oz   0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                            (foliar)          (foliar)
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.6 to 6.4 oz     0.04 to 0.10 lb           3         Limit of two applications after bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC
                      dimethoate, MOA 1B                                       0.5 lb                3
                      (Dimethoate E267) 2E                   2 pt
                      (Dimethoate E267) 2.67E               1.5 pt
                      flonicamid, MOA 9C                 2 to 2.8 oz      0.062 to 0.089 lb          0
                      (Beleaf) 50 SG
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                     Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting;
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                7 to 10.5 fl oz   0.25 to 0.375 lb           21        as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench;
                      (various) 2 F                     16 to 24 fl oz                                         subsurface side-dress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip, or
                                                                                                               trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application
                                                                                                               methods. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B                  2.75 oz            0.086 lb               0         Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                         acre per season.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                 5 to 8 oz       0.08 to 0.12 lb           30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or
                      (Platinum) 2SC                                                                           transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                               drip irrigation. Do not exceed 8 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                               Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
Armyworm              chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz   0.045 to 0.065 lb          1         For foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                        uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                2 to 3 oz       0.48 to 0.72 lb           1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18            4 to 10 fl oz     0.06 to 0.16 lb           3         Use higher rates against large larvae.
                      (Intrepid) 2 F
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                   5 to 10 oz      0.04 to 0.078 lb           3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Cabbage looper        Bacillus thuringiensis                                                         0         On foliage as needed.
                      (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2             0.5 to 1.5 lb      0.5 to 1.5 lb
                      (Dipel) 2X, MOA 11B2                   8 oz              0.5 lb
                      (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1             0.5 to 1 lb        0.5 to 1 lb
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.6 to 6.4 oz     0.04 to 0.10 lb           3         Limit of two applications after bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz   0.045 to 0.065 lb          1         Coragen may be used for foliar or drip chemigation.
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3               4.8 to 9.6 oz     0.03 to 0.05 lb           3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      fenpropathrin, MOA 3              10.66 to 16 oz      0.2 to 0.3 lb            7         Do not apply more than 2.66 pt per acre per season.
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                2 to 3 oz       0.48 to 0.72 lb           1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18            4 to 10 fl oz     0.06 to 0.16 lb           3         Use higher rates against large larvae.
                      (Intrepid) 2 F
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                     0.1 to 0.2 lb            0         On foliage as needed.
                      (various) 25 WP                   6.4 to 12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                     4 to 8 oz
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                   5 to 10 oz      0.04 to 0.078 lb           3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Cucumber beetle       acetamiprid MOA 4A                 2.5 to 5.3 oz     0.047 to 0.1 lb           0         Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.
                      (Assail) 30SG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.6 to 6.4 oz     0.04 to 0.10 lb           3         Limit of two applications after bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC
                      carbaryl MOA 1A                                           1 lb                 3
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                           2 lb
                      (Sevin) 80 S                          1.25 lb
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                       1 qt
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A             9 to 12 oz (soil) 0.15 to 2.0 (soil)      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                     3 to 4 fl oz   0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                            (foliar)          (foliar)
                      dinotenfuran, MOA 4A                 3 to 4 oz      0.132 to 0.179 lb          1         Do not exceed 6 oz of Venom per acre per season.
                      (Venom 70 SG)



Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                               101
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                       Minimum Interval
                                                 Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP              Insecticide, Mode of Action   Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect            Code, and Formulation           Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CANTALOUPE, MUSKMELON (continued)
Cucumber beetle   esfenvalerate, MOA 3          4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb           3
(continued)       (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                  fenpropathrin, MOA 3          10.66 to 16 oz       0.2 to 0.3 lb            7        Do not apply more than 2.66 pt per acre per season.
                  (Danitol) 2.4 EC
                  imidacloprid, MOA 4A                             0.25 to 0.375 lb          21        Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as
                  (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 oz                                          a post-seeding drench or hill drench; subsurface sidedress; or by
                  (various) 2F                   16 to 24 oz                                           chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for
                                                                                                       informaiton on approve application methods. Will also control aphids
                                                                                                       and whiteflies.
                  permethrin, MOA 3                                  0.1 to 0.2 lb            0
                  (various) 25 WP               6.4 to 12.8 oz
                  (various) 3.2 EC                4 to 8 oz
Leafminer         abamectin, MOA 6                8 to 16 oz       0,009 to 0.0018            7        Do not use more than six applications per season.
                  (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                      lb
                  cyromazine, MOA 17                2.7 oz              0.13 lb               0
                  (Trigard) 75 WS
                  dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B            1 pt               0.5 lb                3
Pickleworm,       bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 oz       0.04 to 0.10 lb           3        Limit of two applications after bloom.
Melonworm         (various) 2 EC
                  carbaryl, MOA 1A                                       1 lb                 3        On foliage when worms appear in blossoms. Repeat as needed.
                  (Sevin) 50 WP                       2 lb                                             Protect pollinators. Rarely a problem before July.
                  (Sevin) 80 S                      1.25 lb
                  (Sevin) XLR Plus                   1 qt
                  chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    2 to 3.5 fl oz    0.026 to 0.045 lb          1        For foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied
                  (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                    uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                  esfenvalerate, MOA 3          4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb           3
                  (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                  fenpropathrin, MOA 3          10.6 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb            7        An NIS may improve insect control. Under high pest pressure, use the
                  (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                     higher rate.
                  flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz        0.48 to 0.72 lb           1
                  (Synapse) 24% WG
                  methoxyfenozide, MOA 18        4 to 10 fl oz      0.06 to 0.16 lb           3
                  (Intrepid) 2 F
                  permethrin, MOA 3                                     0.1 lb                1
                  (various) 25 WP                    6 oz
                  (various) 3.2 EC                   4 oz
                  spinetoram, MOA 5               5 to 10 oz       0.04 to 0.078 lb           3
                  (Radiant) 1 SC
Spider mite       abamectin, MOA 6                8 to 16 oz       0.009 to 0.0018            7
                  (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                      lb
                  bifenazate, MOA 25            0.75 to 1.0 lb      0.375 to 0.5 lb           3        Do not make more than one application per season.
                  (Acramite) 50 WS
                  extoxazole, MOA 10B              2 to 3 oz        0.09 to 0.135             7
                  (Zeal) 72 WSP
                  fenpyroximate MOA 21               2 pt               0.2 lb                3        Do not make more than two applictions per season.
                  (Portal) 0.4EC
                  spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.1 to 0.13 lb            7
                  (Oberon) 2 SG
Thrips            dimethoate 4EC, MOA 1B             1 pt               0.5 lb                3        On foliage as needed.
                  dinotefuran, MOA 4A              1 to 4 oz       0.045 to 0.179 lb          1        Do not follow soil applications of Venom with foliar applications of any
                  (Venom) 70 SG                     (foliar)       0.226 to 0.268 lb                   neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                             21        apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications,
                                                5 to 6 oz (soil)                                       or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications
                                                                                                       may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at
                                                                                                       planting; a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to
                                                                                                       ensure incorporation to the root zone; or through drip irrigation.
                  spinetoram, MOA 5              6 to 104 oz       0.046 to 0.078 lb          3
                  (Radiant) 1 SC




102                                                                                                                                      Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                            Minimum Interval
                                                      Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CANTALOUPE, MUSKMELON (continued)
Whiteflies            buprofezin, MOA 16              9 to 13.6 oz       0.25 to 0.38 lb           7        Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than
                      (Courier) 40 SC                                                                       twice per crop cycle.
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb           1        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. Use only
                      (Venom) 70 SG                  5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb                     one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per
                                                                                                  21        season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using
                                                                                                            soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band
                                                                                                            below or above the seed line at planting; a post-seeding or transplant
                                                                                                            drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone;
                                                                                                            or through drip irrigation.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.25 to 0.375 lb          21        Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 oz                                           a post-seeding drench or hill drench; subsurface sidedress; or by
                      (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz                                         chemigation using low pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for
                                                                                                            information on approved application methods. Will also control aphids
                                                                                                            and cucumber beetles.
                      pyriproxyfen, MOA 7C             8 to 10 oz       0.054 to 0.067 lb          7        Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make
                      (Knack) 0.86 EC                                                                       applications closer than 14 days apart.
                      spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.1 to 0.13 lb            7        Appy against adults, before nymphs are present. Do not exceed 3
                      (Oberon) 2 SG                                                                         applications per season.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A             5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb          30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or
                      (Platinum) 2 SC                                                                       transplant depth, postseeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                            drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                            Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
Wireworm              diazinon, MOA 1B                  3 to 4 qt           3 to 4 lb             —         Broadcast on soil before planting and thoroughly work into upper 6 in.
                      (Diazinon) AG 500
CARROT
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                               0.16 to 0.38 lb          21        Must be applied to the soil. May be applied via chemigation into
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            4.4 to 10.5 fl oz                                       the root zone through low-pressure drip, trickle, micro-sprinkler, or
                      (various) 2 F                  10 to 24 fl oz                                         equivalent equipment; in-furrow spray or shanked-in 1 to 2 in. below
                                                                                                            seed depth during planting; or in a narrow band (2 in. or less) 1 to 2
                                                                                                            in. directly below the eventual seed row in a bedding operation 14 or
                                                                                                            fewer days before planting. Higher rates provide longer lasting control.
                                                                                                            See label for information on approved application methods and rate
                                                                                                            per 100 row feet for different row spacings.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A
                      (Platinum) 2 SC                  5 to 11 oz       0.078 to 0.17 lb          30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seeding,
                                                                                                            immediately after seeding with sufficient water to ensure incorporation
                                                                                                            into the root zone, or through trickle irrigation.
                      (Actara) 25 WDG                 1.5 to 3 oz       0.023 to 0.047 lb          7        Actara is applied to foliage. Do not exceed 4 oz Actara per acre per
                                                                                                            season.
Armyworm,             beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3            1.6 fl oz          0.0125 lb               0        Do not exceed five applications per season.
Parsleyworm,          (Baythroid) XL
Leafhopper
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                        1 lb                 7        On foliage as needed.
                      (Sevin) 80 S                      1.25 lb
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                   1 qt
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                                   0.23 to 0.45 lb           1
                      (Lannate) 2.4 LV               0.75 to 1.5 pt
                      (Lannate) 90 SP                0.25 to 0.5 lb
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         4 to 10 fl oz      0.06 to 0.16 lb           1        Use higher rates against large larvae.
                      (Intrepid) 2 F
                      spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 8 fl oz      0.046 to 0.062 lb          3        Radiant will not control leafhoppers. Do not make more than 4
                      (Radiant) 1 SC                                                                        applications per year.
Leafminer             spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 8 fl oz      0.046 to 0.062 lb          3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Wireworm              diazinon, MOA 1B                    4 qt                4 lb                —         Broadcast and incorporate preplant.
                      (Diazinon) (AG 500)
CELERY
Aphid, Flea beetle,   imidacloprid, MOA 4A                               0.25 to 0.37 lb          21        Apply via chemigation into the root zone, as an in-furrow spray at
Leafminer             (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 fl oz                                        planting on or below the seed, or as a post-seeding or transplant
                      (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz                                         drench. Imidacloprid will not control leafminers.
                      spirotetramat, MOA 23           4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb           3        Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Not for flea beetle or leafminer.
                      (Movento) 2SC                                                                         Requires surfactant.
Armyworm, Corn        chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb          1        Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
earworm, Looper       (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                     to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz         0.0075 to               7        Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to
                      (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                      0.015 lb                        another product with a different mode of action.
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                    3 pt               0.9 lb                7        Methomyl may induce leafminer infestations.
                      (Lannate) 2.4 LV



Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                            103
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                            Minimum Interval
                                                      Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CELERY (continued)
Armyworm, Corn        methoxyfenozide, MOA 18          4 to 10 oz        0.06 to 0.6 lb            7        For early season applications only to young crop and small plants. For
earworm, Looper       (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                        mid- to late-season applications and to heavier infestations and under
(continued)                                                                                                 conditions in which thorough coverage is more difficult. Do not apply
                                                                                                            more than 16 fl oz per application, and do not exceed 64 fl oz per
                                                                                                            season. See Rotational Crop Restrictions on label.
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                                            3        On foliage as needed.
                      (various) 25 WP                  6 to 12 oz       0.094 to 0.188 lb
                      (various) 3.2 EC                 4 to 8 oz           0.1 to 0.2 lb
                      spinetoram, MOA 5               5 to 10 fl oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb           1        Use higher rates for armyworms.
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Leafminer             abamectin, MOA 6                 8 to 16 oz       0.009 to 0.019 lb          7
                      (Agri-Mek 0.15EC)
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    5 to 7.5 fl oz     0.065 to 0.098 lb          1        Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                     to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      cryomazine, MOA 17                2.66 oz              0.12 lb               7
                      (Trigard 75WP)
                      spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 10 fl oz     0.046 to 0.08 lb           1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
COLLARD
Aphid                 acetamiprid, MOA 4A              2 to 3 oz        0.038 to 0.056 lb          7
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                2 lb                1 lb                21
                      (Lorsban) 50 W
                      dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B            0.5 pt              0.25 lb              14
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.158 to 0.377 lb         21        Admire Pro may be applied via chemigation into the root zone, in-
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            4.4 to 10.5 fl oz                                       furrow spray at planting directed on or below the seed, a narrow row
                      (various) 2 F                  10 to 24 fl oz                                         directly below the eventual row in seedbed operation 14 days or fewer
                                                                                                            before planting, or as a post-seeding or transplant drench, or as a
                                                                                                            subsurface side-dress on both sides of the row. Admire Pro will also
                                                                                                            control flea beetle.
                      (various) 1.6 F                   3.8 fl oz          0.0475 lb               7        1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B               2.75 oz             0.086 lb               7
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG
                      spirotetramat, MOA 23           4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb           1        Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                      (Movento) 2SC
Caterpillars,         Bacillus thuringiensis                                                       0        On foliage every 7 days. On summer or fall plantings, begin when true
including Cabbage     (Dipel) 2 X, MOA 11B2               8 oz               0.5 lb                         leaves appear; on other plantings, when insects appear. Insecticides
looper, Imported      (Dipel) 4 L, MOA 11B2             1 to 2 pt          0.5 to 1 lb                      may not control cabbage looper under all conditions. Apply to both
cabbageworm,          (Javelin) DG, MOA 11B2           0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb                      sides of leaves when larvae are small. Use a spreader/sticker. Not for
Cabbageworm, Cross-   (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1          0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb                      webworm.
striped cabbageworm
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb          3        Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                     to the root zone. See label for instructions.

                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz         0.0075 to              14
                      (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                      0.015 lb
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           5.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb           7        Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides aggravates diamondback
                      (Asana XL)                                                                            moth problems.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz         0.48 to 0.72 lb           1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22             2.5 to 3.5 oz      0.047 to 0.065 lb          3        Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per crop.
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18          4 to 10 oz       0.063 to 0.156 lb          1        Use low rates for early season applications to young or small plants.
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                        For mid- and late-season applications, use 6 to 10 oz.
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                  0.05 to 0.1 lb            1        Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides aggravates diamondback
                      (various) 2 EC                   3 to 6 oz                                            moth problems.
                      (various) 25 WP                  3 to 6 oz
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz       0.046 to 0.08 lb           1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3        2.24 to 4.0       0.014 to 0.025 lb          1
                      (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Cabbage webworm       emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz         0.0075 to              14
                      (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                      0.015 lb
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22             2.5 to 3.5 oz      0.047 to 0.065 lb          3        Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per crop.
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         8 to 10 fl oz      0.12 to 0.16 lb           1
                      (Intrepid) 2F




104                                                                                                                                            Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                   Minimum Interval
                                                           Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                   Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                 Code, and Formulation                Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
COLLARD (continued)
Diamondback moth       Insecticide-resistant populations, widespread in North Carolina, may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. To manage resistance, avoid
                       transplants from Georgia and Florida, and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides
                       destroys natural enemies and aggravates diamondback moth problems. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated.
                       Bacillus thuringiensis                                                             0         Use a spreader/sticker.
                       (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2              0.5 to 1.5 lb       0.5 to 1.5 lb                        Do not apply insecticides with the same mode of action more than
                       (Dipel) 2 X, DF, MOA 11B2               8 oz               0.5 lb                            twice to any generation of diamondback moth. After two applications,
                       (Dipel), MOA 11B2                       1 pt               0.5 lb                            rotate to an insecticide with a different mode of action.
                       (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1              0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb
                       chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 4 fl oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                       (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                            to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                       emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz          0.0075 to                14
                       (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                           0.015 lb


                       flubendiamide, MOA 28                2 to 3 oz         0.48 to 0.72 lb             1
                       (Synapse) 24% WG
                       indoxacarb, MOA 22                     3.5 oz             0.065 lb                 3         Do not apply Avaunt more than twice to any generation of diamonback
                       (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                              moth. After two applications, rotate to an insecticide with a different
                                                                                                                    mode of action. Do not make more than 6 applications (4 in GA), or
                                                                                                                    exceed 14 oz per season per crop.
                       spinetoram, MOA 5                    5 to 10 oz       0.046 to 0.08 lb             1
                       (Radiant) 1 SC
Flea beetle            carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                                   14
                       (Sevin) 50 WP                           3 lb                1.5 lb
                       (Sevin) 80 S                          1.875 lb              1.5 lb
                       (Sevin) XLR                             1 qt                 1 lb
                       chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                  1 to 2 pt          0.5 to 1 lb               30
                       (Lorsban) 4E
Harlequin bug, Stink   acetamiprid, MOA 4A                  3 to 4 oz        0.056 to 0.075 lb            7
bug                    (Assail) 30 SG
                       clothianidin, MOA 4A                9 to 12 oz        0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                       (Belay) 2.13 SC                        (soil);        0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                           3 to 4 fl oz           (foliar)
                                                             (foliar)
                       zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3           3.2 to 4.0 oz      0.02 to 0.025 lb             1
                       (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Root maggot            chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                   0.05 to 0.08 lb             —         For directed-seeded crops, apply as a 4-in. band over the row
                       (Lorsban) 4 EC                    1.6 to 2.75 fl oz                                          after planting. For transplanted crops, apply as a directed spray
                       (Lorsban) 75WDG                   1.1 to 1.8/1,000                                           immediately after transplanting.
                                                               ft row
Whitefly               acetamiprid, MOA 4A                2.5 to 4.0 oz      0.047 to 0.075 lb            7         Apply against adults, before nymphs are present. Use a spreader stick
                       (Assail) 30 SG                                                                               to improve control.
                       pyriproxyfen, MOA 7C                8 to 10 fl oz     0.054 to 0.067 lb            7         Do not apply Knack more than twice per season or exceed 0.134 lb
                       (Knack) 0.86 EC                                                                              per acre per season.
                       spiromesifen, MOA 23               7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.1 to 0.133 lb             7         Do not make more than 3 applications or apply more than 25.5 fl oz
                       (Oberon) 2 SC                                                                                per season.
                       spirotetramat, MOA 23               4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb             1         Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                       (Movento) 2 SC
CUCUMBER
Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production
recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.
Aphid                  acetamiprid MOA 4A                 2.5 to 4.0 oz      0.047 to 0.075 lb            0         Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.
                       (Assail) 30SG
                       clothianidin, MOA 4A                9 to 12 oz        0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      22 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                       (Belay) 2.13 SC                        (soil);        0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                           3 to 4 fl oz           (foliar)
                                                             (foliar)
                       flonicamid, MOA 9C                  2 to 2.8 oz       0.062 to 0.089 lb            0
                       (Beleaf) 50 SG
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                   0.25 to 0.38 lb             21        Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting;
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                 7 to 10.5 fl oz                                           as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench;
                       (various) 2 F                      10 to 24 fl oz                                            subsurface side-dress; or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or
                                                                                                                    trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application
                                                                                                                    methods. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.
                       pymetrozine, MOA 9B                   2.75 oz             0.086 lb                 0         Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per
                       (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                             acre per season.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                    105
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                           Minimum Interval
                                                    Amount of            Active            (Days) Between
CROP                Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation       Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect              Code, and Formulation            Per Acre             Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CUCUMBER (continued)
Aphid (continued)   thiamethoxam, MOA 4A             5 to 8 oz        0.08 to 0.12 lb             30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or
                    (Platinum) 2SC                                                                          transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                            drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                    (Actara) 25% WDG                1.5 to 3 oz      0.023 to 0.047 lb            0
                                                                                                            Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
Cucumber beetle,    acetamiprid MOA 4A             2.5 to 5.3 oz      0.047 to 0.1 lb             0         Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.
Flea beetle         (Assail) 30SG
                    bifenthrin, MOA 3              2.6 to 6.4 oz      0.04 to 0.10 lb             3
                    (various) 2 EC
                    carbaryl, MOA 1A                                        1 lb                  0         On foliage as needed. Beetles are most destructive to seedlings. They
                    (Sevin) 50 WP                       2 lb                                                also spread bacterial wilt disease.
                    (Sevin) 80 S                      1.25 lb
                    (Sevin) XLR Plus                   1 qt
                    clothianidin, MOA 4A            9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                    (Belay) 2.13 SC                    (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                    3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                      (foliar)
                    dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb            1         Foliar applications should not be made after plants have started to
                    (Venom) 70 SG                                    0.226 to 0.268 lb                      bloom.
                                                   5 to 6 oz (soil)                               21        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any
                                                                                                            neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                                            apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications,
                                                                                                            or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application
                                                                                                            may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at
                                                                                                            planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to
                                                                                                            ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.
                    esfenvalerate, MOA 3           5.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3         Do not exceed 0.25 lb per acre per season.
                    (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                    fenpropathrin, MOA 3          10.66 to 16 oz       0.2 to 0.3 lb              7         Do not apply more than 2.66 pt per acre per season.
                    (Danitol) 2.4 EC
                    imidacloprid, MOA 4A                             0.25 to 0.375 lb             21        See application method under Aphid.
                    (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 fl oz
                    (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz
                    permethrin, MOA 3                                  0.1 to 0.2 lb              0
                    (various) 25 WP                  6 to 12 oz
                    (various) 3.2 EC                  4 to 8 oz
Cutworm             bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit to 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Allow 7 days between
                    (various) 2 EC                                                                          applications.
                    esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                    (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
Leafminer           abamectin, MOA 6                 8 to 16 oz      0.009 to 0.0018              7
                    (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                      lb
                    chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    5 to 7.5 fl oz    0.065 to 0.098 lb            1         Soil, foliar, or drip chemigation. See label for application instructions.
                    (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                    cyromazine, MOA 17                 2.7 oz               2 oz                  0         Do not make more than six applications per season.
                    (Trigard) 75 WS
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 8 oz       0.094 to 0.125 lb            1
                    (Radiant) 1 SC
Pickleworm, Melon   bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Allow 7 days between
worm, Cabbage       (various) 2 EC                                                                          applications.
looper
                    chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                    (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                       to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                    esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                    (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                    flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz        0.48 to 0.72 lb             1
                    (Synapse) 24% WG
                    indoxacarb, MOA 22              2.5 to 6 oz      0.045 to 0.11 lb             3
                    (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                    permethrin, MOA 3                                                             0
                    (various) 25 WP                6.4 to 12.8 oz       0.1 to 0.2 lb
                    (various) 3.2 EC                  4 to 8 oz      0.063 to 0.125 lb
                    chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                    (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                       to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz       0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                    (Radiant) 1 SC




106                                                                                                                                            Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                      Minimum Interval
                                                 Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP              Insecticide, Mode of Action   Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect            Code, and Formulation           Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CUCUMBER (continued)
Spider mite       abamectin, MOA 6                5 to 16 oz      0.009 to 0.0018            7        On foliage as needed. No more than two applications.
                  (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                     lb
                  bifenazate, MOA 25             0.75 to 1 lb      0.375 to 0.5 lb           3        Do not make more than one application per season.
                  (Acramite) 50 WS
                  extoxazole, MOA 10B             2 to 3 oz        0.09 to 0.135             7
                  (Zeal) 72 WSP
                  spiromesifen, MOA 23          7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.1 to 0.13 lb            7
                  (Oberon) 2 SG
Thrips            dinotefuran, MOA 4A             1 to 4 oz       0.088 to 0.179 lb          1        Foliar applications should not be made after plants have started to
                  (Venom) 70 SG                                                                       bloom.
                                                                                                      Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any
                                                                                                      neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                                      apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications,
                                                                                                      or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application
                                                                                                      may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at
                                                                                                      planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to
                                                                                                      ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.
                  methomyl, MOA 1A                  1.5 pt             0.45 lb               1
                  (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                  spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 10 oz      0.047 to 0.08 lb           1
                  (Radiant) 1 SC
Whitefly          acetamiprid MOA 4A            2.5 to 5.3 oz      0.047 to 0.1 lb           0        Do not exceed 0.5 lb per acre per season.
                  (Assail) 30SG
                  buprofezin, MOA 16            9 to 13.6 fl oz    0.25 to 0.38 lb           7        Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than
                  (Courier) 40 SC                                                                     twice per crop cycle.
                  dinotefuran, MOA 4A           5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb          21        See comments under Aphids for application instructions and
                  (Venom) 70 SG                                                                       restrictions.
                  imidacloprid, MOA 4A                            0.25 to 0.375 lb          21        See comments under Aphids.
                  (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            7 to 10.5 fl oz
                  (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 oz
                  pyriproxyfen, MOA 7C            8 to 10 oz       0.054 to 0.067            7        Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make
                  (Knack) 0.86 EC                                                                     applications closer than 14 days apart.


                  spiromesifen, MOA 23          7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.11 to 0.13 lb           7        Do not make more than 3 applications per season.
                  (Oberon), 2 SC
                  thiamethoxam, MOA 4A            5 to 8 oz        0.08 to 0.12 lb          30        See comments under Aphids.
                  (Platinum) 2 SC
EGGPLANT
Aphid             acetamiprid, MOA 4A             2 to 4 oz       0.030 to 0.075 lb          7        Thoroughly cover foliage to effectvely control aphids. Do not apply
                  (Assail) 30 SG                                                                      more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed a total of 7 oz per
                                                                                                      season.

                  imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                Admire Pro is applied to the soil. It may be applied in-furrow at
                  (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 oz     0.25 to 0.375 lb          21        planting, as a post seeding or transplant drench, as a sidedressing
                  (various) 2 F                                       0.04 lb                         and incorporated after plants are established, or through drip
                                                                                                      irrigation. For short-term protection of transplants at planting, apply
                                                                                                      Admire Pro (0.44 oz/10,000 plants) not more than 7 days before
                                                                                                      transplanting by 1) uniformly spraying on transplants, followed
                                                                                                      immediately by sufficient overhead irrigation to wash product into
                                                                                                      potting media; or 2) injection into overhead irrigation system using
                                                                                                      adequate volume to thoroughly saturate soil media.
                  (various) 1.6 F                 3.75 fl oz      0.25 to 0.375 lb           0        1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications only.
                                                                      0.04 lb
                  pymetrozine, MOA 9B              2.75 oz            0.086 lb              14        Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per
                  (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                    acre per season.
                  spirotetramat, MOA 23          4 to 5 fl oz      0.06 to 0.08 lb           1        Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                  (Movento) 2 SC
                  thiamethoxam, MOA 4A
                  (Platinum) 2 SC                 5 to 8 oz       0.078 to 0.12 lb          30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or
                                                                                                      transplant depth, postseeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                      drip irrigation. Do not exceed 8 oz per acre per season. Check label
                                                                                                      for plant-back restrictions for a number of plants.
                  (Actara) 25 WDG                 2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.047 lb           0        Actara is for foliar application.
Blister beetle    gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84        0.0075 to               5
                  (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz            0.125 lb
                  lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3      2.56 to 3.84      0.02 to 0.03 lb           5
                  (Warrior) 1 CS                     fl oz




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                        107
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                 Minimum Interval
                                                          Amount of            Active            (Days) Between
CROP                Insecticide, Mode of Action          Formulation       Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect              Code, and Formulation                  Per Acre             Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
EGGPLANT (continued)
Colorado potato     Resistance to many insecticides is widespread in Colorado potato beetle. Some populations in N.C. are known to be resistant to one or more of the following
beetle              insecticides: esfenvalerate, permethrin, and oxamyl. To reduce risk of resistance, scout fields and apply insecticides only when needed to prevent damage
                    to the crop. Crop rotation will help prevent damaging Colorado potato beetle infestations. If control failures or reduced levels of control occur with a particular
                    insecticide, do NOT make a second application of the same insecticide at the same or higher rate. If an additional insecticide application is necessary, a
                    different insecticide representing a different class (carbamate, organophosphate, pyrethroid, chlorinated hydrocarbon, neonicotinoid, or biological) should be
                    used. Do NOT use insecticides belonging to the same class 2 years in a row for Colorado potato beetle control.
                    abamectin, MOA 6                      8 to 16 fl oz    0.009 to 0.018 lb            7         Apply when adults and small larvae are present but before large
                    (Agri-Mek) 0.15 EC                                                                            larvae appear. For resistance management, use the higher rate.
                    acetamiprid, MOA 4A                    2 to 4 oz       0.038 to 0.075 lb            7         Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 7 oz of
                    (Assail) 30 SG                                                                                formulation per season.
                    bifenthrin 2 EC, MOA 3              2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.01 lb             7         Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. Allow 7 days between
                                                                                                                  applications.
                    chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28          3.5 to 5 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                    (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                             to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                    dinotefuran, MOA 4A                1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.088 to 0.179 lb             1         Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any
                    (Venom) 70 SG                       5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb                        neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                                                  apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications,
                                                                                                                  or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application
                                                                                                                  may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at
                                                                                                                  planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to
                                                                                                                  ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.
                    imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                          See application methods under Aphids, Thrips.
                    (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                   7 to 10.5 fl oz   0.25 to 0.375 lb             21
                    (various) 2 F                        16 to 24 fl oz

                    (various) 1.6 F                        3.75 fl oz           0.04 lb                 0
                    lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3           2.56 to 3.84 oz     0.02 to 0.03 lb             5         Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 7 oz of
                    (Warrior) 2 CS                                                                                formulation per season.
                    novaluron, MOA 15                     9 to 12 fl oz     0.058 to 0.078              1
                    (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                      5 to 10 oz       0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                    (Radiant) 1 SC
                    thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                   5 to 11 oz      0.078 to 0.17 lb             30        See application methods under Aphids.
                    (Platinum) 2 SC
                    (Actara) 25 WDG                        2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.047 lb             0
Eggplant lace bug   imidacloprid, MOA 4A                3.8 to 6.2 fl oz    0.047 to 0.075              0
                    (various) 1.6 F
                    malathion, MOA 1B                         3 pt               1.5 lb                 3
                    (various brands) 57 EC
Flea beetle         bifenthrin 2 EC, MOA 3              2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.01 lb             7         Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. Allow 7 days between
                                                                                                                  applications.
                    carbaryl, MOA 1A                                              1 lb                  0
                    (Sevin) 50 WP                             2 lb
                    (Sevin) 80 S                            1.25 lb
                    (Sevin) XLR Plus                          1 lb
                    clothianidin, MOA 4A                  9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                    (Belay) 2.13 SC                          (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                          3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                            (foliar)
                    dinotefuran, MOA 4A                1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.088 to 0.179 lb             1         Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any
                    (Venom) 70 SG                       5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb                        neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                                                  apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications,
                                                                                                                  or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil application
                                                                                                                  may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at
                                                                                                                  planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to
                                                                                                                  ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.
                    thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                          See application methods under Aphids.
                     (Platinum) 2 SC                       5 to 8 oz       0.078 to 0.125 lb            30
                    (Actara) 25 WDG                        2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.047 lb             0
Hornworm, European bifenthrin, MOA 3                    2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.01 lb             7
corn borer, Beet army (various) 2 EC
worm, Corn earworm
                    chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28          3.5 to 4 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                    (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                             to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                    esfenvalerate, MOA 3                 4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             7
                    (Asana XL) 0.66 EC




108                                                                                                                                                 Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                         Minimum Interval
                                                    Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect              Code, and Formulation            Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
EGGPLANT (continued)
Hornworm, European fenpropathrin, MOA 3             10.67 fl oz           0.2 lb                3        Do not exceed 42.6 fl oz per acre per season.
corn borer, Beet army (Danitol) 2.4 EC
worm, Corn earworm
(continued)
                    flubendiamide, MOA 28               2 oz              0.48 lb               1
                    (Synapse) 24% WG
                    indoxacarb, MOA 22             2.5 to 3.5 oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb          3        Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per season.
                    (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                    lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3     2.56 to 3.84 oz     0.02 to 0.03 lb           5        Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 7 oz of
                    (Warrior) 2 CS                                                                       formulation per season.
                    methomyl, MOA 1A                1.5 to 3 pt       0.45 to 0.9 lb            5
                    (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                    methoxyfenozide, MOA 18          4 to 16 oz      0.063 to 0.25 lb           1        Apply at rates of 4 to 8 fl oz early in season when plants are small.
                    (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                       Apply at rates of 8 to 16 oz to large plants or when infestations are
                                                                                                         heavy. During periods of continuous moth flights, re-treatments at
                                                                                                         7 to 14 days may be required. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per
                                                                                                         application or 64 fl oz of Intrepid 2F per acre per season.
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz       0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                    (Radiant) 1 SC
                    zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.24 to 4.0 oz    0.014 to 0.025 lb          1
                    (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Leafminer           abamectin, MOA 6                8 to 16 fl oz    0.009 to 0.018 lb          7        Use low rates for low to moderate infestations, and high rates for
                    (Agri-Mek) 0.15 EC                                                                   severe infestations
                    chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    5 to 7.5 fl oz    0.065 to 0.098 lb          1        Foliar, soil, or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied
                    (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                    uniformly to the root zone. See label for application instructions.
                    oxamyl, MOA 1A                   1 to 2 qt          0.5 to 1 lb             7
                    (Vydate) 2 L
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz       0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                    (Radiant) 1 SC
Spider mite         abamectin, MOA 6                8 to 16 fl oz    0.009 to 0.018 lb          7        Use low rates for low to moderate infestations, and high rates for
                    (Agri-Mek) 0.15 EC                                                                   severe infestations.
                    bifenazate, MOA 25             0.75 to 1.0 lb     0.375 to 0.5 lb           3        Do not make more than one application per season.
                    (Acramite) 50 WS
                    fenpyroximate MOA 21               2 pts              0.1 lb                3        Do not make more than two applications per season.
                    (Portal) 0.4EC
                    hexakis, MOA 12B                  2 to 3 lb         1 to 1.5 lb             3
                    (Vendex) 50 WP
                    spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.1 to 0.13 lb            7
                    (Oberon) 2 SG
Thrips              dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B        0.5 to 0.67 pt    0.25 to 0.335 lb           7
                    dinotefuran, MOA 4A                                                                  See Whitefly for application instructions. Soil applications are more
                    (Venom) 70 SG                 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.049 to 0.179 lb          1        effective against thrips than foliar applications are.
                                                  5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb           21
                    imidacloprid, MOA 4A                             0.25 to 0.375 lb          21        See Aphids for application instructions.
                    Admire Pro 4.6 F               7 to 10.5 fl oz
                    (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz
                    methomyl, MOA 1A                1.5 to 3 pt       0.45 to 0.9 lb            3
                    (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 10 pt        0.47 to 0.08             1
                    (Radiant) 1 SC
Whitefly            acetamiprid, MOA 4A             2.5 to 4 oz       0.05 to 0.75 lb           7        Begin applications when significant populations of adults appear. Do
                    (Assail) 30 SG                                                                       not wait until heavy populations have become established. Do not
                                                                                                         apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 4 applications
                                                                                                         per season. Do not apply more than 7 oz per season.
                    dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb          1        Do not follow soil applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides
                    (Venom) 70 SG                                                                        (Assail or Venom). Use only one application method. Soil applications
                                                                                                         may be applied in a narrow band on the plant row in bedding
                                                  5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb           21
                                                                                                         operations, as a post-seeding or transplant drench, as a side-dress
                                                                                                         after planting and incorporated 1 or more inches, or through a drip
                                                                                                         irrigation system.
                    imidacloprid, MOA 4A                             0.25 to 0.375 lb          21        Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid
                    (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 oz                                          insecticides (Assail or Venom). See Aphids for application methods
                    (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz                                        and restrictions.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                         109
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                               Minimum Interval
                                                       Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                   Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                 Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
EGGPLANT (continued)
Whitefly (continued)   pyriproxyfen, MOA 7C             8 to 10 oz       0.054 to 0.067 lb            14        Knack prevents eggs from hatching. It does not kill whitefly adults.
                       (Knack) 0.86 EC                                                                          Applications should begin when 3 to 5 adults per leaf are present.
                                                                                                                Do not make more than 2 applications per season, and do not apply
                                                                                                                a second application within 14 days of the first application. Do not
                                                                                                                exceed 20 fl oz of Knack per acre per season. Check label for plant-
                                                                                                                back restrictions.
                       spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.1 to 0.133 lb             7         Do not exceed 3 applications or 25.5 fl oz per season.
                       (Oberon) 2 SC
                       thiamethoxam, MOA 4A             5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb             30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in furrow at seed or
                       (Platinum) 2 SC                                                                          transplant depth, at postseeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                                drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season. Check label
                                                                                                                for plant-back restrictions for a number of plants.
KOHLRABI
Aphid, Flea beetle     clothianidin, MOA 4A            9 to 12 oz        0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                       (Belay) 2.13 SC                    (soil);        0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                       3 to 4 fl oz           (foliar)
                                                         (foliar)
                       imidaclopridm MOA 4A                                                                     Admire Pro may be applied in-furrow at planting, as a post seeding
                       (Admire Pro) 2F               4.4 to 10.5 oz      0.156 to 0.375 lb            21        or transplant drench, as a sidedress and incorporated after plants
                       (various) 2 F                 10 to 24 fl oz                                             are established, or through drip irrigation. 1.6 F formulation is applied
                                                                                                                as a foliar spray. Do not exceed 24 oz of Admire Pro or 18.75 oz 1.6
                       (various) 1.6 F                   3.8 fl oz            0.02 lb                 7         F formulation per acre per crop per year. Check label for plant-back
                                                                                                                restrictions for a number of crops.
                       spirotetramat, MOA 23           4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb             1         Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant. Will not
                       (Movento) 2SC                                                                            control flea beetle.
Armyworm,              chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb            3         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
Corn earworm,          (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                        to the root zone. See label for instructions.
Diamondback
                       emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz          0.0075 to                7
moth, Imported
                       (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                      0.015 lb
cabbageworm, Looper
                       flubendiamide, MOA 28               2 oz               0.48 lb                 1
                       (Synapse) 24% WG
                       indoxacarb, MOA 22             2.5 to 3.5 oz      0.045 to 0.065 lb            3         A wetting agent may improve performance.
                       (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                       novaluron, MOA 15               6 to 12 fl oz     0.09 to 0.078 lb             7         Use lower rates when targeting eggs or small larvae, and higher rates
                       (Rimon) 0.83 EC                                                                          when larvae are large. Do not apply more than 3 applications or 24 fl
                                                                                                                oz per acre per season.
                       spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                       (Radiant) 1 SC
Webworm                emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz          0.0075 to                7
                       (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                      0.015 lb
                       indoxacarb, MOA 22             2.5 to 3.5 oz       0.047 to 0.065              7
                       (Avaunt) 30 WDG
LETTUCE
Aphid                  acetamiprid, MOA 4A              2 to 4 oz        0.038 to 0.075 lb            7         Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 4
                       (Assail) 30 SG                                                                           applications per season.
                       clothianidin, MOA 4A            9 to 12 oz        0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                       (Belay) 2.13 SC                    (soil);        0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                       3 to 4 fl oz           (foliar)
                                                         (foliar)
                       dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B            0.5 pt              0.25 lb                 7
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.158 to 0.377 lb            21        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            4.4 to 10.5 fl oz                                          neonicotinoid insecticide. Admire Pro may be applied via chemigation
                       (various) 2 F                  10 to 24 fl oz                                            into the root zone, in-furrow spray at planting directed on or below
                                                                                                                the seed, a narrow row directly below the eventual row in seed bed
                                                                                                                operation 14 days or fewer before planting, as a post-seeding or
                                                                                                                transplant drench, or as a subsurface side-dress on both sides of the
                                                                                                                row.
                       (various) 1.6 F                   3.8 fl oz           0.0475 lb                7         1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications.
                       pymetrozine, MOA 9B               2.75 oz             0.086 lb                 7         Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per
                       (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                         acre per season.
                       spirotetramat, MOA 23           4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb             3         Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                       (Movento) 2SC
                       thiamethoxam, MOA 4A            5 to 11 fl oz     0.078 to 0.17 lb             30        Do not follow applications of Platinum with foliar applications of any
                       (Platinum) 2 SC                                                                          neonicotinoid insecticide. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded
                                                                                                                crops in-furrow at the seeding or transplant depth, or as a narrow
                       (Actara) 25 WDG                 1.5 to 3 oz       0.023 to 0.046 lb            7
                                                                                                                surface band above the seedling and followed by irrigation. Post
                                                                                                                seeding, it may be applied as a transplant or through drip irrigation.
                                                                                                                Actara is applied as a foliar spray.



110                                                                                                                                                Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                               Minimum Interval
                                                          Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation                Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
LETTUCE (continued)
Armyworm              chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz   0.045 to 0.065 lb           1        Foliar or drip chemigation.
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz        0.0075 to               7        Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                        0.015 lb                        another product with a different mode of action.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                2 to 3 oz      0.03 to 0.045 lb            1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22                     3.5 oz           0.065 lb                3        For control of low numbers of beet armyworm and not for corrective
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                          treatments of higher numbers of larvae. Do not apply more than 14
                                                                                                               oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. The minimum interval
                                                                                                               between sprays is 3 days.
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18              4 to 10 oz     0.063 to 0.156 lb           1        Use low rates for early-season applications when plants are small. For
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                           mid- and late-season applications, use 10 to 16 oz.
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                    4 to 8 oz      0.062 to 0.125 lb           1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Cabbage looper, Corn Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11B2                                                 0
earworm, Tobacco     (Crymax) WDG                         0.5 to 1.5 lb     0.5 to 1.5 lb
budworm              (Dipel) DF                               8 oz             0.5 lb
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.6 to 6.4 oz     0.04 to 0.10 lb            7
                      (various) 2 EC
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz   0.045 to 0.065 lb           1        Foliar or drip chemigation.
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          3.2 to 4.8 oz    0.01 to 0.015 lb            7        Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                                                        another product with a different mode of action.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                   2 oz             0.03 lb                1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22                  2.5 to 3.5 lb   0.045 to 0.065 oz           3        Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                          crop. The minimum interval between sprays is 3 days.
                      lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3          1.92 to 3.2 oz   0.015 to 0.025 lb           1        Do not use on leaf lettuce. Do not exceed 2.4 pt per acre per season.
                      (Warrior) 1 CS
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                    1.5 to 3 pt       0.45 to 0.9 lb         7 to 10
                      (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18              4 to 10 oz     0.063 to 0.156 lb           1        Low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants. For
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                           mid- and late-season applications, use 6 to 10 oz.
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3            2.24 to 4 oz    0.014 to 0.025 lb           5
                      (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                     0.1 to 0.2 lb             1
                      (various) 25 WP                      6 to 12 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                      4 to 8 oz
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                    5 to 10 oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb            1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Leafhopper            bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.6 to 6.4 oz     0.04 to 0.10 lb            7
                      (various) 2 EC
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A               1 to 3 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.130 lb          7        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any
                      (Venom) 70 SG                      5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb          21        neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                                               apply more than 6 oz per acre (foliar) or 12oz per acre (soil). Soil
                                                                                                               applications may be applied by: 1. Narrow band below or above
                                                                                                               the seed line at planting; 2. post seeding or transplant drench with
                                                                                                               sufficient water to ensure incorporation; or 3. drip irrigation.
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3           2.24 to 4.0 oz   0.014 to 0.025 lb           5
                      (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
                      dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B                0.5 pt            0.25 lb                7        14-day interval for leaf lettuce.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                 3.75 fl oz          0.04 lb                7        There is a 12-month plant-back restriction for a number of crops.
                      (various) 1.6 F                                                                          Check label for restrictions.
                      lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3          1.92 to 3.2 oz         0.1 lb                1
                      (Warrior) 1 CS
                      permethrin, MOA 3                       4 oz               —                    1        Do not use on leaf lettuce.
                      (various) 3.2 EC
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                1.5 to 3 oz     0.023 to 0.045 lb           7
                      (Actara) 25 WDG
MELON (See Cantaloupe)




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                               111
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                Minimum Interval
                                                          Amount of           Active            (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation      Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation                Per Acre            Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
MUSTARD GREENS
Aphid, Flea beetle    acetamiprid, MOA 4A                  2 to 3 oz      0.038 to 0.056 lb            7
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A                9 to 12 oz      0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                        (soil);      0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                          3 to 4 fl oz         (foliar)
                                                            (foliar)
                      dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B                0.5 pt            0.25 lb                 14        On foliage when aphids appear. Repeat weekly as needed.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                             21        Admire Pro may be applied via chemigation into the root zone, in-
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                4.4 to 10.5 fl oz 0.165 to 0.377 lb                      furrow spray at planting directed on or below the seed, a narrow row
                      (various) 2 F                      10 to 24 fl oz 0.158 to 0.375 lb                        directly below the eventual row in seed bed operation 14 days or
                                                                                                                 fewer before planting, as a post-seeding or transplant drench, or as a
                                                                                                                 subsurface side-dress on both sides of the row.
                      (various) 1.6 F                       3.8 fl oz         0.0475 lb                7         1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B                   2.75 oz             0.023                  7         Fulfill will not control flea beetle.
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG
                      spirotetramat, MOA 23               4 to 5 fl oz     0.06 to 0.08 lb             1         Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Movento will not control flea
                      (Movento) 2SC                                                                              beetle.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                       Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at the
                      (Platinum) 2 SC                     5 to 11 fl oz   0.078 to 0.172 lb            30        seeding or transplant depth, or as a narrow surface band above the
                                                                                                                 seedling and followed by irrigation. Post seeding, it may be applied as
                      (Actara) 25 WDG                     1.5 to 3 oz     0.023 to 0.46 lb             7
                                                                                                                 a transplant or through drip irrigation.
                                                                                                                 Actara is applied as a foliar spray.
Armyworm              chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz   0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                          to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz        0.0075 to                7
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                        0.015 lb
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                   2 oz             0.03 lb                 1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18              4 to 10 oz     0.063 to 0.156 lb            1         Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants.
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                             For mid- and late-season applications, use 6 to 10 oz.
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                    5 to 10 oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Caterpillars,         Bacillus thuringiensis                                                           0         On foliage every 7 days. In summer or fall plantings, begin when
including cabbage     (Dipel) DF, MOA 11B2                   8 oz              0.5 lb                            plants appear; on other plantings, when insects appear.
looper, Imported      (Javelin) DG, MOA 11B2              0.5 to 1 pt        0.5 to 1 lb
cabbageworm, Corn     (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1             0.5 to 1 lb            —
earworm, Cross-
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz   0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
striped cabbageworm
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                          to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          3.2 to 4.8 oz    0.01 to 0.015 lb             7
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3                   9.6 oz            0.05 lb                 7
                      (Asana XL)
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                   2 oz             0.03 lb                 1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18              4 to 10 oz     0.063 to 0.156 lb            1         Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants.
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                             For mid- and late-season applications, use 6 to 10 oz.
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                    5 to 10 oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Diamondback moth      Insecticide-resistant populations, widespread in North Carolina, may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. To manage resistance, avoid
                      transplants from Georgia and Florida, and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides
                      often aggravate diamondback moth problems. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated.
                      Bacillus thuringiensis                                                           0         On foliage every 7 days. In summer or fall plantings, begin when
                      (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2              0.5 to 1.5 lb     0.5 to 1.5 lb                        plants appear; on other plantings when insects appear.
                      (Dipel) DF, MOA 11B2                    8 oz             0.5 lb
                      (Javelin) DG, MOA 11B2               0.5 to 1 pt       0.5 to 1 lb
                      (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1              0.5 to 1 lb           —
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz   0.045 to 0.065 lb            1
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz        0.0075 to                7
                      (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                        0.015 lb
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                   2 oz             0.03 lb                 1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxicarb, MOA 22                 2.5 to 3.5 oz    0.047 to 0.065 lb            3
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                    5 to 20 oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC




112                                                                                                                                                      Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                               Minimum Interval
                                                       Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                    Insecticide, Mode of Action   Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                  Code, and Formulation           Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
MUSTARD GREENS (continued)
Grasshopper             Zeta-cypermethrin             3.2 to 4.0 oz      0.02 to 0.025 lb             1         To reduce contamination by insects such as grasshoppers prior to
                        (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC                                                                    harvest
                        Beta-Cyfluthrin               2.4 to 3.2 oz       0.019 to 0.025              0
                        (Baythroid XL) 1 EC
Harlequin bug, Stink  endosulfan, MOA 2A               1 to 1 1/3 qt       0.75 to 1.0 lb             21        Do not make more than one application per year.
bug, Vegetable weevil (Thionex) 3EC, 50WP
                        clothianidin, MOA 4A            9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only. Will not control vegetable weevil.
                        (Belay) 2.13 SC                    (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                        3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                          (foliar)
                        zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3      3.2 to 4.0 oz      0.02 to 0.025 lb             1
                         (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Webworm                 emamectin benzoate, MOA 6     2.4 to 4.8 oz          0.0075 to                7
                        (Proclaim) 5% WDG                                     0.015 lb
                        indoxacarb, MOA 22            2.5 to 3.5 oz      0.047 to 0.065 lb            3
                        (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                        methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         4 to 8 fl oz      0.06 to 0.12 lb             1
                        (Intrepid) 2 F
                        spinetoram, MOA 5              5 to 10 fl oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                        (Radiant) 1 SC
OKRA
Aphid, Leafminer        imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                    Admire Pro is applied to the soil 1) in-furrow at planting as a post-
                        (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            7 to 10.5 fl oz    0.25 to 0.377 lb             21        seeding or tranplant drench; 2) as a sidedressing and incorporated
                        (various) 2 F                 16 to 24 fl oz                                            after plants are established; or 3) through drip irrigation.
                        (various) 1.6 F                   3.8 oz             0.0475 lb                0
                        malathion, MOA 1B                                      1.5 lb                 1
                        (various brands) 8 F              1.5 pt
                        (various brands) 25 WP             6 lb
Blister beetle, Corn    carbaryl, MOA 1A                                        2 lb                  3         On foliage as needed.
earworm, Cucumber       (Sevin) 50 WP                      4 lb
beetle, European corn   (Sevin) 80 S                      2.5 lb
borer, Flea beetle,     (Sevin) XLR Plus                   2 qt
Japanese beetle
                        flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb             1         Will not control beetles.
                        (Synapse) 24% WG
                        methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         8 to 16 oz       0.125 to 0.25 lb             1         For corn earworm and European corn borer only.
                        (Intrepid) 2 F
                        spinetoram, MOA 5               5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb             1         For corn earworm only.
                        (Radiant) 1 SC
Spider mites            bifenazate, MOA 25             0.75 to 1 lb       0.375 to 0.5 lb             3         Do not make more than one application per season.
                        (Acramite) 50 WP
                        fenpyroximate MOA 21               2 pt                0.1 lb                 3         Do not make more than two applications per season.
                        (Portal) 0.4EC
Stink bug               bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz   0.033 to 0.10 lb             7
                        (various) 2 EC
                        Zeta-Cypermethrin MOA 3       2.24 to 4.0 oz     0.014 to 0.025 lb            1
                        (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
                        buprofezin, MOA 16            9 to 13.6 fl oz     0.25 to 0.38 lb             1
                        (Courier) 40 SC




Whitefly                imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                          21        Admire Pro is applied to the soil 1) in-furrow at planting as a post-
                        (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            7 to 14 fl oz      0.25 to 0.503 lb                       seeding or tranplant drench; 2) as a sidedressing and incorporated
                        (various) 2 F                 16 to 32 fl oz                                            after plants are established; or 3) through drip irrigation.



                        (various) 1.6 F                   3.8 oz             0.0475 lb                0
                        pyriproxyfen, MOA 7C           8 to 10 fl oz     0.054 to 0.067 lb            14        Do not make more than two applications per season.
                        (Knack) 0.86 EC




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                113
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                          Minimum Interval
                                                    Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                 Insecticide, Mode of Action   Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect               Code, and Formulation           Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
ONION
Armyworm, Cutworm    zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3      2.24 to 4.0 oz     0.017 to 0.025 lb          7
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3     1.92 to 3.84 oz 0.015 to 0.025 lb            14          For use on dry bulb only. Use high rates for armyworm.
                     (Warrior) 1 CS
                     methoxyfenozide MOA 18           4 to 8 oz        0.06 to 0.12 lb           1          Green onion only. Use lower rates in early season on small plants;
                     (Intrepid) 2F                   8 to 12 oz        0.12 to 0.19 lb                      use higher rates in late season and heavy infestations.
                     permethrin, MOA 3                                                           1          Dry bulb only.
                     (various) 3.2 EC                4 to 12 oz        0.15 to 0.3 lb
                     (various) 25 WP                 9 to 18 oz        0.15 to 0.3 lb
                     spinetoram, MOA 5              5 to 10 fl oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
Leafminer            cryomazine, MOA 17               2.66 oz              0.12 lb               7
                     (Trigard) 75 WS
                     spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 8 oz       0.047 to 0.06 lb           1
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
Onion maggot, Seed   chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                              1.1 fl oz/1,000          —           Apply as in-furrow drench at planting. Use a minimumof 40 gal per
corn maggot          (Lorsban) 4 E                                     linear ft of row                     acre and incorporate to a depth of 1 to 2 in. Do not make more than
                                                                         at 18 in. row                      one application per year.
                                                                            spacing
                     cypermethrin, MOA 3              4 to 5 oz        0.08 to 0.16 lb           7
                     (Ammo) 2.5 EC
                     diazinon, MOA 1B                   1 qt                1 lb                —           Furrow application; drench the seed furrow at planting time. Apply as
                     (Diazinon) (AG 500)                                                                    a furrow treatment at time of planting. Use separate hoppers for seed
                                                                                                            and chemical.
                     permethrin, MOA 3                                 0.15 to 0.3 lb            1          For adult control.
                     (various) 3.2 EC                4 to 12 oz
                     (various) 25 WP                 9 to 18 oz
Thrips               acetamiprid MOA 4A             2.1 to 3.4 oz     0.094 to 0.15 lb           7
                     (Assail) 70 WP
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb          14          May not control western flower thrips. Dry bulb only.
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3     1.92 to 3.20 oz    0.015 to 0.25 lb          14          Do not exceed 1.92 pt per acre per season. Dry bulb only.
                     (Warrior) 1 CS
                     methomyl, MOA 1A                  1.5 pt              0.45 lb               7
                     (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                     permethrin, MOA 3               9 to 18 oz        0.15 to 0.3 lb            1          Dry bulb only.
                     (various) 3.2 EC
                     (various) 25 WP
                     spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 8 fl oz     0.047 to 0.06 lb           1
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
                     zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3      2.24 to 4.0 oz      0.014 to 0.025            1
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
PEA, English and Snow Pea (Succulent and dried)
Aphid                acetamiprid MOA 4A              1 to 2.3 oz       0.044 to 0.1 lb           7          Also controls leafhoppers. Succulent peas only.
                     (Assail) 70 WP
                     bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb            3          Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season.
                     (various) 2 EC
                     dimethoate, MOA 1B                0.33 pt             0.17 lb           See label      Do not make more than one application per season, and do not feed
                     (Dimethoate) 400 (4E)                                                                  or graze if a mobile viner issued, or for 21 days if a stationary viner
                                                                                                            is used.
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                   Apply Admire Pro via chemigation into the root zone, as an in-furrow
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            7 to 10.5 fl oz     0.25 to 0.37 lb          21          spray at planting on or below the seed, or as a post-seeding or
                     (various) 2 F                 16 to 24 fl oz                                           transplant drench.
                     (various) 1.6 F                  3.5 fl oz            0.04 lb               7          1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications.
Armyworm,            bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb            3          Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season.
Cloverworm,          (various) 2 EC
Cutworm, Looper
                     esvenvalerate, MOA 3           5.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb           3          Do not feed treated vines to livestock, and do not apply more than 0.1
                     (Asana) XL                                                                             lb a.i. per acre per season.



                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84        0.01 to 0.15             7
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz

                     spinetoram, MOA 5               4 to 8 fl oz     0.03 to 0.063 lb    3 (succulent); 28 Not for cutworm.
                     (Radiant) 1 SC                                                            (dried)




114                                                                                                                                            Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                           Minimum Interval
                                                     Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                 Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect               Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
PEA, English and Snow Pea (Succulent and dried) (continued)
Leafhopper, Lygus    bifenthrin, MOA 3              2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb             3
bug, Stink bug       (various) 2 EC
                     dimethoate, MOA 1B              0.33 to 1 pt       0.17 to 0.54 lb        See label      Do not make more than one application per season. Do not feed or
                     (Dimethoate) 400 (4E)                                                                    graze if a mobile viner issued, or for 21 days if a stationary viner is
                                                                                                              used.
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3        2.56 to 3.84       0.01 to 0.15 lb            7
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                    fl oz
                     methomyl, MOA 1A                 1.5 to 3 pt       0.45 to 0.9 lb             3          Apply to foliage as needed.
                     (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                     zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.72 to 4.0 oz     0.017 to 0.025 lb    1 (succulent or   PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or edible-podded peas and 21 days
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC                                                     edible pod)     for dried, shelled peas.
                                                                                               21 (drIed)
Seedcorn maggot      See BEANS for control
PEA (Cowpea)
Aphid, Thrips        acetamiprid MOA 4A               1 to 2.3 oz       0.044 to 0.1 lb            7          Also controls leafhoppers. Succulent peas only.
                     (Assail) 70 WP
                     bifenthrin, MOA 3              2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb             3          Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season.
                     (various) 2 EC
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                     Apply Admire Pro via chemigation into the root zone, as an in-furrow
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 fl oz     0.25 to 0.37 lb           21          spray at planting, or on or below the seed, or as a post-seeding or
                     (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz                                            transplant drench.
                     (various) 1.6 F                   3.5 fl oz            0.04 lb                7          1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications.
                     spinetoram, MOA 5                 5 to 8 oz       0.04 to 0.063 lb      3 (succulent);   Radiant is not effective against aphids.
                     (Radiant) 1 SC                                                            28 (dried)
Bean leaf beetle     carbaryl, MOA 1A                                     0.5 to 1 lb              3          Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.
                     (Sevin) 4 L                      0.5 to 1 qt
                     (Sevin) 80 S                  0.625 to 1.25 lb
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3        2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb            7          Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                    fl oz
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb            7
                     (Warrior) 1 CS                      fl oz
Corn earworm,        gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3        2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb           7           For edible podded or shelled succulent peas, do not apply within 7
Loopers, European    (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                    fl oz                                    21          days of harvest. For dried shelled, do not apply within 21 days of
corn borer, Armyworm                                                                                          harvest.
                     methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         4 to 16 fl oz     0.0625 to 0.25 lb           7          Use lower rates on smaller plants and higher rates for mid- to late
                     (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                           season applications, against corn earworm. Do not apply more than
                                                                                                              16 fl oz (0.25 lb a.i.) per acre per season.
                     spinetoram, MOA 5                3 to 6 fl oz      0.05 to 0.09 lb       3 succulent     Do not apply more than 12 fl oz (0.188 a.i.) per acre per season.
                     (Radiant) 1 SC                                                              28 dry
Cowpea curculio,     bifenthrin, MOA 3              2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.03 to 0.1 lb             3          Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season.
stink bug            (various) 2 EC
                     esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb      3 succulent:     As applied for worms.
                     (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                         21 dry
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3        2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb      7 succulent;
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                    fl oz                                  21 dry
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb      7 succulent;
                     (Warrior) 1 CS                      fl oz                                  21 dry
                     zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.74 to 4 fl oz    0.017 to 0.025 lb     1 succulent;
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC                                                       21 dry
Leafminer            spinetoram, MOA 5                 5 to 8 oz       0.04 to 0.063 lb      3 (succulent);
                     (Radiant) 1 SC                                                            28 (dried)
PEPPER
Aphid, Flea beetle   acetamiprid, MOA 4A            0.8 to 1.2 oz      0.035 to 0.054 lb           7          Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 4
                     (Assail) 70 WP                                                                           applications per season.
                     dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B        0.5 to 0.67 pt     0.25 to 0.334 lb        See label      One application will provide systemic protection for 3 weeks. Do not
                                                                                                              exceed rate as leaf injury will result.
                     dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb            1          Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. Use only
                     (Venom) 70 SG                  5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb                        one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per
                                                                                                  21          season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using
                                                                                                              soil applications. Soil applications may be appled by 1) a narrow
                                                                                                              band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or
                                                                                                              transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the
                                                                                                              root zone; or 3) drip irrigation. For flea beetle control only.
                     flonicamid, MOA 9C               2 to 2.8 oz      0.062 to 0.089 lb           0
                     (Beleaf) 50 SG




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                115
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                   Minimum Interval
                                                              Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                    Insecticide, Mode of Action          Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                  Code, and Formulation                  Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
PEPPER (continued)
Aphid, Flea beetle      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                         Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any
(continued)             (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                   7 to 14 fl oz                               21          neonicotinoid. Admire Pro is applied to the soil. It may be applied
                        (various) 2 F                        16 to 32 fl oz     0.25 to 0.50 lb                      in-furrow at planting, as a post seeding or transplant drench, as a
                                                                                                                     sidedress and incorporated after plants are established, or through
                                                                                                                     drip irrigation.
                                                                                                                     For short-term protection of transplants at planting, apply Admire Pro
                                                                                                                     (0.44 oz/10,000 plants) not more than 7 days before transplanting
                                                                                                                     by 1) uniformly spraying on transplants, followed immediately by
                                                                                                                     sufficient overhead irrigation to wsh product into potting media; or 2)
                                                                                                                     injection into overhead irrigation system using adequate volume to
                                                                                                                     thoroughly saturate soil media.
                        (various) 1.6 F                         3.8 fl oz         0.0475 lb               0          1.6 F formulation is applied as a foliar spray.
                        oxamyl, MOA 1A                         1 to 2 qt          0.5 to 1 lb             1
                        (Vydate) 2 L
                        pymetrozine, MOA 9B                     2.75 oz            0.086 lb               0          Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per
                        (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                             acre per season. Not for flea beetle.
                        spirotetramat, MOA 23                 4 to 5 fl oz      0.06 to 0.08 lb           1          Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant. Will not
                        (Movento) 2SC                                                                                control flea beetle.
                        thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                         Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or
                        (Platinum) 2SC                        5 to 11 fl oz     0.08 to 0.17 lb          30          transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                        (Actara) 25 WDG                        2 to 4 oz        0.03 to 0.06 lb          0           drip irrigation. Actara is applied as a foliar spray. Do not exceed 11 oz
                                                                                                                     per acre per season of Platinum or Actara. Check label for plant-back
                                                                                                                     restrictions for a number of crops.
Armyworm, Corn          acephate, MOA 1B                                                                  7          See comments under European corn borer.
earworm, Looper,        (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP              0.66 to 1.33 lb       0.5 to 1 lb
Hornworm                (Orthene) 97 PE                      0.05 to 1 lb        0.49 to 0.97
                        Bacillus thuringiensis                                                            0
                        (Dipel) DF, MOA 11B2                 0.5 to 1.5 lb       0.5 to 1.5 lb
                        (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1               0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb
                        bifenthrin, MOA 3                   2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.033 to 0.1 lb           7          Do not exceed 0.2 lb active ingredient per season.
                        (various) 2 EC
                        chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28          2 to 3.5 fl oz    0.026 to 0.045 lb          1          Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                        (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                            to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                        emamectin benzoate, MOA 6            2.4 to 4.8 oz        0.0075 to               7          Apply when larvae are first observed. Additional applications may be
                        (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                           0.015 lb                          necessary to maintain control.
                        flubendiamide, MOA 28                  2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb           1
                        (Synapse) 24% WG
                        gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3             2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb           5
                        (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                         fl oz
                        indoxacarb, MOA 22                   2.5 to 3.5 oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb          3          Use only higher rate for control of armyworm and corn earworm. Do
                        (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                              not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i. per acre per crop).
                                                                                                                     Minimum interval between sprays is 5 days.
                        lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3            2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb           5          Do not apply more than 2.88 pt per acre per season. Applications
                        (Warrior) 1 CS                           fl oz                                               should target early instars.
                        methoxyfenozide, MOA 18              4 to 16 fl oz      0.06 to 0.25 lb           1          Apply at rates of 4 to 8 fl oz early in season when plants are small.
                        (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                               Apply at rates of 8 to 16 oz to large plants or when infestations are
                                                                                                                     heavy. During periods of continuous moth flights re-treatments at
                                                                                                                     7 to 14 days may be required. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per
                                                                                                                     application or 64 fl oz of Intrepid per acre per season.
                        spinetoram, MOA 5                     5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                        (Radiant) 1 SC
                        zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3           2.24 to 4.0 fl oz 0.014 to 0.025 lb            1
                        (Mustang Max) 0.8 EC
Blister beetle, Stink   gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3             2.56 to 3.84         0.0075 to               5
bug, Leaf-footed bug    (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                         fl oz             0.125 lb
                        lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3            2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb           5
                        (Warrior) 1 CS                           fl oz
European corn borer     For all insecticides, begin applications at first fruit set when European corn borer moths are flying, as indicated by light trap catches. Applications should be
                        made at 5- to 7-day intervals as long as moths continue to fly or egg masses are present on the plants.
                        acephate, MOA 1B                                                                  7          Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season on bell peppers,
                        (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP                1 to 1.33 lb       0.75 to 1 lb                        or 1 lb a.i. on non-bell peppers.
                        (Orthene) 97 PE                       0.75 to 1 lb       0.73 to 0.97
                        bifenthrin, MOA 3                   2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.033 to 0.1 lb           7          Do not exceed 0.2 lb active ingredient per acre per season.
                        (various) 2 EC
                        chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28          2 to 3.5 fl oz    0.026 to 0.045 lb          1          Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                        (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                            to the root zone. See label for instructions.




116                                                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                           Minimum Interval
                                                      Amount of             Active         (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per     Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre            and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
PEPPER (continued)
European corn borer   esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb           7        Do not exceed a total of 0.35 lb active ingredient of Asana XL per acre
(continued)           (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                                   per season.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb           1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb           5
                      (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz
                      lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3      2.56 to 3.84       0.02 to 0.03 lb           5        Do not apply more than 2.88 pt per acre per season. Applications
                      (Warrior) 1 CS                     fl oz                                             should target early instars.
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                   1.5 pt             0.45 lb               3
                      (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3      2.24 to 4.0 fl oz 0.014 to 0.025 lb           1
                      (Mustang Max) 0.8 EC
Leafminer             abamectin, MOA 6                 8 to 16 oz      0.009 to 0.019 lb          7
                      (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC
                      cyromazine, MOA 17                2.66 oz            0.125 lb               0
                      (Trigard) 75 % WP
                      dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B            0.5 pt             0.25 lb               0
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 10 oz      0.047 to 0.08 lb           1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Pepper maggot         acephate, MOA 1B                                                            7        See comments under European corn borer.
                      (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP          1 to 1.33 lb        0.5 to 1 lb
                      (Orthene) 97 PE                 0.75 to 1 lb      0.73 to 0.97 lb
                      dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B        0.5 to 0.67 pt       0.25 to 1 lb            0
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.24 to 4 fl oz   0.014 to 0.025 lb          1
                      (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Pepper weevil         acetamiprid, MOA 4A                 4 oz             0.0775 lb              7
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.033 to 0.1 lb           7        Do not exceed 16.8 fl oz per acre per season.
                      (various) 2 EC
                      oxamyl, MOA 1A                   2 to 4 pt          0.5 to 1 lb             7
                      (Vydate) 2 L
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                  0.1 to 0.2 lb            3        Apply at 7-day intervals when infestation becomes evident. Do not
                      (various) 25 WP                  6 to 12 oz                                          use on non-bell peppers. Avoid bringing in plants with fruit pods from
                      (various) 3.2 EC                  4 to 8 oz                                          Florida.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A             3 to 4 oz       0.047 to 0.063 lb          0        Do not exceed 8 oz of Actara per acre per season.
                      (Actara) 25 WP
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.24 to 4 fl oz   0.014 to 0.025 lb          1
                      (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Spider mite, Broad    abamectin, MOA 6                 8 to 16 oz      0.009 to 0.0018            7        On foliage as needed.
mite                  (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                      lb
                      bifenazate, MOA 25              0.75 to 1 lb      0.375 to 0.5 lb           3        Do not make more than one application per season. Will not control
                      (Acramite) 50 WS                                                                     broad mite.
                      fenpyroximate MOA 21                2 pt               0.1 lb               3        Do not make more than two applications per season.
                      (Portal) 0.4EC
                      spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.1 to 0.13 lb           7        Do not exceed 3 applications per season.
                      (Oberon) 2 SG
Thrips                acephate, MOA 1B                                                            7        See comments under European corn borer.
                      (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP          1 to 1.33 lb        0.75 to 1 lb
                      (Orthene) 97 PE                 0.75 to 1 lb      0.73 to 0.99 lb
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb          1        See label for application instructions and restrictions.
                      (Venom) 70 SG
                                                    5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb           21


                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                               0.25 to 0.5 lb          21        See Aphids for application instructions. Treating transplants before
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 14 fl oz                                         setting in the field, followed by drip irrigation may suppress incidence
                      (various) 2 F                  16 to 32 fl oz                                        of tomato spotted virus. Imidacloprid is more effective against tobacco
                                                                                                           thrips than western flower thrips.
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                   1.5 pt             0.45 lb               3
                      (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 10 oz      0.047 to 0.08 lb           1        Do not exceed 29 fl oz per acre per season. Control of thrips may be
                      (Radiant) 1 SC                                                                       improved by adding a spray adjuvant. See label for instructions.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                            117
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                           Minimum Interval
                                                        Amount of           Active         (Days) Between
CROP              Insecticide, Mode of Action          Formulation      Ingredient Per     Last Application
Insect            Code, and Formulation                  Per Acre            Acre            and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
POTATO, Irish
Aphid             acetamiprid, MOA 4A                   1.5 to 4 oz    0.028 to 0.075 lb          7          Do not make more than 4 applications per season. Thorough
                  (Assail) 30 SG                                                                             coverage is important. Assail belongs to the same class of insecticides
                                                                                                             (neonicotinoid) as Admire Pro, Provado, Actara, and Platinum and
                                                                                                             Colorado protato beetle populations have the potential to become
                                                                                                             resistant to this class.
                  dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B               0.5 to 1 pt      0.25 to 0.5 lb           0
                  imidacloprid, MOA 4A                  3.75 fl oz          0.05 lb               7          To minimize selection for resistance in Colorado potato beetle, do
                  (various) 1.6 F                                                                            not use acetamiprid, imidaclorpid, or thiamethoxam for aphid control
                                                                                                             if either of these compounds was applied to the crop for control of
                                                                                                             Colorado potato beetle. See comments on insecticide rotation under
                                                                                                             Colorado potato beetle.
                  methamidophos, MOA 1B                 1.5 to 2 pt       0.75 to 1 lb           14
                  (Monitor) 4 EC
                  pymetrozine, MOA 9B                    2.75 oz           0.086 lb              14          Allow at least 7 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of
                  (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                           5.5 oz (0.17 lb a.i.) per acre per season.

                  thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                     3 oz            0.045 lb              14          To minimize selection for resistance in Colorado potato beetle, do not
                  (Actara) 25 WDG                                                                            use imidacloprid or thiamethoxam for aphid control if either of these
                                                                                                             compounds was applied to the crop for control of Colorado potato
                                                                                                             beetle.
Colorado potato   Colorado potato beetle populations in most commercial potato-growing areas have developed resistance to many insecticides. As a result, insecticides
beetle            that are effective in some areas, or were effective in the past, may no longer provide control in particular areas. Resistance problems are most severe in
                  potato-producing counties in southeastern North Carolina and north of the Albemarle Sound, but some resistance to oxamyl (Vydate), esfenvalerate (Asana),
                  permethrin (various products), and phosmet (Imidan) has been observed in most potato-producing counties. Recently, there have been reports of low resistance
                  to imidacloprid (Provado and Admire Pro) in some areas.
                  Resistance to Ambush, Permethrin, Asana, Imidan, and Monitor is widespread among potato beetle populations in Carteret, Pamlico, Pasquotank, Camden, and
                  Currituck counties. Vydate, Asana, and Permethrin resistance has been observed in some areas. Remember, beetle populations in different fields may differ in
                  the insecticides to which they are resistant. Monitoring the resistance status will aid in insecticide selection and help avoid control failures due to resistance.
                  CROP ROTATION AND INSECTICIDE ROTATION (the use of insecticides representing different modes of action IRAC MoA class number in different years) are
                  essential if insecticide resistance is to be managed and the risks of control failures due to resistance minimized. If control failures or reduced levels of control
                  are observed with a particular insecticide, do NOT make a second application of the same insecticide at the same or higher rate. If an additional insecticide
                  application is necessary, a different insecticide representing a different IRAC MoA class number should be used.
                  SCOUT FIELDS: All insecticide applications to the potato crop, regardless of the target insect pest, have the potential to increase the resistance of the Colorado
                  potato beetle to insecticides. Unnecessary insecticide applications should be avoided by scouting fields for insect pests and applying insecticides only when
                  potentially damaging insect populations are present.
                  SPOT TREATMENTS: Because overwintered potato beetles invade rotated fields from sources outside the field, potato beetle infestations in rotated fields occur
                  first along field edges early in the season. Limiting insecticide applications to infested portions of the field will provide effective control and reduce costs.
                  Growers are advised to keep accurate records on which insecticides have been applied to their potato crop for control of Colorado potato beetle and on how
                  effective those insecticides were at controlling infestations. This will make choosing an insecticide and maintaining insecticide rotations easier. Monitoring the
                  insecticide resistance status of local populations will also make insecticide selection easier.
                  abamectin, MOA 6                      8 to 16 oz     0.009 to 0.0018           14          Apply when adults and/or small larvae are present but before large
                  (Agri-Mek) 0.15 EC                                          lb                             larvae appear. Do not exceed two applications per season. Apply in at
                                                                                                             least 20 gal water per acre.


                  acetamiprid, MOA 4A                  0.6 to 1.7 oz   0.025 to 0.075 lb          7          Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and many small
                  (Assail) 70 WP                                                                             but few large larvae are present. An additional application should be
                                                                                                             used only if defoliation increases. Allow at least 7 days between foliar
                                                                                                             applications. To minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar
                                                                                                             applications of any IRAC MOA class 4A insecticides if any IRAC MOA
                                                                                                             class 4A insecticides were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece
                                                                                                             treatments. See comments on insect rotation under Colorado potato
                                                                                                             beetle.
                  Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis     2 to 3 qt         2 to 3 lb              0          B.t.t. products are effective against insecticide-resistant potato beetle
                  (B.t.t.), MOA 11C                                                                          populations. Apply first B.t. spray when about 50% of the egg masses
                  (Novodor)                                                                                  encountered have hatched and many larvae (red and black colored
                                                                                                             and 1/4 to 1/3 in. long) are present. Additional applications may be
                                                                                                             needed only if defoliation increases. Beetle larvae stop feeding after
                                                                                                             treatment but may remain alive on the plants for several days before
                                                                                                             dying. B.t. sprays generally do not kill adults. Good spray coverage
                                                                                                             is important and B.t. applications should be made by ground using a
                                                                                                             spray volume of at least 20 gal per acre. Aerial applications generally
                                                                                                             do not provide acceptable control.
                  chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28           2 to 3 oz       0.044 to 0.066           14          Do not apply more than 9 oz Altacor or 15.4 oz Coragen per acre per
                  (Altacor) 35 WDG                                                                           crop season.
                  (Coragen) 1.67                        3.5 to 5 oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb

                  dinotefuran, MOA 4A                   1 to 1.5 oz    0.05 to 0.066 lb           7          Soil treatment for preplant, preemergence, or at ground crack only
                  (Venom) 70 SG                           (foliar)                                           application only.To minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar
                                                       6.5 to 7.5 oz    0.28 to 0.33 lb                      applications of any IRAC MOA class 4A insecticides if any IRAC MOA
                                                           (soil)                                            class 4A insecticides were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece
                                                                                                             treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado
                                                                                                             potato beetle.




118                                                                                                                                            Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                               Minimum Interval
                                                          Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                 Insecticide, Mode of Action         Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect               Code, and Formulation                 Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
POTATO, Irish (continued)
Colorado potato      imidacloprid seed piece             0.4 to 0.6 fl                                         See label for specific instructions. For early planted potatoes control
beetle (continued)   treatment, MOA 4A                   oz/100 lb of                                          may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application
                     (Genesis) 240 g/L                   seed tubers                                           and Colorado potato beetle emergence. Limit use to locations where
                                                                                                               Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields
                                                                                                               during the previous year. Do not apply other IRAC MOA class 4A
                                                                                                               insecticides to a field if seed pieces were treated with Genesis. See
                                                                                                               product label for restrictions on rotational crops.
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                 0.74 fl oz/           0.38 lb              —         Admire Pro applied in-furrow at planting time may provide season-
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                  1,000 ft row                                          long control. However, for early planted potatoes control may be
                     (various) 2.0 F                                                                           marginal because of the prolonged time between application and
                                                                                                               Colorado potato beetle emergence. Use only in potato fields that have
                                                                                                               a history of potato beetle infestations. If potatoes are rotated to a field
                                                                                                               adjacent to one planted in potato last year, a barrier treatment may be
                                                                                                               effective. (See Vegetable IPM Insect Note #45.) Admire Pro may also
                                                                                                               be applied as a seed treatment. Check label for instructions regarding
                                                                                                               this use. Check label for restrictions on planting crops following
                                                                                                               Admire Pro treated potatoes. There have been reports of low levels of
                                                                                                               resistance to imidacloprid. To minimize selection for resistance, do not
                                                                                                               use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any
                                                                                                               of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece
                                                                                                               treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado
                                                                                                               potato beetle.
                     (various) 1.6 F                       3.75 fl oz           0.05 lb               7        Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and most larvae
                                                                                                               are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An additional application should be made
                                                                                                               only if defoliation increases. Allow at least 7 days between foliar
                                                                                                               applications. Do not exceed 15 fl oz per field per acre per season.
                                                                                                               Regardless of formulation, do NOT apply more than a total of 0.31
                                                                                                               lb imidacloprid per season. Foliar applications of imidacloprid should
                                                                                                               not be applied If soil applicaton was used . There have been reports
                                                                                                               of low levels of resistance to imidacloprid. To minimize selection for
                                                                                                               resistance, do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MOA class 4A
                                                                                                               insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as
                                                                                                               soil or seed piece treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation
                                                                                                               under Colorado potato beetle.
                     imidacloprid + cyfluthrin premix,   3 to 3.75 fl oz   0.063 to 0.079 lb          7        Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and most larvae
                     MOA 4A and 3                                                                              are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An additional application should be made
                     (Leverage) 2.7 SE                                                                         only if defoliation increases. Leverage will control European corn
                                                                                                               borer if application coincides with egg hatch and presence of small
                                                                                                               corn borer larvae. Leverage should not be used in fields treated with
                                                                                                               Admire Pro. There have been reports of low levels of resistance to
                                                                                                               imidacloprid. To minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar
                                                                                                               applications of any IRAC MOA class 4A insecticides if any of these
                                                                                                               compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments.
                                                                                                               See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle.
                     indoxacarb, MOA 22                       6 oz              0.11 lb               7        The minimum interval between applications is 5 days. Do not apply
                     (Avaunt) 30 DG                                                                            more than 24 oz of Avaunt (0.44 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. In areas
                                                                                                               where Colorado potato beetles are resistant to other insecticides,
                                                                                                               addition of PBO (piperonyl butoxide) as tank mix with Avaunt may
                                                                                                               be necessary. The beetles stop feeding following initial exposure to
                                                                                                               Avaunt but may take several days to die.
                     novaluron, MOA 15                    9 to 12 fl oz     0.058 to 0.078           14
                     (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                     spinetoram, MOA 5                     6 to 8 oz       0.047 to 0.063 lb          7        Apply when most egg masses have hatched and both small and large
                     (Radiant) 1 SC                                                                            larvae are present. Thorough coverage is important. Do not apply
                                                                                                               more than a total of 0.33 lb a.i. (21 oz of Radiant) per crop. Do not
                                                                                                               apply in consecutive generations of Colorado potato beetle and do not
                                                                                                               make more than two applications per single generation of Colorado
                                                                                                               potato beetle.
                                                                                                               To minimize the potential for resistance, do NOT use spinetoram if it
                                                                                                               was applied to a potato crop in the field or an adjacent field within the
                                                                                                               last year.
                     thiamethoxam seed piece             0.11 to 0.16 fl                                       See label for specific instructions. For early planted potatoes control
                     treatment, MOA 4A                     oz/100 lb                                           may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application
                     (Cruiser) 5 FS                                                                            and Colorado potato beetle emergence. Limit use to locations where
                                                                                                               Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields
                                                                                                               during the previous year. To minimize selection for resistance, do not
                                                                                                               use foliar applications of any IRAC MOA class 4A insecticides if any
                                                                                                               of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece
                                                                                                               treatments. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado
                                                                                                               potato beetle.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                119
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                   Minimum Interval
                                                              Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                     Insecticide, Mode of Action         Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                   Code, and Formulation                 Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
POTATO, Irish (continued)
Colorado potato          thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                             7         Platinum applied in-furrow at planting time may provide season-long
beetle (continued)       (Platinum) 2 SC                      5 to 8 fl oz     0.078 to 0.125 lb                    control. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because
                                                                                                                    of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle
                                                                                                                    emergence. Limit use to locations where Colorado potato beetles
                                                                                                                    were a problem in the same or adjacent fields in the previous year.
                                                                                                                    To minimize selection for resistance, do not use foliar applications of
                                                                                                                    any IRAC MOA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were
                                                                                                                    applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. See comments
                                                                                                                    on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. See product
                                                                                                                    label for restrictions on rotational crops.
                         (Actara) 25 WDG                          3 oz             0.047 lb               7         Actara is applied as foliar spray. Apply when most of the eggs
                                                                                                                    have hatched and most of the larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.). An
                                                                                                                    additional application should be made only if defoliation increases.
                                                                                                                    Allow at least 7 days between applications. Do not make more than 2
                                                                                                                    applications of Actara per crop per season. To minimize selection for
                                                                                                                    resistance, do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MOA class 4A
                                                                                                                    insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as
                                                                                                                    soil or seed piece treatments.
European corn borer      The Atlantic variety of potato is very tolerant of injury by European corn borer larvae. Consequently, control is not recommended on Atlantic unless more than 30
                         percent of the stems are infested. Control on all other varieties is recommended when infestations reach 20 percent infested stems. Application timing is critical.
                         Scout for eggs and treat when eggs hatch or at the first sign of larvae entering petioles. Several days of cool wet weather will kill larvae and may eliminate the
                         need for insecticide applications. If this occurs, flag additional egg masses and apply insecticide at hatch.
                         beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3             1.6 to 2.8 fl oz 0.012 to 0.022 lb            0         Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of
                         (Baythroid) XL                                                                             May). A second application may be needed if the percentage of
                                                                                                                    infested stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first
                                                                                                                    application. Ground applications are usually more effective than aerial
                                                                                                                    applications. Do not apply more than 14 fl oz of Baythroid per crop
                                                                                                                    season.
                         chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28                                                                Do not apply more than 9 oz Altacor or 15.4 oz Coragen per acre per
                         (Altacor) 35 WDG                      2 to 3 oz       0.04 to 0.066 lb                     crop season.
                                                                                                         14
                         (Coragen) 1.67                       3.5 to 5 oz      0.045 to 0.065 lb
                         indoxacarb, MOA 22                  3.5 to 6.0 oz     0.065 to 0.11 lb           7         Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of
                         (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                            May). A second application may be needed if the percentage of
                                                                                                                    infested stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first
                                                                                                                    application. Ground applications are usually more effective than aerial
                                                                                                                    applications. Do not apply more than 24 oz of Avaunt per acre per
                                                                                                                    crop.
                         methamidophos, MOA 1B                 1.5 to 2 pt       0.75 to 1 lb            14         Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of May).
                         (Monitor 4)                                                                                A second application may be needed if the percentage of infested
                                                                                                                    stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first application.
                                                                                                                    Ground applications are generally more effective than aerial
                                                                                                                    applications.



                         spinetoram, MOA 5                     6 to 8 oz       0.047 to 0.063 lb          7         Do not apply more than a total of 0.25 lb a.i. (32 fl oz product) per
                         (Radiant) 1 SC                                                                             crop.)
Flea beetle              phorate, MOA 1B                     10 to 20 oz (38       2 to 3 lb             90         Use of phorate can contribute to insecticide resistance with Colorado
                         (Thimet) 20 G                      in. row spacing)                                        potato beetle.
Leafhopper               carbaryl, MOA 1A                                                                 7         On foliage when leafhoppers first appear. Repeat every 10 days as
                         (Sevin) 50 WP                         1 to 2 lb          0.5 to 1 lb                       needed. Often a problem in the mountains.
                         (Sevin) 80 S                       0.625 to 1.25 lb      0.5 to 1 lb
                         (Sevin) XLR Plus                        1 pt               0.5 lb
                         dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B               0.5 to 1 pt      0.25 to 0.5 lb            0
                         methomyl, MOA 1A                        1.5 pt             0.45 lb               6
                         (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                         phosmet, MOA 1B                        1.33 lb              1 lb                 7         Machine harvest only.
                         (Imidan) 70 WSB
Leafminer                dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B               0.5 to 1 pt      0.25 to 0.5 lb            0
Blister beetle, Leaf-    carbaryl, MOA 1A                                          1 to 2 lb              7         On foliage as needed.
footed bug, Plant bug,   (Sevin) 50 WP                         2 to 4 lb
Stink bug, Vegetable     (Sevin) 80 S                        1.25 to 2.5 lb
weevil                   (Sevin) XLR Plus                      1 to 2 qt
Potato tuberworm         methamidophos, MOA 1B                 1.5 to 2 pt       0.75 to 1 lb            14
                         (Monitor) 4 E
                         methomyl, MOA 1A                      1.5 to 3 pt      0.45 to 0.9 lb            6         Prevent late-season injury by keeping potatoes covered with soil. To
                         (Lannate) 2.4 LV                                                                           prevent damage in storage, practice sanitation.
                         permethrin, MOA 3                    4 to 8 fl oz       0.1 to 0.2 lb           14
                         (various) 3.2 E




120                                                                                                                                                   Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                   Minimum Interval
                                                           Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action         Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation                 Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
POTATO, Irish (continued)
Thrips                dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B                 0.5 pt              0.25 lb                 0
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                     6 to 8 fl oz      0.047 to 0.063              7
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Wireworm              Planting in fields previously in corn, soybean, or fallow may increase risk of wireworm.
                      ethoprop, MOA 1B                   1.4 lb per 1,000       2.5 to 3 lb               90        In-furrow at planting.
                      (Mocap) 15 G                             row ft
                      fipronil, MOA 2B                       3.2 fl oz             0.1 lb                 90        In-furrow at planting.
                      (Regent) 4 SC
                      phorate, MOA 1B                         Row                2 to 3 lb                90        Can contribute to insecticide-resistance problems with Colorado
                      (Thimet) 20 G                       Treatment: 10                                             potato beetle.
                                                         to 20 oz (38 in.
                                                          row spacing)
PUMPKIN
Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production
recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.
Aphid                 acetamiprid, MOA 4A                   2.5 to 4 oz      0.047 to 0.075 lb            0
                      (Assail)
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                   2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                                Allow 7 days between applications.
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A                  9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                          (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                            3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                              (foliar)
                      flonicamid, MOA 9C                    2 to 2.8 oz      0.062 to 0.089 lb            0
                      (Beleaf) 50 SG
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                    0.25 to 0.38 lb             21        Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting;
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                  7 to 10.5 fl oz                                           as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench;
                      (various) 2 F                       16 to 24 fl oz                                            subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or
                                                                                                                    trickle irrigation. See label for approved application methods. Will also
                                                                                                                    control whitefly and cucumber beetles.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B                    2.75 oz             0.086 lb                 14        Apply before populations reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                              oz per acre per season.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                  5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.12 lb             30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or
                      (Platinum) 2SC                                                                                transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                      (Actara) 25 WDG                      1.5 to 3.0 oz      0.02 to 0.05 lb             0         drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                                    Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28          2 to 3.5 fl oz    0.026 to 0.045 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                             to the root zone. See label for instructions.
Armyworm              flubendiamide, MOA 28                  2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb             1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18              4 to 10 fl oz      0.06 to 0.16 lb             3         Do not exceed 4 applications per season, and do not reapply in less
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                                than 7 days.
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                    5 to 10 fl oz      0.04 to 0.08 lb             3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Cucumber beetle       bifenthrin, MOA 3                   2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                                Allow 7 days between applications.
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                              1 lb                  3         Phytotoxicity may occur following application of carbaryl during hot,
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                             2 lb                                                humid weather.
                      (Sevin) 80 S                            1.25 lb
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                         1 qt
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A                  9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                          (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                            3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                              (foliar)
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A                3 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.132 to 0.179 lb              1        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. Use only
                      (Venom) 70 SG                       5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb              21        one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per
                                                                                                                    season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using
                                                                                                                    soil applications. Soil applications may be appled by 1) a narrow
                                                                                                                    band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or
                                                                                                                    transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the
                                                                                                                    root zone; or 3) drip irrigation.
                      fenpropathrin, MOA 3                10.6 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb              7         Insect control may be improved by adding NIS. Do not apply more
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                              than 0.8 lb (a.i.) per acre per season.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                21        See application methods under Aphid.
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                  7 to 10.5 fl oz    0.25 to 0.375 lb
                      (various) 2 F                       16 to 24 fl oz




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                     121
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                              Minimum Interval
                                                      Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
PUMPKIN (continued)
Cutworm, Corn         bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz      0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom.
earworm               (various) 2 EC                                                                           Allow 7 days between applications.
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                        to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz        0.03 to 0.045 lb             1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                   0.1 to 0.2 lb              0
                      (various) 25 W                6.4 to 12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                4 to 8 fl oz
Leafhopper            bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz      0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                           Allow 7 days between applications.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           5.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL)
Looper, Pickleworm,   bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz      0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom.
Melon worm            (various) 2 EC                                                                           Allow 7 days between applications.
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                        to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           5.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL)
                      fenpropathrin, MOA 3           10.6 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb              7         Insect control may be improved by adding NIS. Do not apply more
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                         than 0.8 lb (a.i.) per acre per season.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz        0.03 to 0.045 lb             1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22              2.5 to 6 oz       0.045 to 0.11 lb             3
                      (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         4 to 10 fl oz      0.06 to 0.16 lb             3         Do not exceed 4 applications per season, and do not reapply in less
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                           than 7 days.
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                     0.1 to 0.2               0
                      (various) 25 W                6.4 to 12.8 fl oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                 4 to 8 fl oz
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb             3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Spider mite           abamectin, MOA 6                8 to 16 fl oz     0.009 to 0.019 lb            7
                      (Agri-Mek) 0.15 EC
                      bifenazate, MOA 25             0.75 to 1.0 lb      0.375 to 0.5 lb             3         Do not make more than one application per season.
                      (Acramite) 50 WS
                      spiromesifen, MOA 23            7 to 8.5 oz         0.1 to 0.13 lb             7         Do not exceed 3 applications per season.
                      (Oberon) 2 SG
Squash bug            acetamiprid, MOA 4A                5.3 oz              0.10 lb                 0         Assail is most effective against newly laid eggs and nymphs.
                      (Assail) 30 WG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz      0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                           Allow 7 days between applications.
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                         1 lb                  3         Adults are difficult to control.Phytotoxicity may occur following
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                       2 lb                                                 application of carbaryl during hot, humid weather.
                      (Sevin) 80 S                      1.25 lb
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                   1 qt
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A            9 to 12 oz        0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                    (soil);        0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                      3 to 4 fl oz           (foliar)
                                                        (foliar)
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A              3 to 4 oz        0.132 to 0.179 lb            1         Do not exceed 6 oz Venom per acre per season.
                      (Venom) 70 SG
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                                              0
                      (various) 25 WP                   12.8 oz               0.2 lb
                      (various) 3.2 EC                   8 oz                 0.2 lb
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.8 to 4 fl oz         0.0175 to                1
                      (Mustang Max) 0.8 EC                                   0.025 lb




122                                                                                                                                              Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                            Minimum Interval
                                                      Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation            Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
PUMPKIN (continued)
Squash vine borer     acetamiprid, MOA 4A                5.3 ox              0.10 lb               0
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb            3        Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                        Allow 7 days between applications.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3                9 oz               0.05 lb               3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                   0.1 to 0.2 lb            0
                      (various) 25 W                 6.4 to 12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                  4 to 8 oz
Thrips                dinotefuran, MOA 4A              1 to 4 oz        0.045 to 0.179 lb          1
                      (Venom) 70 SG
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 10 oz       0.047 to 0.08 lb           3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Whitefly              acetamiprid, MOA 4A                5.3 oz              0.10 lb               0
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3              5.12 to 6.4 oz      0.08 to 0.10 lb           3        Do not make more than 2 applications after bloom. Bifenthrin is for
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                        adult knock-down only.
                      buprofezin, MOA 16              9 to 13.6 oz       0.25 to 0.38 lb           7        Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than
                      (Courier) 40 WP                                                                       twice per crop cycle or 4 applications per year total.
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb           1        See comments under cucumber beetle for application instructions and
                      (Venom) 70 SG                    5 to 6 (soil)   0.226 to 0.268 lb          21        restrictions.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.25 to 0.375 lb          21        Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 oz                                           planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill
                      (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz                                         drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure
                                                                                                            drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved
                                                                                                            application methods. Will also control aphids and cucumber beetle.
                      pyriproxifen, MOA 7C             8 to 10 oz       0.054 to 0.067 lb          7        Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make
                      (Knack) 0.86 EC                                                                       applications closer than 14 days apart.
                      spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.11 to 0.13 lb           7
                      (Oberon) 2 SC
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A             5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb          30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or
                      (Platinum) 2 SC                                                                       transplant depth, postseeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                      (Actara) 25 WDG                1.5 to 3.0 oz       0.02 to 0.05 lb           0        drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season. Check label
                                                                                                            for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
RADISH
Aphid, Flea beetle,   beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3        1.6 to 2.8 fl oz       0.0125 to               7        Do not exceed 16.8 fl oz per acre per season.
Leafminer             (Baythroid) XL                                        0.022 lb
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           5.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb           7
                      (Asana XL)
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            4.4 to 10.5 fl oz 0.158 to 0.38 lb            21
                      (various) 2 F                  10 to 24 fl oz

                      (various) 1.6 F                    3.5 oz              0.044                 7        Do not apply more than 0.044 lb AI of 1.6F formulation per season.
Root maggot,          chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B           1 fl oz/1,000             —                  —         Water-based drench in-furrow planting. Use a minimum of 40 gal of
Wireworm              (Lorsban) 4E                      linear ft                                           water per acre.
                      diazinon, MOA 1B                  3 to 4 qt           3 to 4 lb                       Broadcast just before planting and immediately incorporate into the
                      (AG 500)                                                                              upper 4 to 8 inches of soil.
                      50 WP                             6 to 8 lb           3 to 4 lb
SPINACH
Aphid                 acetamiprid, MOA 4A            0.8 to 1.2 oz      0.035 to 0.054 lb          7        Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 5
                      (Assail) 70 WP                                                                        applications per season.
                      flonicamid, MOA 9C                2 to 2.8        0.062 to 0.089 lb          0
                      (Beleaf) 50 SG
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.158 to 0.337 lb         21        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F            4.4 to 10.5 fl oz                                       neonicotinoid insecticides. Apply Admire Pro to the soil as an in-furrow
                      (various) 2 F                  10 to 24 fl oz                                         spray directed at or below seed; at planting as a post-seeding or
                                                                                                            transplant drench; or through drip irrigation. For bedding operations,
                                                                                                            apply in a narrow band spray directly below eventual seed row 14 or
                                                                                                            fewer days before planting.
                      (various) 1.6 F                   3.8 fl oz          0.0475 lb               7        1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B               2.75 oz             0.086 lb               7        Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Use sufficient water to
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                      ensure good coverage.
                      spirotetramat, MOA 23           4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb           3        Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                      (Movento) 2SC




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                           123
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                 Minimum Interval
                                                         Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action       Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation               Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
SPINACH (continued)
Leafminer             cryomazine, MOA 17                   2.66 oz               0.125                  7
                      (Trigard) 75 WP

                      spinetoram, MOA 5                   6 to 10 oz       0.047 to 0.08 lb             1         Spray adjuvants may enhance efficacy against leafminers. See label
                      (Radiant) 1 SC                                                                              for information on adjuvants.
Armyworm, Corn        chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb            3
earworm, Cutworm,     (Coragen) 1.67 SC
Looper
                      emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz     0.007 to 0.015 lb            7
                      (Proclaim) 5 SG
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                  2 oz               0.03 lb                 1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      indoxacarb, MOA 22                 2.5 to 3.5 oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb            3
                      (Avaunt) 30 SG
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                                          0.45 lb                 7         Air temperature should be well above 32 degrees F. Do not apply to
                      (Lannate) 90 SP                       0.5 lb                                                seedlings less than 3 in. in diameter.
                      (Lannate) 2.4 LV                      1.5 pt
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18             4 to 10 oz       0.063 to 0.156 lb            1         Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                              and 6 to 10 oz for mid- to late-season applications.
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                          0.1 lb                 7         Do not make more than seven applications per season.
                      (various) 25 WP                        6 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                       4 oz
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                   5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb             1
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3          2.24 to 4 fl oz    0.014 to 0.025 lb            1
                      (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
SQUASH
Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production
recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.
Aphid                 acetamiprid, MOA 4A                 2.5 to 4 oz      0.047 to 0.075 lb            0
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                              Allow 7 days between applications.
                      flonicamid, MOA 9C                  2 to 2.8 oz      0.062 to 0.089 lb            0
                      (Beleaf) 50 SG
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                 0.25 to 0.375 lb             21        Must be applied to the soil. Use preplant; at planting; as a post-
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                7 to 10.5 fl oz                                           seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface
                      (various) 2F                       16 to 24 oz                                              sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle
                                                                                                                  irrigation. Seel label for information on approved application methods.
                                                                                                                  Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B                  2.75 oz             0.086 lb                 0         Apply before populations reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                            oz per acre per season.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb             30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or
                      (Platinum) 2SC                                                                              transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                                  drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                                  Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
Cucumber beetle       bifenthrin, MOA 3                 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                              Allow 7 days between applications.
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A                9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                        (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                          3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                            (foliar)
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A              3 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.132 to 0.179 lb              1        See comments under Aphids for application instructions and
                      (Venom) 70 SG                     5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb              21        restictions.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3               5.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      fenpropathrin, MOA 3              10.6 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb              7         NIS may improve insect control. Under severe pressure, use high
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                            rate. Do not apply more than 0.8 lb (a.i.) per season.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                 0.25 to 0.375 lb             21        See comments under Aphid.
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                7 to 10.5 fl oz
                      (various) 2 F                     16 to 24 fl oz
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                          0.1 lb                 0
                      (various) 25 WP                        6 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                       4 oz

                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb             30        See comments under Aphid for application instructions.
                      (Platinum) 2 SC




124                                                                                                                                                 Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                             Minimum Interval
                                                     Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action   Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation           Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
SQUASH (continued)

Cutworm               esfenvalerate, MOA 3          4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                      0.2 lb                 0
                      (various) 25 W                   12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                  8 fl oz
Leafhopper            bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                          Allow 7 days between applications.
Leafminer             cyromazinem MOA 17               2.66 oz             0.125 lb                 0
                      (Trigard) 75 WP
                      spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 10 oz       0.047 to 0.08 lb             3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Looper, Pickleworm,   bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 oz       0.04 to 0.10 lb             3
Melonworm             (various) 2 EC
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28     2 to 5 fl oz     0.026 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                       to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3          4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      fenpropathrin, MOA 3          10.6 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb              7         NIS may improve insect control. Under severe pressure, use high
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                        rate. Do not apply more than 0.8 lb a.i. per acre.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb             1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      methomyl, MOA 1A                                   0.45 to 0.9 lb             3         Apply in late afternoon to minimize bee kills. Methomyl may induce
                      (Lannate) 90 SP                 0.5 to 1 lb                                             leafminer infestation.
                      (Lannate) 2.4 LV                1.5 to 3 pt
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18        4 to 10 fl oz      0.06 to 0.16 lb             3         Do not exceed 4 applications per season, and do not reapply in less
                      (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                          than 7 days.
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                  0.1 to 0.2 lb              0
                      (various) 25 WP               6.4 to 12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                4 to 8 fl oz
                      spinetoram, MOA 5               5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb             3         Do not apply if temperature exceeds 90 degrees F.
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Spider mite           abamectin, MOA 6               8 to 16 fl oz      0.009 to 0.019              7
                      (Agri-Mek) 0.15 EC
                      bifenazate, MOA 25            0.75 to 1.0 lb       0.375 to 5 lb              3         Do not make more than one application per season.
                      (Acramite) 50 WS
                      spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.1 to 0.13 lb             7         Do not exceed 3 applications per season.
                      (Oberon) 2 SG
Squash bug            acetamiprid, MOA 4A               5.3 oz              0.10 lb                 0         Assail is most effective against newly laid eggs and nymphs.
                      (Assail) 30 WG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                          Allow 7 days between applications.
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A            9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                    (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                      3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                        (foliar)
                      dinotefuran, MOA 4A              3 to 4 oz       0.132 to 0.179 lb            1         Do not exceed 6 oz Venom per acre per season.
                      (Venom) 70 SG
                      zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.8 to 4 fl oz        0.0175 to                1
                      (Mustang Max) 0.8 EC                                  0.025 lb
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                  0.1 to 0.2 lb              0
                      (various) 25 WP               6.4 to 12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                4 to 8 fl oz
Squash vine borer     acetamiprid, MOA 4A               5.3 oz              0.10 lb                 0
                      (Assail) 30 WG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                          Allow 7 days between applications.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3           5.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                  0.1 to 0.2 lb              0
                      (various) 25 WP               6.4 to 12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                4 to 8 oz




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                            125
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                             Minimum Interval
                                                       Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                 Insecticide, Mode of Action      Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect               Code, and Formulation              Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
SQUASH (continued)
Whitefly             acetamiprid, 4A                  2.5 to 5.3 oz      0.047 to 0.10 lb           0
                     (Assail) 30 WG
                     bifenthrin, MOA 3               5.12 to 6.4 fl oz    0.08 to 0.10 lb           3        Do not make more than two applications after bloom.
                     (various) 2 EC
                     buprofezin, MOA 16                9 to 13 fl oz      0.25 to 0.38 lb           7        Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than
                     (Courier) 40 SC                                                                         twice a year per crop cycle, or four applications per year.
                     dinotefuran, MOA 4A             1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb           1        Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid
                     (Venom) 70 SG                                      0.226 to 0.268 lb                    insecticides. Only use one application method. Soil applications may
                                                      5 to 6 oz (soil)                             21        be applied in a narrow band on the plant row in bedding operation, as
                                                                                                             a post-seeding or transplant drench, as a side-dress after planting and
                                                                                                             incorporated 1 or more inches, or through a drip irrigation system.
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                 0.25 to 0.38 lb          21        Do not follow soil application with foliar application of any
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F               7 to 10.5 fl oz                                        neonicotinoid insecticide. Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May
                     (various) 2F                     16 to 24 fl oz                                         be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant
                                                                                                             water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigatin
                                                                                                             using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information
                                                                                                             on approved application methods. Will also control aphids and
                                                                                                             cucumber beetles.
                     pyriproxifen, MOA 7C              8 to 10 fl oz     0.054 to 0.067 lb          7        Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make
                     (Knack) 0.86 EC                                                                         applications closer than 14 days apart.
                     spiromesifen, MOA 23             7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.11 to 0.13 lb           7        Do not make more than 3 applications per season.
                     (Oberon) 2 SC
                     thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                    Do not follow soil application with foliar application of any
                     (Platinum) 2 SC                   5 to 11 fl oz      0.08 to 0.17 lb          30        neonicotinoid insecticide.
                                                                                                             Platinum may be applied to direct seeded crops in-furrow at seed
                     (Actara) 25 WDG                   3 to 5.5 oz       0.047 to 0.086 lb          0
                                                                                                             depth, or post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip
                                                                                                             irrigation. Do not exceed 11 fl oz per acre per season. Check label for
                                                                                                             plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
                                                                                                             Actara is for foliar application only.



SWEET CORN
Corn earworm, Fall transgenic sweet corn varieties                                                           Highly effective against European corn borer. Under very high
armyworm, European expressing Bt protein                                                                     pressure from corn earworm, additional insecticide applications
corn borer                                                                                                   may be required to prevent damage to the ear tips. Suppresses fall
                                                                                                             armyworm, but insecticide applications may be required to prevent
                                                                                                             damage when populations are heavy.
                     beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3          1.6 to 2.8 fl oz       0.0125 to               0        Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per season.
                     (Baythroid) XL                                          0.022 lb
                     bifenthrin, MOA 3               2.1 to 6.4 fl oz     0.03 to 0.1 lb            1        Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. Do not graze for 30 days after
                     (various) 2 EC                                                                          application.
                     flubendiamide                    2.0 to 3.0 oz       0.06 to 0.09 lb           1
                     (Belt) 4 SC
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3         2.56 to 3.84       0.01 to 0.015 lb           1
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                     fl oz
                     esfenvalerate, MOA 3             4.8 to 9.6 oz       0.03 to 0.05 lb           1        Check label for variety limitations and grazing restrictions. Do not
                     (Asana XL) 0.66 EC                                                                      apply more than 1.2 lb a.i. permethrin, 0.48 lb a.i. Warrior, or 0.5 lb
                                                                                                             a.i. Asana XL each season. Apply as needed until first tassel shoots
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3        2.65 to 3.8 oz      0.02 to 0.03 lb           1
                                                                                                             appear in whorl. To 72 protect ears, spray when tassel shoots first
                     (Warrior) 1 CS
                                                                                                             appear, 3 days later, then every 2 to 3 days for 5 applications.
                     methomyl, MOA 1A                                     0.23 to 0.45 lb           0        Following the fifth application, apply at 2- to 3-days until harvest. Corn
                     (Lannate) 90 SP                    4 to 6 oz                                            tasseling after July 1 may require daily applications from first silk
                     (Lannate) 2.4 LV                 0.75 to 1.5 pt                                         through 60% dry silk followed by applications at 2-day intervals until
                     permethrin, MOA 3                                     0.1 to 0.2 lb            1        harvest to ensure worm-free ears. Corn earworms and fall armyworms
                     (various) 25 WP                    6 to 12 oz                                           present in the late whorl stage must be controlled before tassel
                     (various) 3.2 EC                   4 to 8 oz                                            emergence to prevent migration to ears. Do not use methomyl for
                                                                                                             European corn borer control.

                     indoxacarb, MOA 22               2.5 to 3.5 oz      0.045 to 0.065 lb          3        For control of fall armyworm and European corn borer in whorl stage
                     (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                         only. Do not apply more than 14 oz Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per
                                                                                                             crop. Minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. Make no more than
                                                                                                             4 applications per season.

                     spinetoram, MOA 5                  3 to 6 oz        0.023 to 0.047 lb          1        Do not apply more than 36 oz per acre per year.
                     (Radiant) 1 SC

                     thiodicarb, MOA 1A                20 to 30 oz        0.5 to 0.75 lb            0        After silk initiation, do not exceed 7.5 lb (300 fl oz) per acre each
                     (Larvin) 3.2 EC                                                                         season. Do not feed to livestock. Larvin may not control corn
                                                                                                             earworm.
                     zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3         2.8 to 4.0 oz      0.018 to 0.025 lb          3        Do not exceed 24 fl oz per season.
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.08 EC




126                                                                                                                                            Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                Minimum Interval
                                                           Amount of             Active         (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action         Formulation        Ingredient Per     Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation                 Per Acre              Acre            and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
SWEET CORN (continued)
Cutworm               bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.1 to 6.4 fl oz     0.03 to 0.1 lb           1        Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. Do not graze for 30 days after
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                            application.
                      beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3             0.8 to 1.6 fl oz       0.007 to               0        Apply as soil broadcast or as band directed at the base of the plants.
                      (Baythroid) XL                                            0.013 lb                        May be applied before, during, or after planting. Use lower rate for
                                                                                                                black cutworm under low or no trash conditions. Use higher rate for
                                                                                                                other cutworms and high trash conditions under no or low tillage
                                                                                                                conditions.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3                   4.8 oz               0.03                 1
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
Flea beetle,          bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.1 to 6.4 fl oz     0.03 to 0.1 lb           1        Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. Do not graze for 30 days after
Grasshopper,          (various) 2 EC                                                                            application.
Japanese beetle,
Rootworm beetle
Sap beetle            bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.1 to 6.4 fl oz     0.03 to 0.1 lb           1        Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. Do not graze for 30 days after
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                            application. Direct spray to the ear zone of the plant.
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                             1 lb                2        Infestations usually associated with prior ear damage. Populations
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                           2 lb                                              build on overmature and damaged fruit and vegetables. Sanitation is
                      (Sevin) 80 S                           1.25 lb                                            important.
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                        1 qt
                      encapsulated methyl parathion,        2 to 4 pt          0.5 to 1 lb             4
                      MOA 1A
                      (Penncap-M) 2 FM
Southern corn billbug, Seed treatments:                                            —                  —         Seed treatments are applied by commercial seed treaters only. Not
Rootworm, Wireworm clothianidin, MOA 4A                  1.13 fl oz per                                         for use in hopper bins, slurry mixes, or any other type of on-farm
                       (Poncho 600)                      80,000 seeds                                           treatment.
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A              4 to 8 oz per
                       (Gaucho 600)                        cwt seed
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                     6.4 to 8     0.005 to 0.006 lb            —         Apply as a 5- to 7-in. T-band over an open seed furrow. Position in
                      (various) 1.5 G                    oz/1,000 linear                                        front of press wheel over the row. Granules must be incorporated into
                                                            ft of row                                           the top 1 in. of soil using tines, chains, or other suitable equipment.
                                                                                                                Not for billbug.
                      chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                    4 pt                 2 lb                0        Preplant incorporation treatment. For postemergence treatment use
                      (Lorsban) 4 E                                                                             2 to 3 pt.
                      terbufos, MOA 1B                       Banded:                                            Place granules in a 7-in. band over the row directly behind the planter
                      (Counter) 15 G                     6.5 to 13 lb (40                                       shoe in front of press wheel.
                                                        in. row spacing)        1 to 2 lb             —         Place granules directly in the seed furrow behind the planter shoe.
                                                                OR                                              Rotation is advised.
                                                            8 to 16 oz/
                                                           1,000 ft row            1 lb               —
                                                            In-Furrow:
                                                               6.5 lb
                                                           (40 in. row)
                                                                OR
                                                          8 oz/10 ft row
SWEETPOTATO
Aphids, Leafhopper,   Aphids, leafhoppers, and whiteflies are rarely a problem in North Carolina.
Whitefly
                      acetamiprid, MOA 4A                  1 to 1.7 oz      0.044 to 0.075 oz          7        Do not make more than 4 applications per season. Do not apply more
                      (Assail) 70 WP                                                                            frequently than once every 7 days.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                  3.5 fl oz           0.044 lb               7        Two applications may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 5
                      (various) 1.6 F                                                                           to 7 days between applications.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B                2.75 to 5.5 oz      0.086 to 0.172           14
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG
                      spirotetramat MOA 23                  4 to 5 oz        0.06 to 0.08 lb           7        Will not control leafhopper. Requires surfactant.
                      (Movento) 2 SC
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                    3 oz              0.094 lb              14        Two applications of Actara may be needed to control heavy
                      (Actara) 25 WDG                                                                           populations. Allow 7 to 10 days between applications. Do not exceed
                                                                                                                a total of 6 oz of Actara per crop per season.
Armyworm, Looper,     methoxyfenozide, MOA 18             6 to 10 fl oz      0.09 to 0.16 lb           7        Damaging earworm infestations may occur in August or September.
Corn earworm,         (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                            If significant infestations are present on foliage during harvest, larvae
Hornworm                                                                                                        may feed on exposed root. Do not make more than 3 applications or
                                                                                                                apply more than 30 fl oz of Intrepid per acre per season.
                      novaluron, MOA 15                   9 to 12 fl oz     0.058 to 0.078 lb         14        Do not make more than 2 applications per crop per season.
                      (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                     6 to 8 oz       0.047 to 0.063 lb          7
                      (Radiant) 1 SC




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                127
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                Minimum Interval
                                                          Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation                Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
SWEETPOTATO (continued)
Cucumber beetle       Cucumber beetle larvae (diabrotica) are a serious pest of sweetpotato in LA and MS. Controlling adult cucumber beetles in areas with a history of diabrotica
(adults), Japanese    damage can reduce damage to roots. Foliage feeding by beetles rarely causes economic loss, and control is not warranted unless defoliation is severe.
beetle (adults),
Tortoise beetle
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                  2.1 to 6.4 fl oz   0.033 to 0.01 lb          21        Do not apply more than 0.5 lb a.i. per season.
                      (various) 2 EC                         (foliar)
                                                         3.2 to 9.6 fl oz    0.05 to 0.15 lb
                                                             (layby)
                      carbaryl, MOA 1A                                            2 lb                 7        Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed.
                      (Sevin) 50 WP                           4 lb                                              Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels
                      (Sevin) 80 S, WSB                      2.5 lb                                             requiring treatment.
                      (Sevin) XLR Plus                        2 qt
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                     6 to 8 oz       0.047 to 0.063 lb          7
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Flea beetle, Wireworm bifenthrin, MOA 3                 9.6 to 19.2 fl oz    0.15 to 0.3 lb           21        Apply as broadcast, preplant application to the soil and incorporate
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                            4 to 6 in. prior to bed formation. This use has been demonstrated
                                                                                                                to control overwintered wireworm populations and reduce damage
                      chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                        2 lb                125
                                                                                                                to roots at harvest. Chlorpyrifos will not control whitefringed beetle
                      (Lorsban) 15 G                         13.5 lb                               (60 in NC)
                                                                                                                or other grubs that attack sweetpotato. Research has shown that
                      (Lorsban) 4 E                           4 pt
                                                                                                                best control is achieved when chlorpyrifos is applied as a preplant
                                                                                                                application incorporated 4 to 6 in. deep prior to bed formation,
                                                                                                                followed by 1 or more soil-directed, incorporations of bifenthrin during
                                                                                                                routine cultivation. Bifenthrin should be directed onto each side of the
                                                                                                                bed from the drill to the middle of the furrow and incorporated with
                                                                                                                cultivating equipmet set to throw soil toward the drill. The objective is
                                                                                                                to provide a barrier of treated soil that covers the bed and furrows.
                                                                                                                Foliar sprays of various insecticides that target adults to prevent egg
                                                                                                                laying have not been shown to provide any reduction in damage to
                                                                                                                roots by wireworm larvae at harvest.
Fruit fly             pyrethrins, MOA 3                  1 gal/100,000             —                  —         Postharvest application in storage. Apply as a space fog with
                      (Pyrenone)                              cu ft                                             a mechanical or thermal generator. Do not make more than 10
                                                                                                                applications.
Sweetpotato weevil    beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3             1.6 to 2.8 fl oz    0.013 to 0.022            0        Baythroid is for control of adults only.
                      (Baythroid) XL
                      phosmet, MOA 1B                        1.33 lb              1 lb                 7
                      (Imidan) 70 W
Thrips                spinetoram, MOA 5                    6 to 8 fl oz     0.047 to 0.063 lb          7
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Whitefringed beetle   phosmet, MOA 1B                        1.33 lb              1 lb                 7        Do not make more than five applications per season. Whitefringed
                      (Imidan) 70 W                                                                             beetle adults are active in July and August. Do not plant in fields with
                                                                                                                a recent history of whitefringed beetles.
TOMATO
Aphid, Flea beetle    acetamiprid, MOA 4A                   2 to 4 oz       0.038 to 0.075 lb          7        Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 5
                      (Assail) 30 SG                                                                            applications per season.
                      dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B              0.5 to 1 pt       0.25 to 0.5 lb            7        Do not exceed rate with dimethoate as leaf injury may result.
                      flonicamid, MOA 9C                    2 to 2.8        0.062 to 0.089 lb          0        Will not control flea beetle.
                      (Beleaf) 50 SG
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                      For short-term protection at planting. Admire Pro may also be applied
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                 7 to 10.5 fl oz    0.25 to 0.377 lb          21        to transplants in the planthouse not more than 7 days before planting
                      (various) 2 F                      16 to 24 fl oz                                         at the rate of 0.44 (4.6 F formulation) or 1 oz (2 F formulation) per
                                                                                                                10,000 plants.
                                                                                                                In the field, Admire Pro may be applied as an in-furrow spray directed
                                                                                                                on or below seed, a narrow surface band followed by irrigation, as a
                                                                                                                transplant drench, or through drip irrigation system.
                      (various) 1.6 F                      3.75 fl oz            0.04 lb               0        Use 1.6 F formulation for foliar applications.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B                   2.75 oz             0.086 lb               0        For aphids only.
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG
                      spirotetramat, MOA 23                4 to 5 fl oz      0.06 to 0.08 lb           1        Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                      (Movento) 2SC
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                      Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or
                      (Platinum) 2SC                       5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb          30        transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                                drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                                Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
                      (Actara) 25 WDG                       2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.047 lb           0        Actara is for foliar applications.




128                                                                                                                                                  Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                          Minimum Interval
                                                    Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                 Insecticide, Mode of Action   Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect               Code, and Formulation           Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
TOMATO (continued)
Armyworm             Bacillus thuringiensis                                                      0        Start applications when larvae are small, and continue at 5- to 7-day
                     (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2         0.5 to 1.5 lb       0.5 to 1.5 lb                     intervals during periods of infestation.
                     (Dipel) 2X, MOA 11B2            0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb
                     (Xentari), MOA 11B1             0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb
                     chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 4 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb          1        Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                     (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                    to the root zone. See label for instructions.



                     emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz        0.0075 to               7        Apply when larvae are first observed.
                     (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                     0.015 lb
                     flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb           1
                     (Synapse) 24% WG
                     indoxacarb, MOA 22                3.5 oz             0.065 lb               3        Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per
                     (Avaunt) 30 DG                                                                       crop. The minimum interval between sprays is 5 days.
                     methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         4 to 10 oz       0.063 to 0.156 lb          1        Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants
                     (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                       and 6 to 10 oz for mid- and late-season applications.
                     novaluron, MOA 15              9-12 fl oz/A       0.058 to 0.078            1        Do not make more than 3 applications per season.
                     (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                     spinetoram, MOA 5               5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
Colorado potato      acetamiprid, MOA 4A            1.5 to 2.5 oz     0.028 to 0.047 lb          7
beetle               (Assail) 30 SG
                     chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb          1        Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                     (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                    to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                                 Use Admire Pro for soil or transplant drench treatment and 1.6 F
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F               7 fl oz              0.25 lb              21        formulation for foliar applications.
                     (various) 2 F                    16 fl oz
                     (various) 1.6 F                 3.75 fl oz            0.04 lb               0
                     spinetoram, MOA 5               5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
                     thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                 Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or
                     (Platinum) 2SC                  5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb          30        transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                          drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                          Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
                     (Actara) 25 WDG                  2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.046 lb           0        Actara is for foliar applications.
Cabbage looper,      Bacillus thuringiensis                                                      0
Hornworm, Tomato     (Dipel) DF, MOA 11B2            0.5 to 1 lb         0.5 to 1 lb
fruitworm, Pinworm   (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2         0.5 to 1.5 lb       0.5 to 1.5 lb
                     bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz    0.04 to 0.1 lb            1
                     (various) 2 EC
                     beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3        1.6 to 2.8 fl oz 0.125 to 0.022 lb            0        Do not exceed 16.8 fl oz per acre per season.
                     (Baythroid) XL

                     chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28    3.5 to 5 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb          1        Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                     (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                    to the root zone. See label for instructions.

                     emamectin benzoate, MOA 6      2.4 to 4.8 oz        0.0075 to               7
                     (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                     0.015 lb
                     esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb           1
                     (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                     fenpropathrin, MOA 3           10.667 fl oz           0.2 lb                3        Use a spray volume of 25 to 120 gal per acre. Do not exceed 2.667 pt
                     (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                     (42.667 fl oz) per acre per season.
                     flubendiamide, MOA 28            2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb           1
                     (Synapse) 24% WG
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb           5
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz
                     indoxacarb, MOA 22             2.5 to 3.5 oz     0.045 to 0.065 lb          3        Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per
                     (Avaunt) 30 WDG                                                                      crop. The minimum interval between sprays is 5 days.
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3     2.56 to 3.84 oz     0.02 to 0.03 lb           5        Do not exceed 2.88 pt per acre per season. Do not use on cherry
                     (Warrior) 1 CS                                                                       tomatoes.
                     methomyl, MOA 1A                1.5 to 3 pt       0.45 to 0.9 lb            1        Methomyl may induce leafminer infestation.
                     (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                     methoxyfenozide, MOA 18         4 to 10 oz       0.063 to 0.156 lb          1        Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants
                     (Intrepid) 2 F                                                                       and 6 to 10 oz for mid- and late-season applications. Intrepid provides
                                                                                                          suppression of pinworm only.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                          129
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                          Minimum Interval
                                                     Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                 Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect               Code, and Formulation            Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
TOMATO (continued)
Cabbage looper,      novaluron, MOA 15               9-12 fl oz/A      0.058 to 0.078            1        Do not make more than 3 applications per season.
Hornworm, Tomato     (Rimon) 0.83 EC
fruitworm, Pinworm
                     spinetoram, MOA 5                5 to 10 oz       0.04 to 0.08 lb           1
(continued)
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
                     zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.24 to 4.0 oz    0.014 to 0.025 lb          1
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Cutworm              beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3        1.6 to 2.8 fl oz 0.125 to 0.022 lb            0        Do not exceed 16.8 fl oz per acre per season.
                     (Baythroid) XL
                     esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb           1
                     (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb           5
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3     2.56 to 3.84 oz     0.02 to 0.03 lb           5        Do not exceed 2.88 pt per acre per season. Do not use on cherry
                     (Warrior) 1 CS                                                                       tomatoes.
                     zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       3.2 to 4.0 oz     0.02 to 0.025 lb           1
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Leafminer            abamectin, MOA 6                8 to 16 fl oz    0.009 to 0.0018            7        Do not exceed 48 fl oz per acre per season, or more than two
                     (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                                                   sequential applications.
                     cryomazine, MOA 17                2.66 oz            0.125 lb               0        See label for plant-back restrictions.
                     (Trigard) 75 WP
                     spinetoram, MOA 5               6 to 8 fl oz     0.09 to 0.125 lb           1        Do not exceed 29 fl oz per acre per season.
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
Spider mite          abamectin, MOA 6                8 to 16 fl oz    0.009 to 0.0018            7        Do not exceed 48 fl oz per acre per season, or more than two
                     (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                                                   sequential applications.
                     bifenazate, MOA 25             0.75 to 1.0 lb     0.375 to 0.5 lb           3        Do not make more than one application per season.
                     (Acramite) 50 WS
                     fenpyroximate MOA 21               2 pts              0.1 lb                3        Do not make more than two applications per season.
                     (Portal) 0.4EC
                     spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.1 to 0.13 lb            7        Do not exceed 3 applications per season.
                     (Oberon) 2 SG
Stink bug            bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz    0.04 to 0.1 lb            1
                     (various) 2 EC
                     fenpropathrin, MOA 3            10.667 fl oz          0.2 lb                3        Use a spray volume of 25 to 120 gal per acre. Do not exceed 2.667 pt
                     (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                     (42.667 fl oz) per acre per season.
                     gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3       2.56 to 3.84      0.01 to 0.015 lb           5
                     (Proaxis) 0.5 EC                   fl oz
                     lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3     2.56 to 3.84 oz     0.02 to 0.03 lb           5
                     (Warrior) 1 CS
                     thiamethoxam, MOA 4A            3 to 5.5 oz      0.047 to 0.086 lb          0        Do not exceed 11 oz Actara per acre per season.
                     (Actara) 25 WDG
                     zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       3.2 to 4.0 oz     0.020 to 0.025 lb          1
                     (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC
Thrips               dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B         0.5 to 1 pt       0.25 to 0.5 lb            7
                     dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb          1        See comments under Whitefly for application instructions and
                     (Venom) 70 SG                                    0.226 to 0.268 lb                   restrictions.
                                                    5 to 6 oz (soil)                            21
                     methamidophos, MOA 1B           1.5 to 2 pt        0.75 to 1 lb             7        Check 24c label for state registration.
                     (Monitor) 4 E
                     methomyl, MOA 1A                1.5 to 3 pt       0.45 to 0.9 lb            1        On foliage as needed.
                     (Lannate) 2.4 LV
                     novaluron, MOA 15               9-12 fl oz/A      0.058 to 0.078            1        Do not make more than 3 applications per season.
                     (Rimon) 0.83 EC
                     spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 10 oz      0.047 to 0.08 lb           1        Will control thrips on foliage, not in flowers.
                     (Radiant) 1 SC
Whitefly             acetamiprid, MOA 4A             2.5 to 4 oz      0.05 to 0.075 lb           7        Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 5
                     (Assail) 30 SG                                                                       applications per season.
                     buprofezin, MOA 16             9 to 13.6 fl oz    0.25 to 0.38 lb           7        Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than
                     (Courier) 40 SC                                                                      twice per crop cycle, and allow 28 days between applications.
                     dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb          1        Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid
                     (Venom) 70 SG                  5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb          21        insecticides (Actara, Provado, or Venom). Use only one application
                                                                                                          method. Soil applications may be applied in a narrow band on the
                                                                                                          plant row in bedding operation, as a post-seeding or transplant
                                                                                                          drench, as a side-dress after planting and incorporated 1 or more in.,
                                                                                                          or through a drip irrigation system. May also control stink bugs.




130                                                                                                                                          Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                 Minimum Interval
                                                           Amount of             Active          (Days) Between
CROP                   Insecticide, Mode of Action        Formulation        Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect                 Code, and Formulation                Per Acre              Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
TOMATO (continued)
Whitefly (continued)   imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                                             21          Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                 16 to 24 fl oz     0.25 to 0.375 lb                       insecticides (Actara, Provado, or Venom). Apply through a drip
                       (various) 2 F                      7 to 10.5 fl oz    0.25 to 0.375 lb                       irrigation system or as a transplant drench with sufficient water to
                                                                                                                    reach root zone. As a sidedress, apply 2 to 4 in. to the side of the
                                                                                                                    row and incorporate 1 or more in. Residual activity will increase with
                                                                                                                    increasing rates applied. Use higher rate for late-season or continuous
                                                                                                                    infestations. Trickle irrigation applications will also control aphids and
                                                                                                                    stinkbugs.
                       pyriproxyfen, MOA 7C                 8 to 10 oz       0.054 to 0.067 lb          14          Do not apply more than two applications per growing season, and do
                       (Knack) 0.86EC                                                                               not make applications closer than 14 days.
                       spiromesifen, MOA 23               7 to 8.5 fl oz      0.11 to 0.13 lb            7          Do not make more than 3 applications per season.
                       (Oberon) 2 SC
                       spirotetramat, MOA 23               4 to 5 fl oz       0.06 to 0.08 lb            1          Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Requires surfactant.
                       (Movento) 2SC
                       thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                         Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid
                       (Platinum) 2SC                       5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb           30          insecticides (Actara, Provado, or Venom). Platinum may be applied
                                                                                                                    to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post
                       (Actara)                            3 to 5.5 oz       0.047 to 0.086 lb           0          seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not
                                                                                                                    exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-
                                                                                                                    back restrictions for a number of crops.
                                                                                                                    Actara is for foliar applications.
Wireworm               diazinon, MOA 1B                      2 to 4 qt           2 to 4 lb              —           Broadcast before planting and incorporate. Wireworms may be a
                       (Diazinon) AG 500 or 50 WP                                                                   problem in fields previously in pasture, corn, or soybean.
TURNIP
Aphid, Flea beetle,    dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B                0.5 pt              0.25 lb               14
Harlequin bug,
                       imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                  0.158 to 0.377 lb          21          Admire Pro is applied to the soil as an in-furrow spray directed at or
Vegetable weevil,
                       (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                4.4 to 10.5 fl oz                                          below seed; at planting as a post-seeding or transplant drench; or
Yellow margined leaf
                       (various) 2 F                      10 to 24 fl oz                                            through drop irrigation. For bedding operations, apply in a narrow
beetle
                                                                                                                    band spray directly below eventual seed row 14 or fewer days before
                                                                                                                    planting. Imidacloprid will not control Harlequin bug.
                       (various) 1.6 F                       3.8 fl oz          0.0475 lb                7          1.6 F formulation is for foliar applications. Imidacloprid will not control
                                                                                                                    Harlequin bug or flea beetle.
                       pymetrozine, MOA 9B                   2.75 oz             0.086 lb                7          Will only control aphids.
                       (Fulfill) 50 WDG
                       thiamethoxam, MOA 4A               1.7 to 4.01 oz      0.08 to 0.17 lb      Apply at plant   Will not control vegetable weevil or yellow margined leaf beetle.
                       (Platinum) 75 SG
                       (Actara) 25 WDG                     1.5 to 3 oz       0.023 to 0.047lb            7
Cabbage looper,        Insecticide-resistant populations, widespread in the Southeast, may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. To manage resistance, avoid
Diamondback moth       transplants from Georgia and Florida, and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides
                       often aggravate diamondback moth problems. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated.
                       Bacillus thuringiensis                                                            0          On foliage every 7 days as needed.
                       (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2              0.5 to 1.5 lb       0.5 to 1.5 lb
                       (Dipel) 2 X, MOA 11B2                   8 oz               0.5 lb
                       (Dipel) 4 L, MOA 11B2                 1 to 2 pt          0.5 to 1 lb
                       (Xentari) WDG, MOA 11B1              0.5 to 1 lb             —
                       emamectin benzoate, MOA 6          2.4 to 4.8 oz         0.0075 to               14          For turnip greens only.
                       (Proclaim) 5 WDG                                          0.015 lb
                       indoxacarb, MOA 22                 2.5 to 3.5 oz      0.045 to 0.65 lb            3          Avaunt may be applied only to turnip greens, not root turnips.
                       (Avaunt) 30 WDG
                       spinetoram, MOA 5                   3 to 6 fl oz      0.047 to 0.094 lb           1
                       (Radiant) 1 SC

                       Do not apply the following pyrethroids if diamondback moth larvae are present.
                       beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3            1.6 to 3.2 fl oz     0.025 to 0.5 lb            0          Do not use if diamondback moth’s larvae are present.
                       (Baythroid) XL
                       cyfluthrin, MOA 3                 1.6 to 3.2 fl oz     0.025 to 0.5 lb            0
                       (Tombstone) 2 EC
                       esfenvalerate, MOA 3              5.8 to 9.6 fl oz     0.03 to 0.05 lb            7
                       (Asana) XL
                       permethrin, MOA 3                                      0.05 to 0.01 lb            1
                       (various) 25 WP                    3.2 to 6.4 oz
                       (various) 3.2 EC                     2 to 4 oz
Root maggot            chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B                                                             21          Irrigation or rainfall after application will enhance activity.
                       (Lorsban) 4 E                        1 to 2 pt          0.5 to 1.0 lb
                       (Lorsban) 75 WDG                    1.1 to 1.8               —
                                                         oz/1,000 ft row




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                      131
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                                 Minimum Interval
                                                         Amount of             Active            (Days) Between
CROP                  Insecticide, Mode of Action       Formulation        Ingredient Per        Last Application
Insect                Code, and Formulation               Per Acre              Acre               and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
WATERMELON
Insecticide applications in cucurbits should be made in late evening to protect pollinating insects. Refer to the pollination section of the general production
recommendations in this publication for more information about protecting pollinators.
Aphid                 acetamiprid, MOA 4A                 2.5 to 4 oz      0.047 to 0.075 lb            0
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                              Allow 7 days between applications.
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A                9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                        (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                          3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                            (foliar)
                      dimethoate, MOA 1B                                         0.5 lb                 3
                      2E                                     2 pt
                      2.67 E                                1.5 pt
                      flonicamid, MOA 9C                   2 to 2.8        0.062 to 0.089 lb            0
                      (Beleaf) 50 SG
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                  0.25 to 0.38 lb             21        Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May apply preplant; at
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                7 to 10.5 fl oz                                           planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill
                      (various) 2 F                     16 to 24 fl oz                                            drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure
                                                                                                                  drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved
                                                                                                                  application method. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.
                      pymetrozine, MOA 9B                  2.75 oz             0.086 lb                 14        Apply before populations reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5
                      (Fulfill) 50 WDG                                                                            oz per acre per season.
                      thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                5 to 11 oz        0.08 to 0.17 lb             30        Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or
                      (Platinum) 2SC                                                                              transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through
                                                                                                                  drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.
                                                                                                                  Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
                      (Actara) 25 WDG                     1.5 to 3 oz      0.023 to 0.047 lb            0         Actara is for foliar applications.
Armyworm, Cabbage     Bacillus thuringiensis                                                            0         On foliage as needed.
looper                (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2             0.5 to 1.5 lb       0.5 to 1.5 lb
                      (Dipel) DF, MOA 11B2                   8 oz               0.5 lb
                      chlorantraniliprole, MOA 28        3.5 to 5 fl oz    0.045 to 0.065 lb            1         Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly
                      (Coragen) 1.67 SC                                                                           to the root zone. See label for instructions.
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3               4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      fenpropathrin, MOA 3              10.6 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb              7         May improve insect control with NIS. Under severe pressure, use the
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                            high rate. Do not apply more than 0.8 lb (a.i.) per acre per season.
                      flubendiamide, MOA 28                2 to 3 oz       0.03 to 0.045 lb             1
                      (Synapse) 24% WG
                      methoxyfenozide, MOA 18            4 to 10 fl oz      0.06 to 0.16 lb             3         Use higher rates against large larvae.
                      (Intrepid) 2 F
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                      0.1 to 0.2 lb              0
                      (various) 25 W                    6.4 to 12.8 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                    4 to 8 fl oz
                      spinetoram, MOA 5                   5 to 10 oz        0.04 to 0.08 lb             3
                      (Radiant) 1 SC
Cucumber beetle       acetamiprid, MOA 4A                2.5 to 5.3 oz      0.047 to 0.1 lb             0
                      (Assail) 30 SG
                      bifenthrin, MOA 3                 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz     0.04 to 0.1 lb             3         Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom.
                      (various) 2 EC                                                                              Allow 7 days between applications.
                      dinotefuran MOA 4A               1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb              1
                      (Venom) 70 SG                     5 to 6 oz (soil 0.226 to 0.268 lb               21
                      clothianidin, MOA 4A                9 to 12 oz       0.15 to 2.0 (soil);      21 (foliar)   Soil application at plant only.
                      (Belay) 2.13 SC                        (soil);       0.05 to 0.067 lb
                                                          3 to 4 fl oz          (foliar)
                                                            (foliar)
                      esfenvalerate, MOA 3               4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb             3
                      (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                      fenpropathrin, MOA 3              10.6 to 16 oz        0.2 to 0.3 lb              7         May improve insect control with NIS. Under severe pressure, use the
                      (Danitol) 2.4 EC                                                                            high rate. Do not apply more than 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season.
                      imidacloprid, MOA 4A                                  0.25 to 0.38 lb             21        Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at
                      (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                7 to 10.5 fl oz                                           planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill
                      (various) 2 F                     16 to 24 fl oz                                            drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure
                                                                                                                  drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved
                                                                                                                  application method. Will also control aphids and whiteflies.
                      permethrin, MOA 3                                          0.1 lb                 0
                      (various) 25 W                        6.4 oz
                      (various) 3.2 EC                      4 fl oz



132                                                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10. INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
                                                                                         Minimum Interval
                                                    Amount of            Active          (Days) Between
CROP                Insecticide, Mode of Action    Formulation       Ingredient Per      Last Application
Insect              Code, and Formulation            Per Acre             Acre             and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
WATERMELON (continued)
Cutworm             esfenvalerate, MOA 3           4.8 to 9.6 oz      0.03 to 0.05 lb           3
                    (Asana XL) 0.66 EC
                    permethrin, MOA 3                                     0.2 lb                0
                    (various) 25 W                    12.8 oz
                    (various) 3.2 EC                   8 fl oz
Thrips              dimethoate, MOA 1B               See label            0.5 lb                3
                    (various brands and
                    formulations)
                    dinotefuran, MOA 4A              1 to 4 oz       0.04 to 0.179 lb           1
                    (Venom) 70 SG
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                6 to 10 oz      0.047 to 0.08 lb           3        Not effective against leafhopper.
                    (Radiant) 1 SC
Leafminer           abamectin, MOA 6                 8 to 16 oz      0.009 to 0.0018            7
                    (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                      oz
                    cyromazine, MOA 17                2.66 oz            0.125 lb               0
                    (Trigard) 75 WP
                    spinetoram, MOA 5                   8 oz             0.125 lb               3
                    (Radiant) 1 SC
Spider mite         abamectin, MOA 6                 8 to 16 oz      0.009 to 0.0018            7        Do not feed or graze vines.
                    (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC                                      oz
                    bifenazate, MOA 25             0.75 to 1.0 lb    0.0375 to 0.5 lb           3        Do not make more than one application per season.
                    (Acramite) 50 WS
                    bifenthrin, MOA 3             5.1 to 6.4 fl oz    0.08 to 0.1 lb            3        Use only for late-season, short-term suppression.
                    (various) 2 EC
                    etoxazole, MOA 10B               2 to 3 oz        0.09 to 0.135             7
                    (Zeal) 72 WSP
                    fenpropathrin, MOA 3          10.6 to 16 fl oz     0.2 to 0.3 lb            7        Use only for late-season, short-term suppression.
                    (Danitol) 2.4 EC
                    fenpyroximate MOA 21               2 pts              0.1 lb                3        Do not make more than two applications per season.
                    (Portal) 0.4EC
                    spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.1 to 0.13 lb            7        Do not exceed 3 applications per season.
                    (Oberon) 2 SG
Squash bug, Leaf-   acetamiprid, MOA 4A                5.3 oz             0.1 lb                0
footed bug          (Assail) 30 SG
                    bifenthrin, MOA 3             2.6 to 6.4 fl oz    0.04 to 0.1 lb            3        Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom.
                    (various) 2 EC                                                                       Allow 7 days between applications.
                    dinotefuran MOA 4A            1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb          1        Foliar use only.
                    (Venom) 70 SG
                    zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3       2.8 to 4 fl oz       0.0175 to               1
                    (Mustang Max) 0.8 EC                                 0.025 lb

Whitefly            acetamiprid, MOA 4A            2.5 to 5.3 oz      0.047 to 0.1 lb           0
                    (Assail) 30 SG
                    buprofezin, MOA 16             9 to 12.5 fl oz    0.25 to 0.38 lb           7        Allow at least 7 days between applications.
                    (Courier) 40 SC
                    dinotefuran, MOA 4A           1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.045 to 0.179 lb          1        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any
                    (Venom) 70 SG                  5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.226 to 0.268 lb          21        neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Do not
                                                                                                         apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using soil applications.
                                                                                                         Soil applications may be applied by a narrow band below or above
                                                                                                         the seed line at planting, by a post-seeding or transplant drench
                                                                                                         with sufficient water to ensure incorporation into the soil, or by drip
                                                                                                         irrigation.
                    imidacloprid, MOA 4A                              0.25 to 0.38 lb          21        Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any
                    (Admire Pro) 4.6 F             7 to 10.5 fl oz                                       neonicotinoid insecticides. Must be applied to the soil. Do not use a
                    (various) 2 F                  16 to 24 fl oz                                        foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide if using Admire Pro.
                                                                                                         May apply preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant
                                                                                                         water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation
                                                                                                         using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information
                                                                                                         on approved application method. Will also control aphids and
                                                                                                         cucumber beetles.
                    spiromesifen, MOA 23           7 to 8.5 fl oz     0.11 to 0.13 lb           7
                    (Oberon) 70 SC
                    thiamethoxam, MOA 4A                                                                 Apply Platinum to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant
                    (Platinum) 2 SC                  5 to 11 oz       0.078 to 0.17            30        depth, postseeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip
                                                                                                         irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season. Check label for
                                                                                                         plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.
                    (Actara) 25 WDG                 3 to 5.5 oz      0.047 to 0.086 lb          0        Actara is for foliar applications. Do not use a foliar application of any
                                                                                                         neonicotinoid insecticide if using Admire Pro.



Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                             133
TABLE 5-10A. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSECTICIDES AND MITICIDES FOR INSECT AND MITE CONTROL ON
VEGETABLES (continued on next page)
                       M. R. ABNEY, J. F. WALGENBACH, Entomology Extension; G. G. KENNEDY, Entomology Research
 Not all insecticides listed below are registered on all vegetable crops. Refer to the label before applying to a specific crop. Ratings
 are based on a consensus of vegetable entomologists in the southeastern United States.
                                (+++ very effective; ++effective; + somewhat effective; - ineffective or insufficient data)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Squash vine borer
                                                                                                     Cucumber beetles
                                                                                   Colorado potato




                                                                                                                                                                        Cabbage looper
Chemical class




                                                                                                                        Corn earworm*

                                                                                                                                        European corn



                                                                                                                                                        Fall armyworm




                                                                                                                                                                                         cabbageworm

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Diamondback
                                                                     Flea Beetle




                                                                                                                                                                                         Imported
                                                                                   beetle*
(IRAC)




                                                                                                                                                                                                       moth*
                                                                                                                                        borer
                 Common name                 Example Product
    1A           carbaryl                    Sevin                  +++                 +            ++                  +               ++             +                +                 ++            +            +
                 methamidophos               Monitor                 +                  -             -                 ++                +              +              ++                  -             -           -
                 methomyl                    Lannate                 +                  -             -                 ++                ++            ++              ++                 ++            ++           -
    1B           malathion                   Malathion              ++                  +            ++                  +                +             +                +                 ++            +            +
                 chlorpyrifos                Lorsban                 -                  -             -                  +                +              +               +                 ++            +            -
                 acephate                    Orthene                 -                  -             -                  +               +++            ++               +                 ++             -           -
                 diazinon                    Diazinon                +                  +            +                   -                 -             -               -                 ++             -           -
                 dimethoate                  Dimethoate             ++                  -             +                  -                 -             -               -                  -             -           -
      3          permethrin                  Pounce                 ++                  +            ++                 ++               ++             +               ++                +++            +           +++
                 zeta cypermethrin           Mustang Max            +++                +             +++                ++               +++            ++              ++                +++              +         +++
                 cyfluthrin                  Baythroid/enounce       ++                +              ++                ++                ++             +              ++                +++              +         +++
                 lambda cyhalothrin          Warrior                +++                +             +++                ++               +++            ++              ++                +++              +         +++
                 esfenvalerate               Asana XL                ++               ++              ++                ++                ++             +              ++                +++              +          ++
                 gamma cyhalothrin           Proaxis                +++                +             +++                ++               +++            ++              ++                +++              +         +++
                 fenpropathrin               Danitol                 ++                -              ++                ++                ++             +               +                +++              +          ++
                 bifenthrin                  Brigade                +++               +              +++                ++               ++             +               +                 +++              +         +++
                                             Admire                 +++               ++             +++
    4A           imidacloprid
                                             Provado
                                                                                                                            -                -              -               -                -             -              -
                                                                     +                ++             ++
                 acetamiprid                 Assail                  ++              +++             ++                   -                -              -               -                -              -           +
                 clothianidin                Belay/Clutch           +++              +++             ++                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
                 thiamethoxam                Platinum/Actara        +++               ++             ++                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
                 dinotefuran                 Venom                  +++              +++             ++                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
      5          spinosad                    Entrust                  -              +++              -                  ++               ++             ++              ++               +++            ++          ++
                 spinetoram                  Radiant                  -              +++              -                 +++              +++             ++              ++               +++            ++          ++
      6          emamectin benzoate          Proclaim                 -                -              -                  ++              ++              ++             +++               +++           +++          ++
                 abamectin                   AgriMek                  -              +++              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    7C           pyriproxyfen                Knack/Distance           -                -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    9B           pymetrozine                 Fulfill                  -                -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    9C           flonicamid                  Beleaf                   -                -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    10           etoxazole                   Zeal                     -                -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    11           Bt                          Dipel, various           -                -              -                   +               +               +              ++               +++            ++           +
    15           novaluron                   Rimon                    -              +++              -                 +++              +++            +++              ++               +++             +          ++
    16           buprofezin                  Courier                  -                -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    18           methoxyfenozide             Intrepid                 -                -              -                  ++              ++             +++             +++               +++            +           ++
    21           fenpyroximate               Portal                                    -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    22           indoxacarb                  Avaunt                    +             ++              +                  +++              ++             ++              +++               +++           ++           ++
    23           spiromesifen                Oberon                    -               -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
                 spirotetramat               Movento                   -               -              -                   -                -              -               -                -              -           -
    25           bifenazate                  Acramite                   -             -                   -              -                -               -              -                 -             -            -
    28           chlorantraniliprole         Coragen                    -            +++                  -             +++              +++            +++             +++               +++           +++          ++
                 flubendiamide               Synapse/Belt               -            ++                   -             +++              +++             ++             +++               +++           +++          ++

*Denotes that insecticide-resistant populations may occur in some areas and can affect the performance of insecticides.




134                                                                                                                                                                                      Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-10A. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSECTICIDES AND MITICIDES FOR INSECT AND MITE CONTROL ON
VEGETABLES (continued)

                              M. R. ABNEY, J. F. WALGENBACH, Entomology Extension; G. G. KENNEDY, Entomology Research
 Not all insecticides listed below are registered on all vegetable crops. Refer to the label before applying to a specific crop. Ratings are
 based on a consensus of vegetable entomologists in the southeastern United States.
                                   (+++ very effective; ++effective; + somewhat effective; - ineffective or insufficient data)




                                                                   Beet armyworm*




                                                                                                                                    Western Flower
Chemical class




                                                                                    Harlequin bug




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Spider mites*
                                                                                                                                                                                                    White grubs
                                                                                                    Squash bug
                                                                                    Stink bugs/




                                                                                                                                                                                        Wireworms
                                                                                                                                                               Whiteflies*


                                                                                                                                                                             Cutworms
                                                                                                                                                     Maggots
                                                                                                                 Aphids*




                                                                                                                                    Thrips*
(IRAC)




                                                                                                                           Thrips
                 Common name              Example Product
    1A           carbaryl                  Sevin                      -                 -            -             -         +          -             -          -             +         -           -               -
                 methamidophos             Monitor                    +                ++            -           +++       +++         ++             -          -             -         -           -               -
                 methomyl                  Lannate                    +                ++           ++            +        +++         ++             -          +             -         -           -               -
    1B           malathion                 Malathion                  -                 +            +             +         +          -             +          -             +         -           -               -
                 chlorpyrifos              Lorsban                    -                 -            -             -         +          -            +++         -            ++        ++          ++               -
                 acephate                  Orthene                    -                 -            -            ++        ++          -             -          +            ++         -           -               -
                 diazinon                  Diazinon                   -                 +            +            +         ++          -            ++          -             +        ++          +                -
                 dimethoate                Dimethoate                 -                ++            +           +++       +++          +             -          -             -         -           -               -
      3          permethrin                Pounce                     -                ++           ++            +          +          -             -          -            ++         -           -               -
                 zeta cypermethrin         Mustang Max                -                ++           ++            +         ++          -             -          -           +++         -           -               -
                 cyfluthrin                Baythroid/Renounce         -                ++           ++            +          +          -             -          -           +++         -           -               -
                 lambda cyhalothrin        Warrior                    -                ++           ++            +         ++          -             -          -           +++         -           -               -
                 esfenvalerate             Asana XL                   -                 +            +            +          +          -             -          -            ++         -           -               -
                 gamma cyhalothrin         Proaxis                    -                ++           ++            +         ++          -             -          -           +++         -           -               -
                 fenpropathrin             Danitol                    -                ++           ++            +          +          -             -          +            ++         -           -               +
                 bifenthrin                Brigade                    -                ++           ++            +         ++          -             +          +           +++        ++          +                +
                                           Admire                                       +           ++           +++       ++                        ++        ++                         +         ++
    4A           imidacloprid
                                           Provado
                                                                       -                                                                 -                                     -                                      -
                                                                                        -           +            +++       ++                         +         +                         -          -
                 acetamiprid               Assail                    -                  +            +           +++       ++           -             -        ++              -          -          -             -
                 clothianidin              Belay/Clutch              -                  -            -            ++         -          -            ++         -              -          +         ++             -
                 thiamethoxam              Platinum/Actara           -                 ++           ++           +++        +           -            ++        ++              -          +         +              -
                 dinotefuran               Venom                     -                 ++           ++            +        ++           -             -        ++              -          -          -             -
      5          spinosad                  Entrust                  ++                  -            -             -        ++         ++             -         -              +          -          -             -
                 spinetoram                Radiant                  ++                  -            -             -       +++         ++             -         -              +          -          -             -
      6          emamectin benzoate        Proclaim                +++                  -            -             -         -          -             -         -              +          -          -             -
                 abamectin                 AgriMek                   -                  -            -             -       ++          +              -         -              -          -          -            +++
    7C           pyriproxyfen              Knack/Distance            -                  -            -             -         -          -             -        ++              -          -          -             -
    9B           pymetrozine               Fulfill                   -                  -            -           +++         -          -             -         +              -          -          -             -
    9C           flonicamid                Beleaf                    -                  -            -           +++         -          -             -         -              -          -          -             -
    10           etoxazole                 Zeal                      -                  -            -             -         -          -             -         -              -          -          -            +++
    11           Bt                        Dipel, various           +                   -            -             -         -          -             -         -              -          -          -             -
    15           novaluron                 Rimon                   +++                 +            +              -       ++          ++             -        ++              -          -          -             -
    16           buprofezin                Courier                   -                  -            -             -         -          -             -        ++              -          -          -             -
    18           methoxyfenozide           Intrepid                +++                  -            -             -         -          -             -         -              -          -          -             -
    21           fenpyroximate             Portal                    -                  -            -             -         -          -             -         -              -          -          -            +++
    22           indoxacarb                Avaunt                  +++                  -            -             -         -          -             -         -              +          -          -             -
    23           spiromesifen              Oberon                    -                  -            -             -         -          -             -        +               -          -          -            +++
                 spirotetramat             Movento                   -                  -            -           ++          -          -             -        ++              -          -          -             -
    25           bifenazate                Acramite                  -                  -            -             -         -          -             -         -              -          -          -            +++
    28           chlorantraniliprole       Coragen                 +++                  -            -             -        +           -             -        ++              -          -          -             -
                 flubendiamide             Synapse/Belt            +++                  -            -             -         -          -             -         -              -          -          -             -

*Denotes that insecticide-resistant populations may occur in some areas and can affect the performance of insecticides.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                                                   135
                                            INSECT CONTROL FOR GREENHOUSE VEGETABLES
                    J. F. WALGENBACH and M. R. ABNEY, Entomology Extension; G. G. KENNEDY, Entomology Research

Sound cultural practices, such as sanitation and insect-free transplants, help prevent insect establishment and subsequent
damage. Separate plant production houses, use of yellow sticky traps, and timely sprays will help prevent whitefly buildup. Use of
Encarsia parasites for whitefly and other biological control agents in conjunction with use of pesticides is encouraged. Unless a
pesticide label specifically states that a product cannot be used in a greenhouse vegetable crop, the product can be used on those
crops for which it is registered. However, pesticides behave differently in the field and the greenhouse, and for many products,
information is not available on greenhouse crop phytotoxicity and residue retention.

TABLE 5-11. INSECT CONTROL FOR GREENHOUSE VEGETABLES
                                                                                    Minimum Interval
                                                                                    (Days) Between
CROP                                                                                Last Application
Insect               Insecticide and Formulation        Amount of Formulation         and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CUCUMBER
Aphid                malathion, MOA 1B (various)                                           1         Apply as needed in the closed greenhouse in air above the plants. Spray
                     10 A                                   1 lb/50,000 cu ft                        when the temperature is 70 to 85°F. Keep ventilator closed for 2 hr or
                     57 EC                                 1 qt/100 gal water                        overnight. Ventilate before reentry. Hazardous to honey bees.
                     25 WP                                 4 lb/100 gal water
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                 0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants           0         Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                                                              drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur.
                                                                                                     Make only one application per crop per season.
                     insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC       2 tbsp/gal water               0
Cabbage looper       Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11      0.5 to 1 lb OR 3 pt/100          —
                     (various)                                  gal water

Spider mite          insecticidal soap (M-pede) 49 EC       2 tbsp/gal water                         Use predatory mites.
Whitefly, Leafminer malathion, MOA 1B (various)                                            1         For details see CUCUMBER — Aphid
                    10 A                                    1 lb/50,000 cu ft
                    50 WP                                  1 qt/100 gal water
                    25 WP                                  4 lb/100 gal water
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                 0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants           0         Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                                                              drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur.
                                                                                                     Make only one application per crop per season.
                     insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC       2 tbsp/gal water               0         May be used alone or in combination. Acts as an exciter.
                     Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP)     0.25 lb/20 gal water             0
                                                                                                     Apply when whiteflies observed. Repeat in 4- to 5-day intervals.



LETTUCE
Aphid, Leafminer,    pyrethrins and PBO, MOA 3             12 oz/20 gal water              0         May be used alone or tank mixed with a companion insecticide (see label
Whitefly             (Pyrenone)                                                                      for details).
                     malathion, MOA 1B (various)                                                     Do not use endosulfan or naled on lettuce.
                     10 A                                   1 lb/50,000 cu ft             10
                     57 EC                                 1 qt/100 gal water             14         Use lacewings or midges.
                     25 WP                                 4 lb/100 gal water             14
                     insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC       2 tbsp/gal water               0         May be used alone or in combination. Acts as an exciter.
                     Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP)     0.25 lb/20 gal water             0
                                                                                                     Apply when whiteflies observed. Repeat in 4- to 5-day intervals.




Cabbage looper       malathion, MOA 1B (various)
                     10 A                                   1 lb/50,000 cu ft             10
                     57 EC                                 1 qt/100 gal water             14
                     25 WP                                 4 lb/100 gal water             14
                     Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11     0.5 to 1.25/100 gal water          0
                     (Javelin) WG
Spider mite          insecticidal soap (M-Pede)49 EC        2 tbsp/gal water               0
TOMATO
Aphid                imidacloprid, MOA 4A                 0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants           0         Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                                                              drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur.
                                                                                                     Make only one application per crop per season. Will also control whiteflies.
                     malathion, MOA 1B (various)
                     10 A                                   1 lb/50,000 cu ft            15 hr
                     57 EC                                 1 qt/100 gal water              1
                     25 WP                                 4 lb/100 gal water              1
                     insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC       2 tbsp/gal water               0         May be used alone or in combination. Acts as an exciter.
                     Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP)     0.25 lb/20 gal water             0         Apply when whiteflies are observed. Repeat in 4-to 5-day intervals.




136                                                                                                                                        Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-11. INSECT CONTROL FOR GREENHOUSE VEGETABLES
                                                                                        Minimum Interval
                                                                                        (Days) Between
CROP                                                                                    Last Application
Insect               Insecticide and Formulation         Amount of Formulation            and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
TOMATO (continued)
Armyworm             malathion, MOA 1B (various)                                                         See instructions for Aphids (above). Hazardous to honey bees.
                     10 A                                    1 lb/50,000 cu ft               15 hr
                     57 EC                                  1 qt/100 gal water                 1
                     25 WP                                  4 qt/100 gal water                 1
                     Bacillus thuringiensis                                                    0
                     (Javelin) WG                         0.5 lb to 1.25 lb/100 gal
                                                                    water
                     (Agree) WP                                    1 to 2 lb
Cabbage looper       Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11                                            0
                     (various)                           0.5 to 1 lb or 2 to 3 pt/100
                                                                  gal water
                     (Javelin) WG                       0.5 to 1.25 lb/100 gal water
                     (Dipel) DF                                    1 to 2 lb
Climbing cutworm     See Armyworm
Leafminer            malathion, MOA 1B (various) 10 A        1 lb/50,000 cu ft               15 hr       See TOMATO—Aphid.
                     diazinon, MOA 1B                     4 to 8 oz/100 gal water                        Keep ventilators closed for 2 hr or overnight. Plant injury may result
                     (Diazinon, Spectracide)                                                   3         if labeling directions are not followed. For use by members of N.C.
                     (AG 500) 50 WP                                                                      Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Association only.
Millipede, Cricket   malathion, MOA 1B                    Follow label directions                        Apply to soil at base of plants. Do not contaminate fruit.
                     (various) 5 D
Pinworm              Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11      0.5 to 1 lb/100 gal water             0
                     (Dipel) DF or
                     (Javelin) WG
Slug                 metaldehyde (various) bait           Follow label directions                        Apply to soil surface around plants. Do not contaminate fruit.
Spider mite          naled (Dibrom) 60 EC                 5 fl oz/50,000 cu ft OR              1         See TOMATO — Aphid.
                                                             1 pt/100 gal water                          Use predatory mites.
                     insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC         2 tbsp/gal water                 0
Thrips               Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP)      0.25 lb / 20 gal water              0         Use screens on intake vents.
                                                                                                         Apply when whiteflies observed. Repeat in 4- to 5-day intervals.


Tomato fruitworm     See Armyworm
Whitefly             malathionm MOA 1B (various)                                                         Apply as needed in the closed greenhouse in the air above the plants.
                     10 A                                    1 lb/50,000 cu ft               15 hr       Spray when the temperature is 70 to 80oF. Sprays every second day may
                     57 EC                                  1 qt/100 gal water                 1         be needed. Keep ventilator closed for 2 hr. Hazardous to honey bees.
                     25 WP                                  4 lb/100 gal water                 1
                     imidacloprid, MOA 4A                  0.6 fl oz/1,000 plants              0         Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches, micro-irrigation, or
                     (Admire Pro) 4.6 F                                                                  drip irrigation. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur.
                                                                                                         Make only one application per crop per season. Will also control aphids.
                     insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC         2 tbsp/gal water                 0
                     pyrethrins and PBO, MOA 3              12 oz/ 20 gal water                0         May be used alone or tank mixed with a companion insecticide. (See label
                     (Pyrenone)                                                                          for details.)
                     Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP)      0.25 lb/ 20 gal water               0         Apply when whiteflies are observed. Repeat in 4- to 5-day intervals.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                           137
                                          INSECT CONTROL FOR STORED PRODUCTS
                               S. B. BAMBARA, M. G. WALDVOGEL and H. J. BURRACK, Entomology Extension

TABLE 5-12A. INSECT CONTROL FOR STORED PRODUCTS — ON FARM (empty bin treatment)
Insects                        Material                                             Dosage                    Precautions and Remarks
ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH,          For Bin Treatment Only (Sweep out bin. Spray walls, floors, and ceilings to point of run-off before storing grain.)
INDIANMEAL MOTH, RICE          Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel, Biobit, etc.)         Read label                B.t. formulations are approved for organic grains. For caterpillar pests only.
WEEVIL, MAIZE WEEVIL,
FLOUR BEETLE, CADELLE,         chlorpyrifos + deltamethrin (Storcide II 1.8 EC)     1.8 fl oz/gal water
and other beetles
                               cyfluthrin
                               20 WP                                                See label
                               (Tempo 2 E)                                          See label                 Tempo for commercial use only.
                               malathion 57 EC                                      1 pt/3 gal water          Malathion is not effective against Indianmeal moth or red flour beetle. Many
                                                                                                              common stored grains insects have developed resistance to malathion.
                               methoprene (Diacon II)
                               bins, cracks, crevices, topdress                     1 lb/3 gal water
                               methoxychlor                                         1 qt/2.5 gal water
                               50 WP
                               25 EC
                               pyrethrins (Pyrenone 6 EC)                           1 pt/7.4 gal water

                               To Control Pests Under Perforated Floor
                               chloropicrin (Chlor-o-pic)                                                     Professional fumigation is strongly advised. Requires F-Phase certification
                                                                                                              under the N.C. Structural Pest Control Laws, unless applied by owner/
                                                                                                              operator.




TABLE 5-12B. INSECT CONTROL FOR STORED PRODUCTS — CORN
                                            Grain Protectants
Insects                        Material                                   Dosage                                    Precautions and Remarks
ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH,          methoprene (Diacon II)                     7.1 oz/1,000 bu                           Appy to clean grain that is not infested. Prevents insect reproduction.
INDIANMEAL MOTH, RICE                                                                                               Does not kill adults.
WEEVIL, MAIZE WEEVIL,          methoxychlor 50 WP                         4 oz/bu                                   For Seed Corn: Do not use as feed or food. Use as slurry or dry.
FLOUR BEETLE, CADELLE,         pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic) 57 EC         9 to 12 fl oz in 5 gal water or soybean   Apply uniformly as grain enters storage. Also labeled for grain
and other insects as labeled                                              oil/1,000 bu                              sorghum. Corn or grain sorghum not previously treated with Actellic
                                                                                                                    may be topdressed with a split application of 3 oz 57 EC in 2 gal
                                                                                                                    water per 1,000 sq ft.
                               pyrethins (Pyrenone) 6 EC                  1 pt/3.6 gal water                        Apply at 4 to 5 gal per 1,000 bu to grain stream being turned into final
                                                                                                                    storage.
INDIANMEAL MOTH,               Bacillus thuringiensis (DiPel) WP          1 lb/10 gal water for 500 sq ft grain     Apply as a surface treatment immediately after filling the grain bin.
ALMOND MOTH                                                               surface area                              Treat the top 4 in. by treating the surface and mixing into the top 4
                                                                          4 lb/500 sq ft                            in. Not needed if Actellic was used. Approved for organic corn. Many
                                                                                                                    pests are resistant to malathion.
                               dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona)                  1 strip/1,000 cu ft of head space         Hang low in head space over commodity. Does not work well if
                               20% resin strip                                                                      commodity is peaked into roof area. Not needed if Actellic was used.
                               methoprene (Diacon II)                     7.1 oz/1,000 bu                           Appy to clean grain that is not infested. Prevents insect reproduction.
                                                                                                                    Does not kill adults. Also for topdressing.
                                                  Fumigants (professional fumigation is strongly advised)
Insects                        Material                                   Dosage                                    Precautions and Remarks
ALL                            aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin,             60 to 180 tablets                         Professional fumigation is strongly advised. Requires F-Phase
                               Detia, Fumitoxin)                          OR 120 to 300 pellets                     license under the N.C. Structural Pest Control Law, unless applied by
                                                                          OR equivalent/1,000 bu                    owner/operator. Normally requires 5 days at 70°F.
                               methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas)                2 lb/1,000 cu ft                          Recirculation advised for good results. Professional fumigation is
                                                                                                                    strongly advised. Requires F-Phase license under the N.C. Structural
                                                                                                                    Pest Control Law, unless applied by owner/operator.




138                                                                                                                                                   Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-12C. INSECT CONTROL FOR STORED PRODUCTS — SMALL GRAINS (wheat, oats, grain sorghum, barley, and rye)
                                            Grain Protectants
Insects                     Material                                  Dosage                                  Precautions and Remarks
LESSER GRAIN BORER,         chlorpyrifos + deltamethrin (Storcide     5 ppm                                   See label for amounts to apply to different small grains.
SAWTOOTHED GRAIN            II 1.8 EC)
BEETLE, MEALWORM,           methoprene (Diacon II)                    4.1 to 7.7 oz/1,000 bu                  See label for specific rate for each type of grain. Apply Diacon only to
MITES, MOTHS, and other                                                                                       clean grain. Does not kill adult pests. Prevents reproduction.
beetles as labeled          primiphos-methyl (Actellic 5E)            9.2 to 12.3 oz/1,000 bu                 Use on grain sorghum only--not labeled for use on wheat or other
                                                                                                              small grains.
                            pyrethrins (Pyrenone) 6 EC                1 pt/3.6 gal water                      Apply at 4 to 5 gal per 1,000 bu to grain stream being turned into final
                                                                                                              storage.
INDIANMEAL MOTH,            Bacillus thuringiensis                                                            Apply immediately after filling the grain bin as a surface treatment by
ALMOND MOTH (top dress)     (DiPel and others)                                                                treating the surface and mixing into top 4 in. with a split application.
                            16,000 I.U./mg WP                         1 lb/10 gal water for 500 sq ft grain   Especially useful if malathion was used. Not needed if Reldan was
                                                                      surface area                            used.
                            4,000 I.U./mg LC                          60 oz/10 gal water/500 sq ft
                            4,000 I.U./mg D                           4 lb/500 sq ft
                            dichlorovos (DDVP, Vapona)                1 strip/1,000 cu ft of                  Hang low in head space over commodity. Does not work well if
                            20% resin strip                           head space                              commodity is peaked into roof area. Not needed if Reldan was used.
                                                                        Seed-Only Products
Insects                     Material                                  Dosage                                  Precautions and Remarks
GRANARY WEEVIL, RICE     chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 30                    Use for stored seed. Must apply         Commercial seed treaters may use for wheat, corn, and sorghum.
WEEVIL, CONFUSED FLOUR                                                with dye. Suppresses lesser grain       May affect germination rate.
BEETLE, RED FLOUR                                                     borer.
BEETLE, SAWTOOTHED
GRAIN BEETLE, INDIANMEAL
MOTH, ANGOUMOIS GRAIN
MOTH, LESSER GRAIN
BORER
                                               Fumigants (professional fumigation is strongly advised)
Insects                     Material                                  Dosage                                  Precautions and Remarks
ALL                         aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin, Detia,     60 to 180 tablets                       NOTE: Professional fumigation is strongly advised. Normally requires
                            Fumitoxin)                                OR 120 to 300 pellets                   5 days at 70oF. Requires F-Phase license under the N.C. Structural
                                                                      OR equivalent/1,000 bu                  Pest Control Law, unless applied by owner/operator.
                            methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas)               3 to 5 lb/1,000 bu                      Recirculation advised for good results. Different rates depending on
                                                                                                              crop. See label. Professional fumigation is strongly advised. Requires
                                                                                                              F-Phase license under the N.C. Structural Pest Control Law, unless
                                                                                                              applied by owner/operator. Will reduce seed viability. Not labelled for
                                                                                                              stored seed.




TABLE 5-12D. INSECT CONTROL FOR STORED PRODUCTS — PEANUTS
                                           Peanut Protectants
Insects                     Material                                  Dosage                                  Precautions and Remarks
WEEVIL, BRAN BEETLE,        pyrethrins (Pyrenone) 6 EC                1 pt/3.625 gal water/1,000 bu           Apply at 4 to 5 gal per 1,000 bu.
MOTHS AS LABELED            methoprene (Diacon II)                    3.85 oz/1,000 bu                        Apply Diacon only to clean peanuts. Does not kill adult pests.
                                                                                                              Prevents reproduction. Also for topdress.
INDIANMEAL MOTH,            Bacillus thuringiensis (DiPel and others) 4 lb/500 sq ft                          Apply as a surface treatment immediately after filling the grain bin.
ALMOND MOTH                 4,000 I.U./mgD                                                                    Treat the top 4 in. by treating the surface and mixing into the top 4 in.
                            dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona)                 1 strip/1,000 cu ft of head space       Hang low in head space over commodity. Does not work well if
                            20% resin strip                                                                   commodity is peaked into roof area.
                            methoprene (Diacon II)                    3.85 oz/1,000 bu                        Apply Diacon II only to clean peanuts. Does not kill adult pests.
                                                                                                              Prevents reproduction.
                            pyrethrins (Pyrocide 100)                                                         Surface and space spray or on bags. Not a sustitute for fumigation.
                                               Fumigants (professional fumigation Is strongly advised)
Insects                     Material                                  Dosage                                  Precautions and Remarks
ALL                         aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin, Deltia, 60 to 125 tablets (bulk)                   Professional fumigation is strongly advised. Requires F-Phase
                            Fumitoxin)                             OR 100 to 200 pellets                      license under the N.C Structural Pest Control Law, unless applied by
                                                                   (bagged)/1,000 cu ft                       owner/operator. Normally requires 5 days at 70°F.
                                                                   OR equivalent
                            methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas)               3.5 lb/1,000 cu ft                      Recirculation advised for good results. Professional fumigation is
                                                                                                              strongly advised. Requires F-Phase license under the N.C. Structural
                                                                                                              Pest Control Law, unless applied by owner/operator.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                             139
TABLE 5-12E. INSECT CONTROL FOR STORED PRODUCTS — SOYBEANS
                                              Protectants
Insects                    Material                                  Dosage                                 Remarks
INDIANMEAL MOTH,           Bacillus thuringiensis (DiPel and others)                                        Apply immediately after filling the grain bin as a surface treatment.
ALMOND MOTH                16,000 I.U./mg WP                         1 lb/10 gal water/500 sq ft            Treat the top 4 in. by treating the surface and mixing into the top 4 in.
                           4,000 I.U./mg LC                          60 oz/10 gal water/500 sq ft
                           4,000 I.U./mg D                           4 lb/500 sq ft
                           dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona) 20% resin       1 strip/1,000 cu ft of head space      Hang low in head space over commodity. Does not work well if
                           strip                                                                            commodity is peaked into roof area.
                           methoprene (Diacon II)                    1 to 8 fl oz/1,000 bu                  This product does not kill existing insects but does halt new insect
                                                                                                            development. Treat existing populations with a different product.
                                               Fumigants (professional fumigation is strongly advised)
Insects                    Material                                  Dosage                                 Remarks
ALL                        aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin, Deltia, 60 to 180 tablets OR 120 to 300           Professional fumigation is strongly advised. Requires F-Phase
                           Fumitoxin)                             pellets/1,000 bu OR equivalent            license under the N.C. Structural Pest Control Law, unless applied
                                                                                                            by owner/operator. Space tablets or pellets uniformly into stream
                                                                                                            of soybeans as they are loaded into storage bin or inject tablets or
                                                                                                            pellets into bin of soybeans with a probe. May require 5 days at 70oF.
                           methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas)               3.5 lb/1,000 cu ft                     Recirculation advised for good results. Professional fumigation is
                                                                                                            strongly advised. Requires F-Phase license under the N.C. Structural
                                                                                                            Pest Control Law, unless applied by owner/operator.




                                                                FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
                                                         H. J. BURRACK, Entomology Extension

The Insect Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) has grouped insecticides sharing the same mode of action (MOA) into categories. The
MOA categories are listed following insecticide and formulation names. To minimize the likelihood of resistance development, avoid
successive treatment with insecticides having the same MOA. The Organic Materials Registry Institute (OMRI) lists products acceptable for
use in organic production. These products are identified in the Precautions and Remarks section.

TABLE 5-12F. INSECT CONTROL FOR STORED PRODUCTS — FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
                                            Preventive Control
Pest                Control                                     Precautions and Remarks
TOBACCO MOTH        Sanitation                                  Before new tobacco is stored each season, be sure that storage areas are completely free of tobacco trash and
CIGARETTE BEETLE                                                other plant residue that might harbor insect pests. Clean out and burn all such trash.
                    Sorting infested tobacco                    The presence of insect damage and foreign matter (insect bodies, silk, and droppings) may reduce the grade of
                                                                tobacco to NOG (no grade). Before marketing, shake out foreign matter and remove damaged leaves.
                    Treatment of tobacco:                       Check with end user before treating stored tobacco. Data on pyrethrins are limited in tobacco. Some pyrethrins
                    pyrethrins, MOA 3                           are OMRI listed.
                    (Everygreen) EC 60-6
                    1 to 29 up to 1 to 11 parts product to
                    water
TOBACCO MOTH        Treatment of walls and floor:               After removing old tobacco and other trash, treat walls and floor of storage area. Apply 0.5 gal of spray per
                    Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11              1,000 sq ft. Be sure to spray into cracks and crevices (1 oz of DiPel 2X equals approximately 4 tbsp). Other
                    DiPel 2X: 0.5 oz/2.5 gal water              formulations or products containing B.t. may be available; check labels carefully.
                    DiPel DF: 0.5 oz/2.5 gal water
                    Treatment of tobacco:                       Treat loose tobacco as it is being sheeted or bundled. If tobacco is to be left on sticks, treat both sides before
                    Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11              stacking. Thorough coverage is essential—all leaves should receive some spray. Apply 1 qt of mixture to 100
                    DiPel 2X: 2.5 tsp/qt water/100 lb tobacco   lb of tobacco as a fine mist. Be careful not to overwet. TREATMENT AT THIS TIME IS MUCH SIMPLER THAN
                    DiPel DF:0.2 oz (2.5 tsp)/qt water/100      OPENING BUNDLES LATER. Other formulations or products containing B.t. may be available; check labels
                    lb tobacco                                  carefully.
                    Bacillus thuringiensis, MOA 11              Treatment if stored tobacco is infested. Open sheets or bundles and apply spray to loose leaves. Simply treating
                    DiPel 2X: 2.5 tsp/qt water/100 lb tobacco   the surface of bundles will not give adequate control. Apply 1 qt of mixture to 100 lb of tobacco as a fine mist. Be
                    DiPel DF: 0.2 oz (2.5 tsp)/qt water/100     careful not to overwet. Other formulations or products containing B.t. may be available; check labels carefully.
                    lb tobacco
CIGARETTE BEETLE    Fumigation                                  If cigarette beetles are found, tobacco can be fumigated. Fumigants are very hazardous and must be handled
                                                                precisely to be effective. Furthermore, regulations requiring special equipment and training make it virtually
                                                                impossible for farmers to legally fumigate tobacco on their own. THUS, FUMIGATION MUST BE DONE BY A
                                                                PROFESSIONAL.




140                                                                                                                                           Chapter V—Insect Control
                                        COMMERCIAL FUMIGANTS
                    Require F-Phase Certification Under the North Carolina Structural Pest Control Law

The same insect pests that attack grain on the             7 feet wide, 5 feet high, and 25 feet long. Observe all
farm are also found in large storage areas. Proper         precautions in fumigation. Provide ample ventilation
sanitation and spraying the bin and area treatment         when covers are removed. Read the label. See note
are essential to safe, insect-free storage. Check the      below.
condition of the stored grain frequently. Turning             Flat or Bulk Storage—Clean and treat the structure
grain in elevators will help improve the condition         (see Insect Control for Stored Products−On Farm) before
of the grain and lessen the possibility of insect          adding grain. Structure must be gas tight. Level the pile
damage.                                                    of grain and cover with appropriate gas-tight tarp. Use
    Elevators—Aluminum phosphide or magnesium              any of the listed fumigants, following label directions.
phosphide (Magtoxin) may be used, preferably                  Empty Bin Fumigation—Chloropicrin at 1 pound
before it is placed in the elevator if the grain           per 1,000 cubic feet of volume under floor controls the
is infested. Both fumigants are restricted-use             pests below the drying floor in metal bins where refuse
pesticides and application only by licensed                accumulates. Seal bottom half of bin, pour fumigant
fumigators is strongly recommended. See http://            through top bin opening, expose at least 48 hours, then
degeschamerica.com/ and other Web sites.                   aerate thoroughly.
    Methyl bromide at 1.5 to 5 pounds per 1,000               Note: Very stringent instructions for fumigant
cubic feet, depending on temperature and crop,             monitoring and respiratory protection have been added
may be used. It is most effective when recirculated        to current pesticide labels, and these must be precisely
through the grain several times. For details, see          followed. In summary, most fumigations require at least
http://www.chemtura.com.                                   a two-person crew, and each person must have an SCBA
    Grain Protectants for Elevator—Actellic,               (self-contained breathing apparatus) available. Carefully
Storicide II, and DiPel can be used to protect clean,      prescribed monitoring of fumigant concentration WITH
dry grain from insects. See Insect Control for             THE APPROPRIATE EQUIPMENT is required during
Stored Product—On Farm for dosage.                         fumigation and DURING CLEARING/AERATING OF
    Warehouses—Spray walls and floor with                  THE STRUCTURE AND/OR COMMODITY before
Storicide II, methoxcyhlor, pyrethrins, or Tempo           WARNING placards may be removed and ENTRY
(see Insect Control for Stored Products−On Farm).          TO THE AREA WITHOUT A RESPIRATOR IS
For stacked bagged grain, use any of the fumigants         PERMITTED.
listed above (for elevators). Follow label directions.        Most fumigant labels have been expanded into small
Methyl bromide can be applied through a tube               booklets packed with or affixed to the product. It is
from a pressurized can or cylinder to the surface          virtually impossible for a nonprofessional to adequately
of grain enclosed in a polyethylene tarpaulin.             understand and follow all of the regulatory provisions.
Approximately 1.5 pounds will treat approximately          Therefore, PROFESSIONAL FUMIGATION IS
1,000 cubic feet, which is a pile of bagged grain          STRONGLY ADVISED!




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                          141
                                         INSECT CONTROL FOR LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY
                                                    S. M. STRINGHAM and W. WATSON, Entomology Extension


TABLE 5-13A. INSECT CONTROL FOR CATTLE
                                                                                     Minimum Interval
                                           Amount of                                 (Days) Between
INSECT                                     Formulation to                            Application and
Insecticide and Formulation                Use in Water        Dosage per Animal     Harvest          Precautions and Remarks

CATTLE GRUB—(a) Beef and non-lactating dairy animals

                                                                                                      Make all grub treatment after heel fly season ends, but before October 1.

coumaphos (CoRal) 11.6 EC                  15 oz/4 gal         See label             14 freshening    Apply using high pressure spray (250 to 350 psi).

doramectin (Dectomax) injectable           —                   1 cc/110 lb           35               Not for female dairy cattle over 20 months of age.

ivermectin                                                                                            Not for female dairy cattle of breeding age.
injectable                                 —                   1 cc/110 lb           49
pour-on                                    —                   1 ml/22 lb            48               For calves older than 12 weeks of age.
bolus                                      —                   See label             —

moxidectin (Cydectin) 0.5 PO               —                   5 ml/110 lb           0                Not for use on lactating dairy cattle.

CATTLE GRUB—(b) Dairy animals (also beef and non-lactating dairy animals)

eprinomectin (Eprinex) pour-on             —                   1 ml/22 lb            0

HORN FLY—(a) Dairy and beef animals

coumaphos (CoRal) 1 D                      —                   3 to 6 tbsp           0                Repeat as necessary.
5.8 EC                                     5 oz/4 gal          —                     0                Not for use on lactating dairy cattle. Follow all label directions.
11.6 EC                                    2.5 oz/4 gal                              14 freshening

cyfluthrin (CyLence) 1 PO                  —                   —                     0                Follow label instructions.

diflubenzeron bolus (Vigilante)            —                   0.5 to 2 boluses      —                Controls fly larvae in manure. All cattle in herd should be treated for best
                                                               according to weight                    results.

diflubenzeron oral larvicide (Clarify)     —                   —                     —                In feed according to label.

eprinomectin (Eprinex) pour-on             —                   1 ml/22 lb            0                Effective control for 7 days only.

methoprene bolus (Inhibitor)               —                   0.5 to 1 bolus        —
                                                               according to weight

methoprene mineral mix                     —                   —                     0                Daily in feed according to label.

moxidectin (Cydectin) 0.5 PO               —                   5 ml/110 lb           0                Not for use on lactating dairy cattle.

permethrin EC or PO                        —                   —                     0                See label for rate and application directions.

pyrethrins 0.1 OS + synergist              —                   1 to 2 oz             0                Oil sprays will harm skin if not applied properly. Apply oil solutions daily as
                                                                                                      a mist.

spinosad (Elector) 2.5                                                               No withholding   Do not use more than once each week. Do not make more than 5
pour-on                                    Ready to use        4 ml/100 lb           for milk         consecutive applications.
spray                                      10 oz/5 gal water   Spray to runoff

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon)                                                            —
3D                                         —                   2 oz
oral larvacide                             —                   —                                      Daily in feed according to label.

SELF-APPLICATING DEVICES                                                             0                For dairy and beef animals. These devices aid in face fly and louse control.
coumaphos (CoRall)                                                                                    Follow all label instructions. Inspect and charge oilers and dust bags weekly
1D                                         —                   —                                      as needed.
1 OS                                       —                   —
5.8 EC                                     —                   —
11.6 EC                                    —                   —
permethrin                                 —                   —
tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 3 D              —                   —
tetrachlorvinphos+dichlorvos (RaVap)
23 EC                                      5 oz/ 1 gal oil     —

EAR TAGS                                   —                   2/head                                 These devices give season-long fly control. Some tags are not for use on
abamectin (XP820)                                                                                     lactating dairy cattle. Some tags are restricted from use on calves under
beta-cyfluthrin (CyGuard)                                                                             the age of 3 months. Use according to label. Other ear tags are available.
coumaphos + diazinon (CoRal Plus,                                                                     Contact Entomology Dept., N.C. State University, for current tag list.
Corathon)
cyfluthrin (Cutter Gold, CyLence Ultra)
cypermethrin (Python, Magnum)
diazinon (40%) (Patriot)
diazinon (20%) (Optimizer)
diazinon + chlorpyrifos (Warrior)
lambda-cyhalothrin (Saber)
permethrin (GardStar)
pirimiphos-methyl (Dominator)




142                                                                                                                                             Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-13A. INSECT CONTROL FOR CATTLE
                                                                                     Minimum Interval
                                            Amount of                                (Days) Between
INSECT                                      Formulation to                           Application and
Insecticide and Formulation                 Use in Water         Dosage per Animal   Harvest          Precautions and Remarks

HORN FLY—(b) Beef animals

gamma cyhalothrin (Stangard) pour-on                             10 ml < 600 lb                         Do not apply more than once in 2 wks or more than 4 times in 6 months.
                                                                 15 ml > 600 lb

ivermectin                                                                                              Not for female dairy cattle of breeding age. Controls horn flies for up to 28
PO                                          —                    1 ml/22 lb          48                 days. Bolus for calves older than 12 weeks of age.
bolus                                       —                    —                   —

spinosad (Elector) 2.5                                                               Do not apply       Do not use more than once each week. Do not make more than 5
pour-on                                     Ready to use         4 ml/100 lb         within 2 days of   consecutive applications.
spray                                       10 oz/5 gal water    Spray to runoff     slaughter

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 50 WP             5 oz/5 gal           2 to 4 qt           0

SELF-APPLICATING DEVICES                                                                                For beef only. These devices aid in face fly and louse control.
tetrachlorvinphos+dichlorvos (RaVap)        5 oz/1 gal oil       —                   0
23 EC

LICE—(a) Dairy and beef animals

amitraz (Taktic) 12.5 EC                    1 pt/50 gal          —                   0


coumaphos (CoRal) 1 D                       —                    3 to 6 tbsp
5.8 EC                                      2.5 oz/4 gal         —                   0                  Spray thoroughly—wet to skin.
11.6 EC                                     1.25 oz/4 gal        —

cyfluthrin (CyLence) 1 PO                   —                    —                   —                  Follow label instructions.

eprinomectin (Eprinex) pour-on              —                    1 ml/22 lb          0                  Follow label instructions.

permethrin                                  See label                                                   Follow label instructions. Spray entire animal, second treatment at 14 to 21
EC                                                               —                   0                  days.
PO                                                               —
permethrin plus diflubenzuron (Cleanup)                                                                 Pyrethroid and IGR blend to control all louse life stages. Follow label
                                                                                                        instructions.

spinosad (Elector) 2.5                                                               No withholding     Second application in 45 to 60 days. Do not use more than once each week.
pour-on                                     Ready to use         4 ml/100 lb         for milk           Do not make more than 5 consecutive applications.
spray                                       10 oz/5 gal water    Spray to runoff

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 3 D               —                    2 oz                0

LICE—(b) Beef animals

gamma cyhalothrin (Stangard) pour-on                             10 ml < 600 lb                         Do not apply more than once in 2 wks or more than 4 times in 6 months.
                                                                 15 ml > 600 lb

coumaphos                                                                                               Spray—wet to skin.
5.8 EC                                      5 oz/4 gal           —                   0
11.6 EC                                     2.5 oz/4 gal         —                   14 freshening

doramectin (Dectomax) injectable            —                    1 cc/110 lb         35                 Not for female dairy cattle over 20 months of age.

ivermectrin                                                                                             Not for female dairy cattle of breeding age. Injection ineffective for control
injectable                                  —                    1 cc/110 lb         49                 of biting lice. Pour-on controls both biting and sucking lice. Bolus for calves
pour-on                                     —                    1 ml/22 lb          48                 older than 12 weeks of age.
bolus                                       —                    —                   —

lambda-cyhalothrin (Saber) 1 PO             —                    —                   0                  Follow label instructions.

moxidectin (Cydectin) 0.5 PO                —                    5 ml/110 lb         0                  Not for lactating dairy cattle.

spinosad (Elector) 2.5                                                               Do not apply       Make second application in 45 to 60 days. Do not use more than once each
pour-on                                     Ready to use         4 ml/110 lb         within 2 days of   week. Do not make more than 5 consecutive applications.
spray                                       10 oz/5 gal water    Spray to runoff     slaughter

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 50 WP             5 oz/5 gal           2 to 4 oz           0                  Spray thoroughly.

tetrachlorvinphos+dichlorvos (RaVap)        See label            —                   0                  Do not treat more often than every 10 days. Spray entire animal.
23 EC

Note: Self-applicating devices under horn fly aid in louse control.

FACE FLY

cyfluthrin (CyLence) 1 PO                   See label            —                   —                  Follow label instructions.

permethrin                                                                           0                  Follow label instructions.
EC                                          See label            —
PO                                          See label            —

diflubenzeron oral larvicide (Clarify)      —                    —                   —                  In feed according to label.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                  143
TABLE 5-13A. INSECT CONTROL FOR CATTLE
                                                                                         Minimum Interval
                                            Amount of                                    (Days) Between
INSECT                                      Formulation to                               Application and
Insecticide and Formulation                 Use in Water         Dosage per Animal       Harvest          Precautions and Remarks

FACE FLY (continued)

EAR TAGS                                                         2/head                                    These devices give season-long fly control or aid in the control of face
abamectin (XP820)                                                                                          flies. Some tags are not for use on lactating dairy cattle. Use according to
beta cyfluthrin (Cyguard)                                                                                  label. Other ear tags are available. Contact Entomology Dept., N.C. State
cyfluthrin (Cutter Gold, CyLence Ultra)                                                                    University, for current tag list.
coumaphos+diazinon (Corathon)                                                            0
cypermethrin (Python, Magnum)
diazinon+chlorpyifos (Warrior)                                                           0
diazinon (40%) (Patriot)
fenvalerate (Ectrin)
lambda-cyhalothrin (Saber)
permethrin (GardStar)
pirimiphos-methyl (Dominator)

Note: Self-applicating devices under horn fly aid in face fly control.

MANGE

amitraz (Taktic) 12.5 EC                    1 pt/50 gal          —                       0

doramectin (Dectomax) injectable            —                    1 cc/110 lb             35                Not for female dairy cattle over 20 months of age.

eprinomectin (Eprinex) pour-on              —                    1 ml/22 lb              0                 Follow label instructions.

ivermectrin                                                                                                Not for female dairy cattle of breeding age. Injection ineffective for control
injectable                                  —                    1 cc/110 lb             49                of biting lice. Pour-on controls both biting and sucking lice. Bolus for calves
pour-on                                     —                    1 ml/22 lb              48                older than 12 weeks of age.
bolus                                       —                    —                       —

moxidectin (Cydectin) 0.5 PO                —                    5 ml/110 lb             0                 Not for lactating dairy cattle.

permethrin EC or PO                         See label            —                       0                 Follow label instructions. Spray entire animal, second treatment at 14 to 21
                                                                                                           days.

MAGGOTS IN WOUNDS

chlorpyrifos spray bomb                     See label            —                       —

coumaphos (CoRal) 5.8 EC or 11.6 EC         See label            —                       —

STABLE FLY, HORSE FLY, DEER FLY

pyrethrins 0.1 OS plus synergist                                                                           May give protection for short periods.

MOSQUITOES Dairy and beef animals

permethrin                                                                               0

TICKS Dairy and beef animals

coumaphos (CoRal)
5.8 EC                                      10 oz/4 gal          —                                         Not for use on lactating dairy animals. Spray animals thoroughly.
11.6 EC                                     5 oz/4 gal           —                       0

permethrin                                  See label            —                       0

amitraz (Taktic)                            See label            —                       —

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 50 WP             4 lb/50 gal          0.5 to 1 gal            —                 Do not treat lactating dairy animals. Treat about every 3 weeks during
                                                                                                           periods of heavy tick activity. Spray animals thoroughly.

tetrachlorvinphos+dichlorvos (Rabon         1 qt/50 gal          —                       0                 Spray animals completely.
+Vapona, RaVap)

HOUSE FLY, LESSER HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY, OTHER FILTH FLIES Premises: beef and dairy

bifenthrin (ActiShield) 7.9L                See label            0.33 to 1 fl oz/1,000   —                 May be applied as crack and crevice treatment while animals are present.
                                                                 sq ft

chlorpyrifos (Durashield), 20 CS            See label            —                       —                 Restricted use insecticide.

cyfluthrin (Tempo, Countdown) 20 WP         See label            —                       —                 Do not apply when animals are present.
or 2 L

dichlorvos (Vapona) 1 OS or 0.3 OS          —                    —                       —                 Fog, mist, or surface spray.

fenvalerate (Ectrin) 10 WDL                 2 oz/6 gal           —                       —                 Do not treat animals. Remove livestock before spraying building surfaces.

gamma-cyhalothrin (StandGuard) 5.9 MC See label                  —                       —

lambda-cyhalothrin (Grenade, Oxyfly)        See label            —                       —
9.7 ER

permethrin 25 WP or EC                      See label            —                       —

pyrethrins 0.1 OS + synergist               —                    —                       —                 Fog or mist.

spinosad (Elector) 2.5 spray                20 oz/5 gal water    See label               Lactating and non- Do not use more than once each week. Do not make more than 5
                                                                                         lactating cattle   consecutive applications.
                                                                                         may be present
                                                                                         when applied




144                                                                                                                                                 Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-13A. INSECT CONTROL FOR CATTLE
                                                                                          Minimum Interval
                                           Amount of                                      (Days) Between
INSECT                                     Formulation to                                 Application and
Insecticide and Formulation                Use in Water         Dosage per Animal         Harvest          Precautions and Remarks

HOUSE FLY, LESSER HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY, OTHER FILTH FLIES Premises: beef and dairy (continued)

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 50 WP            4 lb/25 gal          0.5 to 1 gal/500 sq ft    —

tetrachlorvinphos+dichlorvos (RaVap)       5 oz/1 gal           1 gal/500 to1,000         —                  Surface treatment only. DO NOT use as a space spray.
23 EC                                                           sq ft

LARVACIDE                                  See label            Spray or dry              21                 For larval control in manure or animal bedding only.
cyromazine (Neporex) 2 SG                                       application: 1 lb/200
                                                                sq ft

BAIT MIXTURES                                                                                                Do not apply baits in areas accessible to animals.
dichlorvos (Vapona)
imidacloprid (QuickBayt)
methomyl (Golden Malrin, Apache)
nithiazine (QuikStrike) strip
spinosad (Elector Bait)                                                                                      Labeled for organic farming.
Beauveria bassiana (balEnce Bait)




TABLE 5-13B. INSECT CONTROL FOR SHEEP AND GOATS
                                                                                         Minimum Interval
                                    Amount of                                            (Days) Between
                                    Formulation to Use                                   Application and
Insecticide and Formulation         in Water                Dosage per Animal            Harvest                 Precautions and Remarks

LICE AND SHEEP KED

fenvalerate (Ectrin) 10 WDL         see label               —                            —                       Do not apply more often than every 14 days as needed.

permethrin                                                                               —
(Boss) 5 PO                         —                       1.5 ml/50 lb
                                    —
(DeLice, Expar) 1 PO                                        7.5 ml/50 lb

BLOW FLY, other maggots in wounds

chlorpyrifos spray bomb             —                       —                            —                       Apply directly to wounds and surrounding areas. DO NOT treat lactating
                                                                                                                 dairy goats. DO NOT use on sick animals.




TABLE 5-13C. INSECT CONTROL FOR SWINE
                                                                                         Minimum Interval
                                    Amount of                                            (Days) Between
                                    Formulation to Use                                   Application and
Insecticide and Formulation         in Water                Dosage per Animal            Harvest                 Precautions and Remarks

COCKROACHES, SPIDERS

chlorpyrifos (Durashield) 20 CS     See label               —                            —                       Chlorpyrifos products are restricted use insecticides. Do apply when
                                                                                                                 animals are present. Restricted use insecticide. Do not apply when
                                                                                                                 animals are present..


cyfluthrin (Tempo) 20 WP or 2 L     See label               —                            —

pyriproxyfen (Pyri-Shield) 1.3 EC   1 fl oz/gal             1 gal/1,000 to 1,500                                 An insect growth regulator best used in tank mixes with other
                                                            sq ft                                                insecticides.

HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY Premises

bifenthrin (ActShield) 7.9 L        See label               0.33 to 1 fl oz/1,000        —                       May be applied as crack and crevice treatment while animals are
                                                            sq ft                                                present.

chlorpyrifos (Durashield) 20 CS     See label               —                            Hogs may not be         Restricted use insecticide.
                                                                                         present when applied.
                                                                                         Allow to dry before
                                                                                         introducing animals.

cyromazine (Neporex) 2 G            See label               Spray or dry                 21                      For larval control only in manure or animal bedding.
                                                            application: 1 lb/200
                                                            sq ft

esfenvalerate (Valorshield) 35 WP —                         —                            —                       Follow label directions.

gamma-cyhalothrin (StandGuard)      See label               —                            —
5.9 MC

lambda-cyhalothrin (OxyFly)         —                       —                            —
97 ER




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                145
TABLE 5-13C. INSECT CONTROL FOR SWINE
                                                                                       Minimum Interval
                                    Amount of                                          (Days) Between
                                    Formulation to Use                                 Application and
Insecticide and Formulation         in Water                Dosage per Animal          Harvest                     Precautions and Remarks

HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY Premises (continued)

pyriproxyfen (PyriShield) 1.3 EC    1 fl oz/gal             1 gal/1,000 to 1,500                                   This slow-acting insect growth regulator is most effective when tank
                                                            sq ft                                                  mixed with other insecticides.

spinosad
(Elector) 2.5 spray                 20 oz/5 gal water       Spray to runoff; 1 gal     Hogs may not be             Do not spray more than once each week. Do not make more than 5
                                                            per 500 to 1,000 sq ft     present when applied.       consecutive spray applications.
                                                                                       Allow to dry before
                                                                                       introducing animals.

Beauveria bassiana (balEnce)        See label               See label                  —                           Labeled for organic farming.

LICE

coumaphos (CoRal)                                                                      0                           Do not treat 10 days before or after shipping, weaning, or exposure to
1D                                  —                       1 oz to shoulders and                                  disease. Allow at least 10 days between applications.
                                                            back
1D                                  —                       2 oz/30 sq ft of bedding

fenvalerate (Ectrin) 10 WDL         2 oz/3 gal              1 pt                                                   Spray with particular attention to neck and ears. Re-treat in 30 days (if
                                                                                                                   necessary).

ivermectin                          —
injectable                                                  1 cc/75 lb                 18
pre mix                                                     300 g/ton                  5                           Continually feed for 7 days. For feeder pigs and finish hogs ONLY.

permethrin                                                  —                          5                           Spray entire animal until thoroughly wet.

phosmet (Prolate/Lintox 11.75%)                                                        1                           Retreat in 14 days.

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 50 WP     7 oz/5 gal              1 to 2 qt                  0

MANGE MITE

amitraz (Taktic)
12 EC                               760 ml/50 gal                                      3
2 PO                                                                                   7                           Follow label instructions.

doramectin (Dectomax) injectable    —                       1 cc/ 75 lb                24

fenvalerate (Ectrin)                —                       —                          —                           Spray entire animal until thoroughly wet.

ivermectin
injectable                          —                       1 cc/75 lb                 18
pre mix (Ivomec only)               —                       300 g/ton                  5                           Continually feed for 7 days. For feeder pigs and finishing hogs ONLY.

permethrin                                                                             5                           Spray entire animal until thoroughly wet. See label for correct rates and
EC                                  —                       —                                                      treatment intervals.
10 PO (Swine Guard)                                         3 ml/100 lb

phosmet (Prolate/Lintox 11.75%)     2 qt in 50 gal                                     1 to harvest                Retreat in 14 days

MAGGOTS IN WOUNDS

See CATTLE

HOUSE FLY

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon oral                                                                                      See label.
larvacide)

Also see CATTLE                                             —                          —                           Treat according to label.

Note: See label for dosage.


TABLE 5-13D. INSECT CONTROL FOR HORSES
                                                                  Amount of
                                                                Formulation to
Insecticide and Formulation                                      Use in Water        Precautions and Remarks

BOT

ivermectrin (Zimecterin, Eqvalan)                                                    Follow all instructions.

HORSE FLY, DEER FLY, MOSQUITO

For materials and control suggestions see CATTLE section.

HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY Premises

bifenthrin (ActiShield) 7.9 L                                See label               May be applied as crack and crevice treatment while animals are present.

chlorpyrifos (Durashield) 20 CS                              See label               Restricted use insecticide.

cyromazine
(Neporex) 2G                                                 See label               Spray or dry application to stall bedding or muck pile.

(Solitude IGR) 2.1                                                                   In feed to control fly larvae in manure.




146                                                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-13D. INSECT CONTROL FOR HORSES
                                                                     Amount of
                                                                   Formulation to
Insecticide and Formulation                                         Use in Water     Precautions and Remarks

HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY Premises (continued)

esfenvalerate (ValorShield) 35 WP                             See label

gamma-cyhalothrin (StandGuard) 5.9 MC                         See label

lambda-cyhalothrin

pyriproxyfen (Pyri-Shield)                                    1 fl oz/gal            This slow-acting insect growth regulator is most effective when used with other insecticides.

spinosad (Elector) 2.5 spray                                  20 oz/5 gal water      Spray to runoff; 1 gal per 500 to 1,000 sq ft. Horses may be present when applied. Do not use more
                                                                                     than once each week. Do not make more than 5 consecutive applications.

Beauveria bassiana (balEnce)                                  See label              Organic labeling.

HORN FLY, FACE FLY, HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY

coumaphos (CoRal)                                                                    Dust or spray. Follow label instructions.

cypermethrin (Tri-Tec 14)                                                            Follow label instructions.

dichlorvos (Vapona)                                                                  Follow label instructions.
+ pyrethrin
+ piperonyl butoxide

permethrin (Ectiban, Atroban, Tech- Trol, Tech-Trol 12,                              Follow label instructions.
Permectrin II)

permethrin + piperonyl butoxide
(Poridon)                                                                            Pour on for fly control.
(Flysect-7)                                                                          Spray.

pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide                                                       Follow label instructions.

tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon oral larvacide)                                             In feed, mixed, or topdressed for control of fly larvae in manure.

AUTOMATIC SPRAY SYSTEMS resmethrin; natural                                          Follow label instructions.
pyrethrins + piperonyl buxide

BAIT MIXTURES                                                                        Do not apply baits in areas accessible to animals.
dichlorvos (Vapona), imidacloprid (QuickBayt), methomyl
(Golden Malrin, Apache), nithiazine (Quik Strike) Strip,
spinosad (Elector Bait)




TABLE 5-13E. INSECT CONTROL FOR POULTRY
                                  Amount of
                                  Formulation in
Insecticide and Formulation       Water              Dosage                          Precautions and Remarks
CHICKEN MITE
permethrin                        See label          —                               Provide easy to clean roosts and nests with few hiding places. Apply sprays thoroughly to roosts and
                                                                                     cracks in surrounding areas. Repeat application as necessary. Follow labels carefully. Treatment of
                                                                                     birds as for northern mite also helps.

NORTHERN FOWL MITE, LICE
permethrin                        —                  1 gal spray/100 birds
permethrin (Poultry Mite Tags)    —                  2 tags/bird                     Follow label directions.
tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon)                                                            Direct on birds. Thorough coverage and feather penetration is essential. Follow labels carefully.
50 WP                             6.5 oz/5 gal       1 gal/100 birds or 1 to 2       Use 100 to 125 psi for good penetration. Apply premises spray as necessary to reduce NFM/lice
                                                     gal/1,000 sq ft of litter       dislodged from birds.
3D                                —                  1 lb/300 birds or 1 lb/100 sq
                                                     ft of litter
tetrachlorvinphos+ dichlorovos    5 oz/1 gal         1 gal/100 birds; 1 to 2         Direct on birds. Thorough coverage and feather penetration is essential. Follow labels carefully.
(RaVap) 23 EC                                        gal/1,000 sq ft of litter       Use 100 to 125 psi for good penetration. Apply premises spray as necessary to reduce NFM/lice
                                                                                     dislodged from birds.
HOUSE FLY, LESSER HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY, OTHER FILTH FLIES Premises
bifenthrin (ActiShield) 7.9 L     See label          0.33 to 1 fl oz/1,000 sq ft     May be applied as crack and crevice treatment while animals are present.


chlorpyrifos (Durashield) 20 CS   See label                                          Restricted use insecticide. Surface treatment only. DO NOT use as a space spray.


cyfluthrin (Tempo, Countdown,     See label          —                               Remove birds from building prior to treatment of interior surfaces.
Optem) 20 WP or 2 L
dichlorvos (Vapona) 40 EC         —                                                  Fog, mist, or surface spray. See label.
esfenvalerate (ValorShield)       See label
35 WP
gamma-cyhalothrin                 See label
(StandGuard) 5.9 MC




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                 147
TABLE 5-13E. INSECT CONTROL FOR POULTRY
                                  Amount of
                                  Formulation in
Insecticide and Formulation       Water              Dosage                        Precautions and Remarks
HOUSE FLY, LESSER HOUSE FLY, STABLE FLY, OTHER FILTH FLIES Premises (continued)
lambda-cyhalothrin (Grenade,      See label          —                             See cyfluthrin.
OxyFly) 9.7 ER
permethrin                        See label          —
pyrethrins 0.1 OS + synergist     See label          —                             Fog or mist.
spinosad
(Elector PSP) 44.2 spray          See label
(Elector) 2.56 spray              20 oz/5 gal water Spray to runoff; 1 gal per     Poultry may not be present when applied. Allow to dry before introducing animals. Do not use more
                                                    500 to 1,000 sq ft             than once each week. Do not make more than 5 consecutive applications.
Beauveria bassiana (balEnce)      —                  —                             Apply as directed. Organic labeling.
spray
tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon)         4 lb/25 gal        0.5 to 1 gal/500 sq ft
50 WP
tetrachlorvinphos+ dichlorvos     5 to 10 oz/1 gal   1 gal/500 to1,000 sq ft
(RaVap) 23EC
tetrachlorvinphos+ dichlorvos     5 oz/1 gal                                       Apply larvicide as spot treatment.
(RaVap) 23 EC
tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon)         4 lb/25 gal                                      Apply larvicide as spot treatment.
50 WP
LARVICIDES
cyromazine
(Neporex) 2 G                                                                      For use in all poultry.

(Flyzine, Larvadex) premix        See label          1 lb/ton of feed              Approved as a manure treatment for broiler breeders and caged layers only. Feed continuously for 4
                                                                                   to 6 weeks.
(Larvadex) 2 SL                                      Spray or dry application: 1   For use as manure spray for broiler breeders and caged layers.
                                                     lb/200 sq ft
pyriproxyfen (Pyri-Shield)        1 fl oz/gal        1 gal/1,000 to 1,500 sq ft    This slow-acting insect growth regulator is most effective when used in combination with other
1.3 EC                                                                             insecticides.
BAIT MIXTURES                       —                                              Do not apply baits in areas accessible to poultry.
dichlorvos (Vapona)
imidacloprid (QuickBayt)
methomyl (Golden Malrin,
Apache)
nithiazine (Quik Strike) bait strip
spinosad (Elector Bait)
Beauveria bassiana (balEnce                                                        Use as directed.
Bait)
SCALY-LEG MITE
crude petroleum oil               Undiluted          Dip shanks
CHIGGER
permethrin                        —                  See label                     Apply day before poultry is put on range. Repeat in 2 to 3 weeks.
STICK-TIGHT FLEA
permethrin                        —                  See label                     May be applied to birds.
pyriproxyfen (Pyri-Shield)        —                  —                             Use in tank mix with permethrin as premise treatment.
1.3 EC
Vaseline                          —                  Rub into areas of head        Keep dogs and other animals out of poultry areas. Yards, nesting, and roosting areas should be
                                                     where pest is attached        cleaned frequently.
BED BUG, FOWL TICK
bifenthrin (Actishield) 7.9 L     See label          0.33 to 1 fl oz/1,000 sq ft   May be applied as crack and crevice treatment while birds are present.
cyfluthrin (Tempo, Countdown)     See label          —                             Remove birds prior to treatment.
 20 WP or 2 L
dichlorvos (Vapona) 40 EC         —                  —                             Use according to label.
lambda-cyhalothrin (Grenade)      See label          —
9.7 ER
permethrin                        —                  —
DARKLING BEETLE (Lesser Mealworm)
bifenthrin (ActiShield) 7.9 L     See label          0.33 to 1 fl oz/1,000 sq ft   May be applied as crack and crevice treatment while poultry are present.
carbaryl (Sevin)                                                                   Limited to building exteriors; see label.
 80 WSP                           —                  —
 43 SL                            —                  —
cyfluthrin (Tempo, Countdown,     See label                                        Remove birds prior to treatment.
Optem) 20 WP or 2 L


chlorpyrifos (Durashield) 20 CS   See label                                        Restricted use insecticide.
gamma-cyhalothrin                 See label
(StandGuard) 5.9 MC




148                                                                                                                                                Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-13E. INSECT CONTROL FOR POULTRY
                                Amount of
                                Formulation in
Insecticide and Formulation     Water              Dosage                       Precautions and Remarks
DARKLING BEETLE (Lesser Mealworm) (continued)
imidacloprid (Credo) 428 CS     3 fl oz/0.5 to 2   1 gal/1,000 sq ft
                                gal water
lambda-cyhalothrin
(Grenade) 9.7 ER                See label                                       Remove birds prior to treatment.
(OxyFly) 9.7 R                  —                  —
permethrin                      —                  —
pyrifproxyfen (Pyri-Shield)     1 fl oz/gal        1 gal/1,000 to 1,500 sq ft   This slow-acting insect growth regulator is most effective when used in combination with other
1.3 EC                                                                          insecticides.
spinosad (Elector PSP) 44.2     See label
spray
tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon)                                                       Do not treat houses with birds 6 weeks old or less.
 50 WP                          4 lb/50 gal        1 to 2 gal/1,000 sq ft
 3D                             —                  1 lb/100 sq ft
tetrachlorvinphos+ dichlorvos   5 to 10 oz/1 gal   1 gal/500 to1,000 sq ft
(RaVap) 23 EC
IMPORTED FIRE ANTS
See COMMUNITY PEST CONTROL
RODENTS
See Chapter 10, ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL—Table 3, Rodenticides




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                         149
                                                                       COMMUNITY PEST CONTROL
                                                                      C. S. APPERSON, Entomology Extension

NOTES: Insecticides recommended for use by Certified Applicators only. For rodents, see Animal Control, Chapter 10.

 TABLE 5-14A. COMMUNITY PEST CONTROL — MOSQUITO ADULTS
 KEY: MMD=Mass Media Diameter; um=micrometer

 TYPE OF APPLICATION                                                                           Droplet Size
 Insecticide and Formula-        Mixing Instructions and                Application            Requirements on
 tion                            Application Equipment                  Rate at 10 mph         Label (um)             Precautions and Remarks

 GROUND APPLICATION

 malathion 95% concentration     Use undiluted on aerosol ULV           2 to 4.3 fl oz         6 to 48 um             Do not spray when wind speed is more than 5 mph.
                                 sprayer.                                                      MMD = 17 um

                                 Dilute 3.9 to 5.2 gal to 100 gal                                                     Avoid direct application to vehicles; these insecticides may damage
                                 with No. 2 fuel or diesel oil; use                                                   paint. Apply when air temperatures are cool and wind speed is 3 mph or
                                 in thermal fog sprayer.                                                              less. Toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and wildlife.

 naled (Dibrom) 87.4%            10 fl oz to 10 gal No. 2 fuel or       80 gal/hr                                     Toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and wildlife.
 concentrate                     diesel oil; use in thermal fog
                                 sprayer.

                                 Dilute 0.5 gal to 5 gal with           6 to 12 fl oz/min      11 to 20 um            Do not directly apply to water or to areas where runoff into water is likely
                                 soybean oil or HAN; use in ULV                                MMD = 15 um            to occur.
                                 sprayer.

 permethrin 10% to 57%
 concentrate                     Apply undiluted or mix with            0.31 to 15 oz/         MMD = 8 to 30 um
                                 refined mineral or soybean oil.        min depending
                                                                        on dilution

 (Permanone) 10% EC              Dilute 1:20 with water (6.5 fl oz/                                                   Treat surfaces using course wet spray. Spray to runoff.
                                 1 gal of water).

 permethrin (20%) and            Dilute 1 gal with 2 to 12 gal          2.1 to 9 oz/min        MMD = 8 to 20 um       Dilute with water only. Toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates.
 piperonyl                       water                                  depending on
 butoxide (20%) (Aqua-Reslin)                                           dilution

 permethrin and piperonyl        Dilute 1 gal to 2.4 gal with light     0.5 to 3 fl oz/min     15 to 30 um
 botoxide (Permanone 31-66,      weight oil; use in ULV sprayer.
 Biomist 4+12 ULV)

 resmethrin (18%) + piperonyl    Dilute 0.67 gal with 1 gal of          4.5 to 9 fl oz/min     MMD = 12 um
 butoxide                        light mineral oil; use in ULV
 (54%) (Scourge)                 sprayer.

 SBP-1382-40MF (resmethrin)      Dilute 12.5 fl oz with 1 gal of        6 fl oz/min            MMD = 12 um
 40%                             light mineral oil; use in ULV
 concentrate                     sprayer.

 sumithrin and piperonyl         Use undiluted or dilute 10+10          1.3 to 18.6 oz/        MMD = 5 to 25 um
 butoxide                        formulation with light mineral         min
 (Anvil 10+10 ULV or 2+2         oil.
 ULV)

 FIXED WING AERIAL APPLICATION

 malathion 95% concentrate       Use undiluted.                         2.6 to 3 fl oz/        30 to 80 um           Toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and wildlife. Do not directly apply to
                                                                        acre                                         water or to areas where runoff into water is likely to occur.

 naled (Dibrom) 87.4%            Use undiluted.                         0.5 to 1 fl oz/        30 to 80 um           Toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and wildlife. Do not directly apply to
 concentrate                                                            acre                                         water or to areas where runoff into water is likely to occur.

                                 Dilute 50 to 100 fl oz to 100 gal      1 gal/acre             90% of droplets       Toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and wildlife. Do not directly apply to
                                 with No. 2 fuel oil or diesel oil.                            <100um MMD =          water or to areas where runoff into water is likely to occur.
                                                                                               50 to 60 um

 sumithrin and piperonyl         Use undiluted.                         3.8 to 5.7 fl          MMD =15 to
 butoxide (Anvil 10+10)                                                 oz/acre                30 um




TABLE 5-14B. COMMUNITY PEST CONTROL — MOSQUITO IMMATURES AND OTHER PESTS

PEST                                Mixing Instructions and Application             Application Rate
Insecticide and Formulation         Equipment                                       Per Acre                 Precautions and Remarks
MOSQUITO—IMMATURES
Bacillus thuringiensis, var.        Dilute with sufficient water                                             Only effective against larvae. Can be applied to all breeding habitats, including
israelensis (Bactimos, Teknar,      to obtain uniform coverage.                                              potable water supplies.
Vectobac)
50 WP                                                                               6 to 12 oz
2 WP                                                                                4 to 16 oz
14.3% aqueous conc.                                                                 0.5 to 3 pt
15% aqueous conc.                                                                   0.5 to 3 pt
1.2% aqueous conc.                                                                  0.25 to 2 pt
0.8% aqueous conc.                                                                  0.5 to 2 pt




150                                                                                                                                                         Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-14B. COMMUNITY PEST CONTROL — MOSQUITO IMMATURES AND OTHER PESTS

PEST                                  Mixing Instructions and Application       Application Rate
Insecticide and Formulation           Equipment                                 Per Acre                Precautions and Remarks
MOSQUITO—IMMATURES (continued)
Bacillus thuringiensis,                                                                                 Use one briquet per 100 sq ft of surface area regardless of depth.
var. israelensis
(Bactimos) briquets 10%
(Bactimos, Teknar, Vectobac)          Ready to use                              —                       Apply 4 to 10 lb per acre with aircraft or ground equipment.
granules 0.2%
pellets 0.4%
methoprene (Altosid) 20% EC           3 to 4 fl oz/gal water                    1 gal                   Apply when larvae are in 3rd and 4th instar. Methoprene will not kill pupae or
                                                                                                        adults.
(Altosid) briquet 2.1%, 8.6%          Ready to use                              —
pellet 4.2%                                                                                             Water less than 2 ft; 1 briquet per 100 sq ft. deeper or flowing water; 1 briquet per
                                                                                                        10 cu ft.
                                                                                                        2.5 to 10 lb pellet per acre; use high rate in breeding sites with high organic
                                                                                                        content.
(Altosid) granule 0.27%, 1.5%
Spinosad (Natular XRG)                Ready to use                              5 to 20 lb
2.5% granule
monomolecular surface film            —                                         0.2 to 0.5 gal          Use in conjunction with indicator oil to avoid over treatment.
(Agnique MMF)
proprietary mosquito control oils     —                                         1 to 5 gal              Dosage depends on amount of floatage and vegetation in water.
(GB-1111, etc.)
temephos (Abate)
43% EC                                0.5 to 1.5 fl oz/gal water                1 gal
1G                                    —                                         5 to 10 lb
2G                                    —                                         2.5 to 5 lb
5G                                    —                                         1 to 2 lb
MIDGE (“fuzzy bills”)
temephos (Abate)                                                                                        Double recommended rates for water high in organic content.
1G                                    —                                         5 to 10 lb
2G                                    —                                         2.5 to 5 lb
5G                                    —                                         2 lb
methoprene
20% EC (Strike)                       4 to 5 oz/ 1 million gal wastewater       —                       For use in wastewater treatment facilities. Uniformly apply at the influent side over
                                                                                                        a 24-hr period.
4.25% pellet (Strike)                 —                                         5 to 10 lb/acre         Apply to natural and manmade aquatic habitats. High rate recommended for
                                                                                                        wastewater.
Spinosad (Natular XRG)                Ready to use                              5 to 20 lb
2.5% granule
TICK
carbaryl (Sevin) 50 WP                0.1 lb/10 gal water                       870 gal                 Keep children and pets off treated areas until they have dried.
chlorpyrifos (Dursban) 2 E, M, 4E     8 to 16 fl oz/40 to 100 gal water         40 to 100 gal
cyfluthrin (Tempo)                                                              40 to 100 gal
24% EC                                5.9 fl oz/40 to 100 gal water
20% WP                                7.7 oz
tetrachlorvinpos (Rabon) 50% WP       0.1 lb/gal water                          21.8 gal
IMPORTED FIRE ANTS
avermectin (Ascend, Black Flag        —                                         1 lb                    For use on turf, lawns, and other noncrop areas, such as parks and golf courses.
Fire Ant Ender) 0.011% B                                                                                Apply when soil temperature is greater than 60oF. Apply after dew or rainfall has
                                                                                                        dried for maximum effectiveness.
fenoxycarb (Award, Logic) 1.0% B      —                                         1 to 1.5 lb             Uniformly distribute 1 to 3 tbsp around the edge of each mound. For broadcast
                                                                                                        applications, apply 1 to 1.5 lb per acre.
fipronil
(Firestar) 0.00015% B                 —                                         1.5 to 15 lb            For use on home lawns, golf courses, commercial and recreational turf, and
                                                                                                        sodfarms.
(Topchoice) 0.0143% B                 —                                         87 lb                   For use on turfgrass and landscape beds.
hydramethylnon (Amdro) 0.88% B        —                                         1 to 1.5 lb             Broadcast uniformly on pasture and range grass, lawns, turf, and nonagricultural
                                                                                                        lands. Or distribute 5 level tbsp 3 to 4 ft around base of each mound (do not
                                                                                                        exceed 1.5 lb per acre).
methoprene (Extinquish) 0.5% B        —                                         1 to 1.5 lb             For use on crop and noncroplands, such as parks, zoos, sports fields, and school
                                                                                                        grounds.
pyriproxyfen (Distance) 0.5% B        —                                         1 to 1.5 lb             For use in outdoor areas on noncroplands.
indoxacarb (Advion) 0.045%            —                                         1.5 lb
For treatment of individual ant mounds with liquid insecticides, refer to the section on insect control for home lawns.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                    151
                                                                                          INDUSTRIAL AND HOUSEHOLD PESTS
                                                                                                                         M. WALDVOGEL and P. ALDER, Entomology Extension

                                                                                                                         For Use by Licensed Pest Control Operators

Space limitations preclude listing all pesticide formulations and trade names. Other products or formulations may be used. Some
products may contain a mixture of active ingredients. Read the product label for specific information about the active ingredients,
application rates, and detailed instructions on use—particularly on permitted sites for application.

Mention of pesticides in this section does not imply that chemicals are or should be the first or only means of pest control.
Nonchemical methods, including exclusion and sanitation, are important to long-term pest management.


    TABLE 5-15A. INDUSTRIAL AND HOUSEHOLD PESTS—For use by licensed pest
    control operators only
                                                                                                                           Sodium Tetraborate (Advance
                                                            Diatomaceous earth (Mother




                                                                                                                                                         Methomyl (Apache, Flytek)
                            Boric acid (Niban, Perma-




                                                                                          Silica gel (Drione, Tri-Die)
                            Dust, Perma-Guard)




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Acephate (Orthene)
                                                                                                                                                                                     Propoxur (PT 2)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DDVP (Nuvan)
             Pesticide




                                                            Earth D)




                                                                                                                           388B)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Organo-
    Chemical Class1                                                   Inorganic                                                                                         Carbamate                                              phosphate
    Formulation2           Bait, Dust                   Dust3                            Dust3                                Bait                       Bait                        Bait              Sprayable                           Strip
    Pests

    ANTS                                                                                                                                                                                                
    BED BUGS                                                                                 
    BEES                                                                                                                                                                                                    
    BOOKLICE                                                                                                                                                                                              
    BOXELDER BUGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    CARPET BEETLES                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    CENTIPEDES                                                                                                                                                                                            
    CLOTHES MOTHS                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
    CLOVER MITES                                                                                                                                                                                         
    COCKROACHES                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    CRICKETS                                                                                                                                                                                             
    EARWIGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    FLEAS                                                                                                                                                                                                  
    FLIES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
    HORNETS/WASPS                                                                                                                                                                                           
    LADY BEETLES                                                                                                                                                                                           
    MILLIPEDES                                                                                                                                                                                            
    MOSQUITOES
    STORED PRODUCT                                                                                                                                                                                        
    PESTS
    SCORPIONS                                                                                 
    SILVERFISH                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    SPIDERS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
    SPRINGTAILS                                                                                                                                                                                             
    TICKS                                                                                      

1
    Alternating uses of insecticides in different chemical classes can help reduce the likelihood of the pests developing resistance to one group or class of compounds.

2
    KEY TO FORMULATION SYMBOLS:
        Aerosol includes Crack & Crevice
        Bait may be granular, gel or station
        Sprayable may be concentrate or powder, some RTU formulations

3
    Some formulations of diatomaceous earth and silica gel contain pyrethrins as a flushing agent




152                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chapter V—Insect Control
    TABLE 5-15B. INDUSTRIAL AND HOUSEHOLD PESTS — For use by licensed pest control operators




                                                                                                                                                                           Deltamethrin (DeltaDust, DeltaGuard, Suspend)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pyrethrins and pyrethrum (Kicker, Pyrenone)
                                                                                             Cyfluthrin (Tempo Ultra, Ultrashield CS)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand, 228L)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Permethrin (Flee, Dragnet, Prelude)
                                                                                                                                        Cypermethrin (Demon, Cynoff)
                                  Allethrin (PT565 Plus XLO)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Esfenvalerate (Onslaught)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Tetramethrin (CB Stinger)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Prallethrin (ULD Spy-300)
                                                               Bifenthrin (Bifen, Talstar)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Phenothrin (Bedlam)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Tralomethrin (Saga)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sumithrin (Bedlam)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Resmethrin (R-300)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Fenvalerate (Pyrid)
               Pesticide




    Chemical Class                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pyrethroids1

    Formulation 2                      S                       S, G                                   S                                       S                        D             G                                     S        S                          S                 S                                       G          S                                  S                      S                      A3    S3                                           D3   A                        S       S                    S                      S


    Pests
    ANTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
    BED BUGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

    BEES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
    BOOKLICE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

    BOXELDER BUGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
    CARPET BEETLES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
    CENTIPEDES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
    CLOTHES MOTHS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    CLOVER MITES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
    COCKROACHES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

    CRICKETS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
    EARWIGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

    FLEAS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    FLIES/GNATS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

    HORNETS/WASPS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    LADY BEETLES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
    MILLIPEDES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    MOSQUITOES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    STORED PRODUCT
    PESTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
    SCORPIONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
    SILVERFISH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
    SPIDERS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

    SPRINGTAILS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    TICKS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

1
    Alternating uses of insecticides in different chemical classes can help reduce the likelihood of the pest developing resistance to one class or class of compounds.

2
    KEY TO FORMULATION SYMBOLS:
        A = aerosol
        B = bait (granular or station)
        D = dust
        G = granular
        S = sprayable (concentrate or powder, some RTU formulations)


3
    Some formulations of pyrethrins contain piperonyl butoxide as a synergist.

4
    Outdoor use only.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           153
    TABLE 5-15C. INDUSTRIAL AND HOUSEHOLD PESTS—For use by licensed pest control operators only




                                                       Methoprene (Altosid, Kabat, Pharorid, Precor, Vigren)3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Imidacloprid ( FlyBait, Maxforce, Premise, Pre-empt)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Fipronil (Maxforce F, TopChoice, Termidor)6




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hydramethylnon (Amdro, Siege, MaxForce)
                                                                                                                                                          Abamectin (Ascend, Avert, Advance)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2-Phenyl Proprionate (EcoPCO EC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin)8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sulfuryl floride (Vikane, Profume)9
                                                                                                                      Pyripoxyfen (Archer, Ultracide)V3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Fenoxycarb (Altosid, Pre-Strike)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dinotefuran (Advance), Alpin8)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Thiamethoxam (Optiguard)10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Indoxacarb (Advion, Arilion)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      d-Limonene (ProCitra-DL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chlorfenapyr (Phantom)7
                                                                                                                                                                                               Acetamiprid (Transport5)
                           Hydroprene (Gencor)3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Mint oil (Victor)
            Pesticide




    Chemical class 1          Insect Growth Regulators                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Other Class

    Formulation 2          A,S                    B                                                             A,S   A,S                                        B                             B,S                               F                               S                         S                     B,D,S                                    S                           B,G,S                                          A,S                                        B                                           B                                             B,S                               A                        F                             B,S
    Pests
    ANTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9
    BED BUGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

    BEES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
    BOOKLICE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
    BOXELDER BUGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    CARPET BEETLES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
    CENTIPEDES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
    CLOTHES MOTHS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
    CLOVER MITES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
    COCKROACHES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
    CRICKETS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
    EARWIGS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
    FLEAS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
    FLIES/GNATS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

    HORNETS/WASPS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
    LADY BEETLES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    MILLIPEDES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
    MOSQUITOES                                   4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
    STORED PRODUCT
    PESTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

    SCORPIONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
    SILVERFISH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
    SPIDERS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
    SPRINGTAILS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    TICKS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

1
 Alternating uses of insecticides in different chemical classes can help reduce the likelihood of the pest developing resistance
to one class or class of compounds.

2
  KEY TO FORMULATION SYMBOLS:
       A = Aerosol (includes Crack & Crevice)
       B = Bait (granular, gel or station)
       D = Dust
       F = Fumigant
       G = Granular
       S = sprayable (concentrate or powder, some RTU formulations)
3
  IGR products are not typically effective against adult stage of pests; use with an adulticide to provide quicker control of pest population
4
  Specialized formulation—briquets
5
  Transport spray also contains bifentrhirn; outdoor use only; Transport bait may be used indoors for cockroaches
6
  Termidor is labeled for outdoor use only; use other fipronil products indoors
7
  Chlorfenapyr labeled for indoor use only for these pests or limited spot treatment outdoors
8
  Requires and F-Phase Structural Pest Control License
9
  Optigard not for use against pharaoh ants or carpenter ants




154                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chapter V—Insect Control
                                                                 ORNAMENTALS
             ARTHROPOD MANAGEMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN GREENHOUSES
                                                          S. D. FRANK, Entomology Extension


Successful pest management programs use a combination of appropriate pest control tactics. Always follow label precautions
when handling or applying pesticides. Make chemical control part of an integrated pest management program that includes
monitoring and pest identification along with appropriate cultural, physical, horticultural, and biological controls.
    Responsible pesticide use includes resistance management. A system has been developed by the inter-company Insecticide
Resistance Action Committee (IRAC; www.irac-online.org) to help you rotate chemicals correctly. Pesticides have been assigned
an IRAC classification number based on their mode of action. To rotate properly, choose a product with a different IRAC number
for each successive application directed against the same pest. Follow resistance management instructions on the label.
    The information in this chart is not a substitute for the label. Pesticide labels and restrictions change frequently. Read and
understand all label information before using any pesticide. Do not use pesticides for uses other than those on the label. Check
county and state regulations for any local restrictions on the use of products listed here before using them.


 TABLE 5-16A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN GREENHOUSES
 Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                                      IRAC
                                                                                Minimum Hours Between             Mode of Action   Permitted
 Insect or Mite           Pesticide common name (Trade name)                    Application and Reentry              Group         application sites

 APHID                    abamectin (Avid)                                                  12 hr                       6          G, L, N

                          acephate (Orthene)                                                24 hr                      1B          G, L, N

                          azadirachtin (Azatin)                                              4 hr                      18B         G, L, N

                          Beauveria bassiana (Botanigard/Naturalis)                          4 hr                       M          G, L, N

                          bifenthrin (Talstar)                                              12 hr                       3          follow label

                          dinotefuran (Safari)                                              12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                          flonicamid (Aria)                                                 12 hr                      9B          G, L, N

                          horticultural oil (various)                                        4 hr                       -          G, L, N

                          imidacloprid (Marathon II)                                        12 hr                      4A          G, N

                          insecticidal soaps                                                12 hr                       -          G, N, L

                          kinoprene (Enstar II)                                              4 hr                      7A          G

                          permethrin (Astro, others)                                        12 hr                       3          follow label

                          pymetrozine (Endeavor)                                              12 hr                    9B          G, L, N
                                                                                24 hr foliar (see exception for
                          spirotetramat (Kontos)                                     drench application)               23          G, N

                          thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                           12 hr                      4A          G, N

 BROAD MITE               abamectin (Avid)                                                  12 hr                       6          G, L, N

                          chlorfenapyr (Pylon)                                              12 hr                      13          G

                          fenpyroximate (Akari)                                             12 hr                      21A         G, N

                          pyridaben (Sanmite)                                               12 hr                      21A         G, L, N

                          spiromesifen (Judo)                                               12 hr                      23          G, N

 CATERPILLAR              acephate (Orthene)                                                24 hr                      1B          G, L, N

                          acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                            12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                          azadirachtin (Azatin)                                              4 hr                      18B         G, L, N

                          Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki                               4 hr                     11B2         follow label

                          Beuveria bassiana                                                 12 hr                       -          follow label

                          bifenthrin (Talstar)                                              12 hr                       3          follow label

                          chlorfenapyr (Pylon)                                              12 hr                      13          G

                          diflubenzuron (Adept)                                             12 hr                      15          G

                          permethrin (Astro, others)                                        12 hr                       3          follow label

                          spinosad (Conserve)                                                4 hr                       5          G, L, N

                          tebufenozide (Confirm)                                             4 hr                      18A



Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                               155
TABLE 5-16A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN GREENHOUSES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                                 IRAC
                                                                           Minimum Hours Between             Mode of Action   Permitted
Insect or Mite           Pesticide common name (Trade name)                Application and Reentry              Group         application sites

CYCLAMEN MITE            abamectin (Avid)                                              12 hr                       6          G, L, N

                         chlorfenapyr (Pylon)                                          12 hr                      13          G

                         fenpyroximate (Akari)                                         12 hr                      21A         G, N

                         pyridaben (Sanmite)                                           12 hr                      21A         G, L, N

                         spiromesifen (Judo)                                           12 hr                      23          G, N

FUNGUS GNAT ADULTS       bifenthrin (Talstar)                                          12 hr                       3          follow label

                         horticultural oil (various)                                    4 hr                       -          G, L, N

                         permethrin (Astro, others)                                    12 hr                       3          follow label

FUNGUS GNAT LARVAE       acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                        12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         azadirachtin (Azatin)                                          4 hr                      18B         G, L, N

                         Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis                        4 hr                     11A1         follow label

                         chlorfenapyr (Pylon)                                          12 hr                      13          G

                         diflubenzuron (Adept)                                         12 hr                      15          G

                         kinoprene (Enstar II)                                          4 hr                      7A          G

                         pyriproxyfen (Distance)                                       12 hr                      7C          G, L, N

LEAFMINER                abamectin (Avid)                                              12 hr                       6          G, L, N

                         acephate (Orthene)                                            24 hr                      1B          G, L, N

                         acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                        12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         azadirachtin (Azatin)                                          4 hr                      18B         G, L, N

                         cyromazine (Citation)                                         12 hr                      17          G, L, N

                         dinotefuran (Safari)                                          12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         imidacloprid (Marathon II, others)                            12 hr                      4A          follow label

                         spinosad (Conserve)                                            4 hr                       5          G, L, N

MEALYBUG                 acephate (Orthene)                                            24 hr                      1B          G, L, N

                         acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                        12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         azadirachtin (Azatin)                                          4 hr                      18B         G, L, N

                         Beuveria bassiana                                             12 hr                       -          follow label

                         bifenthrin (Talstar)                                          12 hr                       3          follow label

                         buprofezin (Talus)                                            12 hr                      16          G, N

                         dinotefuran (Safari)                                          12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         flonicamid (Aria)                                             12 hr                      9B          G, L, N

                         horticultural oil (various)                                    4 hr                       -          G, L, N

                         imidacloprid (Marathon II, others)                            12 hr                      4A          follow label

                         insecticidal soaps                                            12 hr                       -          G, L, N

                         kinoprene (Enstar II)                                          4 hr                      7A          G

                         permethrin (Astro, others)                                    12 hr                       3          follow label

                                                                           24 hr foliar (see exception for
                         spirotetramat (Kontos)                                 drench application)               23          G, N

                         thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                       12 hr                      4A          G, N




156                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-16A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN GREENHOUSES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                         IRAC
                                                                           Minimum Hours Between     Mode of Action   Permitted
Insect or Mite                     Pesticide common name (Trade name)      Application and Reentry      Group         application sites
SCALE (ARMORED) check
label to be sure it lists scale to acephate (Orthene)                                24 hr                1B          G, L, N
be treated
                                   acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                            12 hr                4A          G, L, N

                                  bifenthrin (Talstar)                               12 hr                 3          follow label

                                  buprofezin (Talus)                                 12 hr                16          G, N

                                  dinotefuran (Safari)                               12 hr                4A          G, L, N

                                  horticultural oil (various)                         4 hr                 -          G, L, N

                                  kinoprene (Enstar II)                               4 hr                7A          G
SCALE (SOFT) check label
to be sure it lists scale to be   acephate (Orthene)                                 24 hr                1B          G, L, N
treated
                                  acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                             12 hr                4A          G, L, N

                                  bifenthrin (Talstar)                               12 hr                 3          follow label

                                  buprofezin (Talus)                                 12 hr                16          G, N

                                  dinotefuran (Safari)                               12 hr                4A          G, L, N

                                  horticultural oil (various)                         4 hr                 -          G, L, N

                                  kinoprene (Enstar II)                               4 hr                7A          G

                                  pyriproxyfen (Distance)                            12 hr                7C          G, L, N

                                  thiamethoxam (Flagship)                            12 hr                4A          G, N

SHOREFLY                          acephate (Orthene)                                 24 hr                1B          G, L, N

                                  azadirachtin (Azatin)                               4 hr                18B         G, L, N

                                  bifenthrin (Talstar)                               12 hr                 3          follow label

                                  diflubenzuron (Adept)                              12 hr                15          G

                                  imidacloprid (Marathon II, others)                 12 hr                4A          follow label

                                  kinoprene (Enstar II)                               4 hr                7A          G

                                  pyriproxyfen (Distance)                            12 hr                7C          G, L, N

SLUGS                             Metaldehyde (bait)                              follow label            un          follow label

                                  Methiocarb (bait)                               follow label            1A          follow label

SPIDER MITES                      abamectin (Avid)                                   12 hr                 6          G, L, N

                                  acequinocyl (Shuttle)                              12 hr                20B         G, N

                                  bifenazate (Floramite)                             12 hr                un          G, L, N

                                  chlorfenapyr (Pylon)                               12 hr                13          G

                                  clofentezine (Ovation)                             12 hr                10A         G, N

                                  etoxazole (TetraSan)                               12 hr                10B         G, N, L

                                  fenpyroximate (Akari)                              12 hr                21A         G, N

                                  hexythiazox (Hexygon)                              12 hr                10B         G, L, N

                                  horticultural oil (various)                         4 hr                 -          follow label

                                  insecticidal soaps                                 12 hr                 -          follow label

                                  pyridaben (Sanmite)                                12 hr                21A         G, L, N

                                  spiromesifen (Judo)                                12 hr                23          G, N




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                  157
TABLE 5-16A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN GREENHOUSES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                                 IRAC
                                                                           Minimum Hours Between             Mode of Action   Permitted
Insect or Mite           Pesticide common name (Trade name)                Application and Reentry              Group         application sites

THRIPS                   abamectin (Avid)                                              12 hr                       6          G, L, N

                         acephate (Orthene)                                            24 hr                      1B          G, L, N

                         acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                        12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         azadirachtin (Azatin)                                          4 hr                      18B         G, L, N

                         Beuveria bassiana                                             12 hr                       -          follow label

                         bifenthrin (Talstar)                                          12 hr                       3          follow label

                         horticultural oil (various)                                    4 hr                       -          follow label

                         kinoprene (Enstar II)                                          4 hr                      7A          G

                         novaluron (Pedestal)                                          12 hr                       5          G, N

                         spinosad (Conserve)                                            4 hr                       5          G, L, N

WHITEFLY                 abamectin (Avid)                                              12 hr                       6          G, L, N

                         acephate (Orthene)                                            24 hr                      1B          G, L, N

                         acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                        12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         azadirachtin (Azatin)                                          4 hr                      18B         G, L, N

                         Beuveria bassiana                                             12 hr                       -          follow label

                         bifenthrin (Talstar)                                          12 hr                       3          follow label

                         buprofezin (Talus)                                            12 hr                      16          G, N

                         dinotefuran (Safari)                                          12 hr                      4A          G, L, N

                         flonicamid (Aria)                                             12 hr                      9B          G, L, N

                         horticultural oil (various)                                    4 hr                       -          G, L, N

                         imidacloprid (Marathon II, others)                            12 hr                      4A          follow label

                         insecticidal soaps                                            12 hr                       -          G, L, N

                         kinoprene (Enstar II)                                          4 hr                      7A          G

                         novaluron (Pedestal)                                          12 hr                       5          G, N

                         pyridaben (Sanmite)                                           12 hr                      21A         G, L, N

                         pyriproxyfen (Distance)                                       12 hr                      7C          G, L, N
                                                                           24 hr foliar (see exception for
                         spirotetramat (Kontos)                                 drench application)               23          G, N

                         thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                       12 hr                      4A          G, N




158                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-16B. ARTHROPOD MANAGEMENT CHECKLIST FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN GREENHOUSES




                                                      Broad or cyclamen mite




                                                                                             Fungus gnat




                                                                                                                                                      Spider mite
                                                                               Caterpillar




                                                                                                                       Mealy bug
                                                                                                           Leafminer



                                                                                                                                   Shore fly




                                                                                                                                                                             Whitefly
                                                                                                                                                                    Thrips
                                              Aphid
                                                                                                                                                                                        MOA




                                                                                                                                               Slug
Trade name                                                                                                                                                                              group   Permitted sites

Adept (diflubenzuron)                                                                          √                                                                                         15     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Akari (fenpyroximate)                                                                                                                                   √                                21     greenhouse, interiorscape

Aria (flonicamid)                              √                                                                                                                               √         9C     greenhouse

Avid (abamectin)                               √           √                                                                                            √            √                    6     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Azatin (azadirachtin)                          √                                                                                                        √            √         √        18B     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Benefit (imidacloprid)                         √                                               √             √           √                                                     √         4A     greenhouse, nursery

BotaniGard (Beauveria bassina)                 √                                                                                                                     √         √                greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Celero (clothinidin)                           √                                                                         √                                                     √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Citation (cyromazine)                                                                          √             √                       √                                                   17     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Confirm (tebufenozide)                                                           √                           √                                                                          18A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Conserve (spinosad)                                                              √                                                                                   √                    5     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Decathalon (cyfluthrin)                        √                                 √                                       √                                                                3     greenhouse, nursery

DiPel (Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki)                                          √                                                                                                      11B2    greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Distance (pyriproxifen)                                                                        √                                                                               √         7C     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Endeavor (pymetrozine)                         √                                                                                                                               √         9B     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Enstar II (kinoprene)                                                                                                    √                                                     √         7A     greenhouse, interiorscape

Flagship (thiamethoxam)                        √                                                                         √                                                     √         4A     greenhouse, nursery

Floramite (bifenazate)                                                                                                                                  √                                25     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Gnatrol (Bacillus thringiensis israelensis)                                                    √                                                                                        11A1    greenhouse

Hexygon (hexythiazox)                                                                                                                                   √                               10A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Insecticidal soap                              √                                                                                                                               √                greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Judo (spiromesifen)                                                                                                                                     √                      √         23     greenhouse, nursery

Kontos (spirotetramat)                         √                                 √                                       √                                                     √         23     greenhouse, nursery

Marathon (imidacloprid)                        √                                                                         √                                                     √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Merit (imidacloprid)                           √                                                                         √                                                     √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Measurol (methiocarb)                                                                                                                           √                                        1A     greenhouse, nursery

Metaldehyde                                                                                                                                     √                                               greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Ornazin (azadirachtin)                         √                                                                                                        √            √         √        18B     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Orthene (acephate)                             √                                  √                          √           √           √                               √         √         1B     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Ovation (clofentazine)                                                                                                                                   √                              10A     greenhouse, nursery

Pedestal (novaluron)                                                              √                                                                                  √                   15     greenhouse, nursery

Pylon (chlorfenapyr)                                                              √             √                                                        √                              12B     greenhouse

Pyreth-It (pyrethrum)                          √                                                                                                                                          3     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Quali-Pro (abamectin)                                       √                                                                                            √           √                    6     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Safari (dinotefuron)                                                                                                     √                                                     √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Sanmite (pyridaben)                                                                                                                                      √                     √         21     greenhouse, nursery

Sevin (carbaryl)                                                                                                                                                                         1A     nursery, landscape

Shuttle (acequinocyl)                                                                                                                                                                   20B     greenhouse, nursery

Talstar (bifenthrin)                                                                                                     √                                                                3     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape

Talus (buprofezin)                                                                                                       √                                                               16     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

Tame (fenpropathrin)                           √                                  √                                      √                                                                3     greenhouse, nursery, landscape

TetraSan (etoxazole)                                                                                                                                     √                              10B     greenhouse, nursery

TriStar (acetamiprid)                          √                                  √                                                  √                               √         √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, landscape




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                                                                        159
ARTHROPOD MANAGEMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES
                                                                    S. D. FRANK, Entomology Extension
Successful pest management programs use a combination of appropriate pest control tactics. Always follow label precautions when
handling or applying pesticides. Make chemical control part of an integrated pest management program that includes monitoring
and pest identification along with appropriate cultural, physical, horticultural, and biological controls.
    Responsible pesticide use includes resistance management. A system has been developed by the inter-company Insecticide
Resistance Action Committee (IRAC; www.irac-online.org) to help you rotate chemicals correctly. Pesticides have been assigned
an IRAC classification number based on their mode of action. To rotate properly, choose a product with a different IRAC number
for each successive application directed against the same pest. Follow resistance management instructions on the label.
    The information in this chart is not a substitute for the label. Pesticide labels and restrictions change frequently. The label will
provide the most updated information. Read and understand all label information before using any pesticide. Do not use pesticides
for uses other than those on the label. Check county and state regulations for any local restrictions on the use of products listed here
before using them.

TABLE 5-17A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                                      IRAC
                                                                                     Minimum Hours Between            Mode of Action        Permitted
Insect or Mite                  Pesticide common name (Trade name)                   Application and Reentry          Group                 application sites

ADELGLID                        acetamprid (TriStar)                                            12 hr                          4A           G, L, N

                                chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                                  4 hr                          28           L

                                horticultural oil (various)                                      4 hr                                       G, L, N

                                imidacloprid                                                                                   4A           Follow label
                                (Merit, Marathon, others)                                       12 hr
                                insecticidal soap (various)                                     12 hr                          —            G, L, N

                                spirotetramat (Kontos)                              24 hr foliar (see exception for            23           G, N
                                                                                         drench application)

                                thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                         12 hr                          4A           G, N

APHID                           acetamiprid (TriStar)                                           12 hr                          4A           G, L, N

                                azadirachtin                                                                                   18B          G, L, N
                                (Azatin XL, Ornazin)                                             4 hr
                                abamectin (Avid)                                                12 hr                           6           G, L, N

                                acephate (Orthene)                                              24 hr                          1B           G, L, N

                                bifenthrin + imidacloprid (Allectus)                            12 hr                        3 + 4A         L

                                bifenthrin + clothianidin (Aloft)                               12 hr                        4 + 4A         L

                                Beauveria bassiana                                                                             —            G, L, N
                                (BotaniGard)                                                     4 hr
                                carbaryl (Sevin)                                                12 hr                          1A           L, N

                                clothianidin (Celero, Arena)                                    12 hr                          4A           Follow label

                                cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                                 Follow label directions                  3           G, N

                                fluvalinate (Mavrik)                                   Follow label directions                  3           G, L

                                horticultural oil (various)                                      4 hr                          —            G, L, N

                                imidacloprid                                                    12 hr                          4A           Follow label
                                (Merit, Marathon)
                                neem oil (Triact) 70                                             4 hr                          18B          G, L, N

                                permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, others)                             12 hr                           3           Follow label

                                pymetrozine (Endeavor)                                          12 hr                          9B           G, L, N

                                insecticidal soap (various)                                     12 hr                          —            G, L, N
                                                                                       Follow label directions
                                spirotetramat (Kontos)                              24 hr foliar (see exception for            23           G, N
                                                                                         drench application)

                                thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                         12 hr                          4A           G, N

ARMORED SCALE (such as          acephate (Orthene)                                              24 hr                          1B           G, L, N
Juniper scale, Oystershell
                                acetamiprid (TriStar)                                           12 hr                          4A           G, L, N
scale, Pine needle scale, Tea
scale, Euonymus scale, White    buprofezin (Talus)                                              12 hr                          16           G, L, N
peach scale)
                                carbaryl (Sevin)                                       Follow label directions                 1A           L, N

                                dinotefuron (Safari)                                            12 hr                          4A           G, L, N




160                                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-17A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                               IRAC
                                                                                Minimum Hours Between          Mode of Action   Permitted
Insect or Mite                    Pesticide common name (Trade name)            Application and Reentry        Group            application sites

ARMORED SCALE (such as            horticultural oil (various)                              4 hr                         —       G, L, N
Juniper scale, Oystershell
                                  neem oil (Triact) 70                                     4 hr                         18B     G, L, N
scale, Pine needle scale, Tea
scale, Euonymus scale, White      pyriproxyfen (Distance)                                  12 hr                        7C      G, L, N
peach scale) - continued
                                  insecticidal soap (various)                     Follow label directions                       G, L, N
                                                                                           12 hr
ASIAN AMBROSIA BEETLE             permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)              12 hr                         3      Follow label

BAGWORM                           acephate (Orthene)                                       24 hr                        1B      G, L, N

                                  acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                   12 hr                        4A      G, L, N

                                  azadirachtin (Azatin)                                    4 hr                         18B     G, L, N

                                  bifenthrin + imidacloprid (Allectus)                     12 hr                      3 + 4A    L

                                  bifenthrin + clothianidin (Aloft)                        12 hr                      4 + 4A    L

                                  Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki                          4 hr                        11B2     G, L, N
                                  (BiobitHP, DiPel, or Foray)
                                  bifenthrin (Talstar)                            Follow label directions                3      G, L, N

                                  carbaryl                                        Follow label directions               1A      L, N

                                  chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                          4 hr                         28      L

                                  fluvalinate (Mavrik)                            Follow label directions                3      G, L

                                  spinosad (Conserve SC)                                   4 hr                          5      G, N

BARK BEETLES                      permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, others                       12 hr                         3      Follow label

BLACK VINE WEEVIL                 acephate (Orthene)                              Follow label directions               1A      G, L, N

                                  Beauveria bassiana                                       4 hr                         —       G, L, N
                                  (BotaniGard)
                                  bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                      Follow label directions                3      Follow label

                                                                                           12 hr                      3 + 4A    N
                                  cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)

                                  dinotefuran (Safari)                                     12 hr                        4A      G, L, N

                                  fluvalinate (Mavrik)                            Follow label directions                3      G, L

                                  imidacloprid                                             12 hr                        4A      Follow label
                                  (Merit, Marathon, others)
BORERS (Clearwing, flathead-      chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                          4 hr                         28      L
ed, and roundheaded borers
                                  cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                       12 hr                      3 + 4A    N
are included in this section.
Make sure label specifically      dinotefuran (Safari)                                     12 hr                        4A      G, L, N
lists the type of borer you are
trying to control.)               imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon II, others)                12 hr                        4A      Follow label

                                  bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                    Follow local regulations for             3      Follow label
                                                                                     landscape reentry
                                  permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)              12 hr                         3      Follow label

CATERPILLARS (such as             acephate (Orthene)                                       24 hr                        1B      G, L, N
armyworm, budworm, eastern
                                  acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                   12 hr                        4A      G, L, N
tent caterpillar, fall webworm,
orangestriped oakworm, lea-       azadirachtin (Azatin)                                    4 hr                        18B      G, L, N
frollers)
                                  bifenthrin + imidacloprid (Allectus)                     12 hr                      3 + 4A    L

                                  bifenthrin + clothianidin (Aloft)                        12 hr                      4 + 4A    L

                                  carbaryl (Sevin)                                         12 hr                        1A      L, N

                                  chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                          4 hr                         28      L

                                  permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)              12 hr                         3      Follow label

                                  Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (DiPel)                  4 hr                        11B2     G, L, N

                                  bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                      Follow label directions                3      Follow label

                                  novaluron (Pedestal)                                     12 hr                        15      G, N

                                  insecticidal soap (various)                     Follow label directions               —       G, L, N

                                  spinosad (Conserve SC)                                   4 hr                          5      G, N

                                  tebufenozide (Confirm)                                   4 hr                         18A     L, N

CARPENTER ANT                     permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)              12 hr                         3      Follow label




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                            161
TABLE 5-17A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                                    IRAC
                                                                                   Minimum Hours Between            Mode of Action              Permitted
Insect or Mite             Pesticide common name (Trade name)                      Application and Reentry          Group                       application sites

CRICKET                    bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                                        12 hr                              3               Follow label

                           cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                                    Follow label directions                    3               G, N

                           pyrethrins (Pyrenone)                                     Follow label directions                    3               Follow label

                           insecticidal soap (various)                               Follow label directions                                    G, L, N

ERIOPHYID MITE             abamectin (Avid)                                                  12 hr                              6               G, L, N

                           horticultural oil (various)                                        4 hr                             —                G, L, N

                           spiromesifen (Judo, Forbid)                                       12 hr                             23               G, N

FALSE SPIDER MITES (such   acequinocyl (Shuttle)                                             12 hr                             20B              G, N
as privet mite)
                           bifenazate (Floramite)                                            12 hr                             un               G, N, L

                           etoxazole (TetraSan)                                              12 hr                             10B              G, N, L

                           horticultural oil (various)                                        4 hr                             —                G, N, L

                           insecticidal soaps                                                12 hr                             —                G, N, L

                           spiromesifen (Judo, Forbid)                                       12 hr                             23               follow label

FUNGUS GNATS               azadirachtin (Azatin XL)                                          12 hr                             18B              G, L, N

                           bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                                        12 hr                              3               Follow label

                           imidicloprid (Marathon, Merit, others)                    Follow label directions                   4A               Follow label

                           permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)                       12 hr                              3               Follow label

                           pyriproxyfen (Distance)                                           12 hr                             7C               G, L, N

GRASSHOPPER                bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                                        12 hr                              3               Follow label

                           carbaryl (Sevin) 5 bait                                   Follow label directions                   1A               Follow label

                           cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                                    Follow label directions                    3               G, N

                           insecticidal soap (various)                                       12 hr                             —                G, L, N

GYPSY MOTH                 Telephone: Plant Pest Division, N.C. Dept. of Agriculture (919) 733-6930; Extension Forest Resources, N.C. Cooperative Extension Service
                           (919) 515-3386; Division of Forest Resources, N.C. Dept. of Natural and Economic Resources (919) 733-2162; or local representative of any of
                           these agencies.
JAPANESE BEETLE (ADULT)    acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                            12 hr                             4A               G, L, N

                           acephate (Orthene)                                        Follow label directions                   1A               G, L, N

                           azadirachtin (Azatin XL)                                           4 hr                             18B              G, L, N

                           bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                                Follow label directions                    3               Follow label

                           bifenthrin (Talstar, Onyx)                                        12 hr                              3               Follow label

                           bifenthrin + imidacloprid (Allectus)                              12 hr                           3 + 4A             L

                           bifenthrin + clothianidin (Aloft)                                 12 hr                           4 + 4A             L

                           carbaryl (Sevin)                                          Follow label directions                    3               L, N

                           chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                                    4 hr                             28               L

                           clothianidin (Arena)                                                                                4A               L

                           cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                                12 hr                           3 + 4A             N

                           cyfluthrin (Decathlon) 20 WP                              Follow label directions                    3               G, N

                           dinotefuran (Safari)                                              12 hr                             4A               G, L, N

                           imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon II, others)                         12 hr                             4A               follow label

                           permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)                       12 hr                              3               Follow label

                           thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                           12 hr                             4A               G, N

JUNE BEETLE                carbaryl (Sevin)                                          Follow label directions                   1A               L, N

                           cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                                    Follow label directions                    3               G, N

LACEBUGS                   acephate (Orthene)                                        Follow label directions                   1A               G, L, N

                           Beauveria bassina (BotaniGard)                                     4 hr                             —                G, L, N

                           bifenthrin (Talstar, Onyx)                                        12 hr                              3               follow label

                           bifenthrin + imidacloprid (Allectus)                              12 hr                           3 + 4A             L

                           bifenthrin + clothianidin (Aloft)                                 12 hr                           4 + 4A             L

                           carbaryl (Sevin)                                                  12 hr                             1A               L, N

                           chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                                    4 hr                             28               L




162                                                                                                                                   Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-17A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                                  IRAC
                                                                                 Minimum Hours Between            Mode of Action   Permitted
Insect or Mite                    Pesticide common name (Trade name)             Application and Reentry          Group            application sites

LACEBUGS (continued)              cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                        12 hr                        3 + 4A    N

                                  dinotefuran (Safari)                                      12 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                  imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon, others)                    12 hr                          4A      Follow label

                                  permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)               12 hr                           3      Follow label

                                  soap (Olympic Insecticidal)                      Follow label directions                 —       Follow label
                                                                                            12 hr
                                  thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                   12 hr                          4A      G, N

LEAF BEETLES (such as cuc-        acephate (Orthene)                                        12 hr                          1A      G, L, N
mber beetle, elm leaf beetle,
willow leaf beetle, and flea      bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                                12 hr                           3      Follow label
beetles including Altica spp.)
                                  bifenthrin + imidacloprid (Allectus)                      12 hr                        3 + 4A    L

                                  bifenthrin + clothianidin (Aloft)                         12 hr                        4 + 4A    L

                                  carbaryl (Sevin)                                          12 hr                           3      L, N

                                  chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                            4 hr                          28      L

                                  dinotefuran (Safari)                                      12 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                  imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon II, others)                 12 hr                          4A      Follow label

                                  spinosad (Conserve SC)                                     4 hr                           5      G, N

                                  thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                   12 hr                          4A      G, N

LEAFHOPPERS (such as              acephate (Orthene)                               Follow label directions                 1A      G, L, N
potato leafhopper and sharp-
shooters)                         acetamiprid (TriStar) 70 WSP                              24 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                  bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                       Follow label directions                  3      Follow label

                                  bifenthrin + imidacloprid (Allectus)                      12 hr                        3 + 4A    L

                                  bifenthrin + clothianidin (Aloft)                         12 hr                        4 + 4A    L

                                  carbaryl (Sevin)                                 Follow label directions                 1A      L, N

                                  cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                           Follow label directions                  3      G, N

                                  clothianidin (Arena)                                      12 hr                          4A      L

                                  cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                        12 hr                        3 + 4A    N

                                  dinotefuran (Safari)                                      12 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                  fluvalinate (Mavrik)                             Follow label directions                  3      G, L

                                  imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon II, others)                 12 hr                          4A      Follow label

                                  neem oil (Triact) 90 EC                                    4 hr                          18B     G, L, N

                                  permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)               12 hr                           3      Follow label

                                  thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                   12 hr                          4A      G, N

                                  insecticidal soap                                Follow label directions                 —       G, L, N
                                                                                            12 hr
                                  spirotetramat (Kontos)                        24 hr foliar (see exception for            23      G, N
                                                                                     drench application)

LEAFMINERS (such as box-          abamectin (Avid)                                 Follow label directions                  6      G, L, N
wood leafminer, holly leafmin-
                                  acephate (Orthene)                               Follow label directions                 1A      G, L, N
er, birch leafminer) Note this
includes dipterous, lepidopter-   acetamiprid (TriStar)                                     24 hr                          4A      G, L, N
ous, and coleopterus leafmin-
ers. Make sure leafminer to be    azadirachtin (Azatin XL)                                  12 hr                          18B     G, L, N
treated is listed on label.       bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                       Follow label directions                  3      Follow label

                                  chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn SC)                         4 hr                          28      L

                                  clothianidin (Arena)                                                                     4A      L

                                  cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                        12 hr                        3 + 4A    N

                                  dinotefuran (Safari)                                      12 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                  imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon, others)                    12 hr                          4A      Follow label

                                  permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)               12 hr                           3      Follow label

                                  pyriproxyfen (Distance)                                   12 hr                          7C      G, L, N

                                  spinosad (Conserve SC)                                     4 hr                           5      G, N




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                               163
TABLE 5-17A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                                 IRAC
                                                                                Minimum Hours Between            Mode of Action         Permitted
Insect or Mite                   Pesticide common name (Trade name)             Application and Reentry          Group                  application sites

MEALYBUGS                        acephate (Orthene)                                        12 hr                          1A            G, L, N

                                 acetamiprid (TriStar)                                     24 hr                          4A            G, L, N

                                 Beauveria bassina (BotaniGard)                             4 hr                          —             G, L, N

                                 bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                       Follow label directions                  3            Follow label

                                 buprofezin (Talus)                                        12 hr                          16            G, N

                                 carbaryl (Sevin)                                 Follow label directions                 1A            L, N

                                 cyfluthrin (Decathlon) 20 WP                     Follow label directions                  3            G, N

                                 clothianidin (Arena, Celero)                                                             4A            L

                                 cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                        12 hr                        3 + 4A          N

                                 dinotefuran (Safari)                                      12 hr                          4A            G, L, N

                                 fluvalinate (Mavrik) 22.3 F                      Follow label directions                  3            G, L

                                 imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon, others)                    12 hr                          4A            Follow label

                                 neem oil (Triact)                                          4 hr                          18B           G, L, N

                                 permethrin (Astro, Perm-up, Permethrin Pro)               12 hr                           3            Follow label

                                 insecticidal soap (various)                      Follow label directions                 —             G, L, N
                                                                                           12 hr
                                 horticultural oil (various)                                4 hr                          —             G, L, N

                                 spirotetramat (Kontos)                        24 hr foliar (see exception for            23            G, N
                                                                                    drench application)

                                 thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                   12 hr                          4A            G, N

PILLBUG                          bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                                12 hr                           3            Follow label

                                 cyfluthrin (Decathlon) 20 WP                     Follow label directions                  3            G, N

PLANTBUGS                        bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                       Follow label directions                  3            Follow label

                                 cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                           Follow label directions                  3            G, N

                                 permethrin (Astro, others)                                12 hr                           3            follow label

                                 thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                   12 hr                          4A            G, N

                                 insecticidal soap (various)                      Follow label directions                 —             G, L, N
                                                                                           12 hr
PSYLLID                          Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard)                            4 hr                          —             G, L, N

                                 insecticidal soap (various)                               12 hr                          —             G, L, N

SAWFLY                           acephate (Orthene)                               Follow label directions                 1A            G, L, N

                                 acetamiprid (TriStar)                                     24 hr                          4A            G, L, N

                                 carbaryl (Sevin)                                 Follow label directions                 1A            L, N

                                 cyfluthrin (Decathlon) 20WP                      Follow label directions                  3            G, N

                                 cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                        12 hr                        3 + 4A          N

                                 imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon, others)                    12 hr                          4A            Follow label

                                 insecticidal soap (various)                               12 hr                          —             G, L, N

                                 spinosad (Conserve SC)                                     4 hr                           5            G, N

SLUG, SNAIL                      metaldehyde + carbaryl (Sevin) bait              Follow label directions             Follow label      Follow Label

                                 methiocarb (Mesurol)                                      24 hr                          1A            Follow label

SOFT SCALE (such as Fletcher acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                                        12 hr                          4A            G, L, N
scale, Cottony cushion scale,
                              buprofezin (Talus)                                           12 hr                          16            G, N
Wax scale, San Jose scale)
                              cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Discus)                           12 hr                        3 + 4A          N

                                 dinotefuran (Safari)                                      12 hr                          4A            G, L, N

                                 horticultural oil (various)                                4 hr                          —             G, L, N

                                 imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon, others)           Follow label directions                 4A            Follow label

                                 pyriproxyfen (Distance)                                   12 hr                          7C            G, L, N

                                 thiamethoxam (Flagship)                                   12 hr                          4A            G, N

SOWBUG                           cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                           Follow label directions                  3            G, N




164                                                                                                                               Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-17A. ARTHROPOD MANAGMENT FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES
Permitted application sites: G = greenhouse, L = landscape, N = Nursery.
                                                                                                           IRAC
                                                                          Minimum Hours Between            Mode of Action   Permitted
Insect or Mite                  Pesticide common name (Trade name)        Application and Reentry          Group            application sites

SPIDER MITE (such as            abamectin (Avid)                                     12 hr                           6      G, L, N
twospotted, southern red, and
spruce spider mite)             acequinocyl (Shuttle)                                12 hr                          20B     G, N

                                bifenazate (Floramite)                               12 hr                          un      G, L, N

                                clofentezine (Ovation)                               12 hr                          10A     G, N

                                etoxazole (TetraSan)                                 12 hr                          10B     G, N, L

                                hexythiazox (Hexygon)                                12 hr                          10B     G, L, N

                                horticultural oil (various)                           4 hr                          —       follow label

                                insecticidal soaps                                   12 hr                          —       follow label

                                pyridaben (Sanmite)                                  12 hr                          21A     G, L, N

                                spiromesifen (Judo, Forbid)                          12 hr                          23      follow label

SPITTLEBUG                      acephate (Orthene)                                   12 hr                          1A      G, L, N

                                cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                      Follow label directions                11B2     G, N

STINK BUG                       pyrethrins (PyGanic, Pyrenone)              Follow label directions                  3      Follow label

THRIPS                          abamectin (Avid)                                     12 hr                           6      G, L, N

                                acephate (Orthene)                                   24 hr                          1B      G, L, N

                                acetamiprid (Tri-Star)                               12 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                azadirachtin (Azatin)                                 4 hr                          18B     G, L, N

                                Beauveria bassina (BotaniGard)                        4 hr                          —       G, L, N

                                bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                  Follow label directions                  3      Follow label

                                horticultural oil (various)                           4 hr                          —       follow label

                                novaluron (Pedestal)                                 12 hr                           5      G, N

                                spinosad (Conserve SC)                                4 hr                           4      G, N

TWIG BORER                      bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                           12 hr                           3      Follow label

WHITEFLY                        abamectin (Avid)                                     12 hr                           6      G, L, N

                                acephate (Orthene)                                   12 hr                          1A      G, L, N

                                acetamiprid (TriStar)                                12 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                Beauveria bassina (BotaniGard)                        4 hr                          —       G, L, N

                                bifenthrin (Onyx, Talstar)                           12 hr                           3      Follow label

                                buprofezin (Talus)                                   12 hr                          16      G, N

                                cyfluthrin (Decathlon)                      Follow label directions                  3      G, N

                                dinotefuran (Safari)                        Follow label directions                 4A      G, L, N

                                fluvalinate (Mavrik)                        Follow label directions                  3      G, L

                                flonicamid (Aria)                                    12 hr                          9B      G, L, N

                                horticultural oil (various)                           4 hr                          —       G, L, N

                                imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon, others)               12 hr                          4A      Follow label

                                novaluron (Pedestal)                                 12 hr                           5      G, N

                                pyriproxyfen (Distance) 11.2 EC                      12 hr                          7C      G, L, N

                                insecticidal soap (various)                 Follow label directions                 —       G, L, N
                                                                                     12 hr
                                spirotetramat (Kontos)                   24 hr foliar (see exception for            23      G, N
                                                                              drench application)

                                thiamethoxam (Flagship)                              12 hr                          4A      G, N

WHITE GRUBS (such as orien-     Beauveria bassina (BotaniGard)                        4 hr                          —       G, L, N
tal and Japanese beetle)
                                chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                       4 hr                          28      L

                                clothianidin (Arena)                                 12 hr                          4A      L

                                dinotefuran (Safari)                                 12 hr                          4A      G, L, N

                                imidacloprid (Merit, Marathon, others)               12 hr                          4A      Follow label

                                thiamethoxam (Flagship)                              12 hr                          4A      G, N




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                        165
 TABLE 5-17B. ARTHROPOD PEST CHECKLIST FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS GROWN IN NURSERIES OR LANDSCAPES




                                                                                                          Japanese beetle
                                                                 Fungus gnat




                                                                                                                                                                   Spider mite
                                                                               Leaf beetle

                                                                                             Leaf miner
                                                   Caterpillar




                                                                                                                            Mealy bug

                                                                                                                                        Plant bug




                                                                                                                                                                                          Whitefly
                                                                                                                                                                                 Thrips
                                   Aphid

                                           Borer




                                                                                                                                                    Scale
                                                                                                                                                                                                     MOA




                                                                                                                                                            Slug
 Trade name                                                                                                                                                                                          group   Permitted sites1
 (Acelepryn) chlorantraniliprole            √        √             √             √                            √                                                                                       28     landscape
 Adept (diflubenzuron)                                             √                                                                                                                                  15     greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Astro (permethrin)                         √                                                                                                                        √                                 3     greenhouse, landscape
 Avid (abamectin)                   √                                                                                                                                √            √                    6     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Azatin (azadirachtin)              √                                                                                                                                √            √         √        18B     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Benefit (imidacloprid)             √                              √                           √              √               √                                                             √         4A     greenhouse, nursery
 BotaniGard (Beauveria
                                    √                                                                                                                                             √         √                greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 bassiana)
 Celero (clothianidin)              √                                                                                         √                                                             √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Citation (cyromazine)                                             √                           √                                                                                                      17     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Confirm (tebufenozide)                              √                                         √                                                                                                     18A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Conserve (spinosad)                                 √                           √                                                                                                √                    5     greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Decathalon (cyfluthrin)            √                √                           √                            √               √           √                                                            3     greenhouse, nursery
 DiPel (Bacillus thuringiensis
                                                     √                                                                                                                                               11B2    greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 kutstaki)
 Distance (pyriproxifen)                                           √                                                                                                                        √         7C     greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Endeavor (pyrmetrozine)            √                                                                                                                                                       √         9B     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Enstar II (kinoprene)                                                                                                        √                                                             √         7A     greenhouse, interiorscape
 Flagship (thiamethoxam)            √                                                                                         √                                                             √         4A     greenhouse, nursery
 Floramite (bifenazate)                                                                                                                                              √                                25     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Hexygon (hexythiazox)                                                                                                                                               √                               10A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Insecticidal soap                  √                                                                                                     √                                                 √                greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Judo (spiromesifen)                                                                                                                                                 √                      √         23     greenhouse, nursery
 Kontos (spirotetamat)              √                                                                                         √                                                             √         23     greenhouse, nursery
 Marathon (imidacloprid)            √                                                                        √                √                                                             √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Merit (imidacloprid)               √                                                                        √                √                                                             √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Measurol (methiocarb)                                                                                                                                       √                                        1A     greenhouse, nursery
 Metaldehyde                                                                                                                                                 √                                               greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Ornazin (azadirachtin)             √                                                                                                                                √            √         √        18B     greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Orthene (acephate)                 √                √                           √             √             √                √           √          √                            √         √         1B     greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Ovation (clofentazine)                                                                                                                                              √                               10A     greenhouse, nursery
 Pedestal (novaluron)                                √                                                                                                                            √                   15     greenhouse, nursery
 Permethrin Pro (permethrin)                √                                                                                                                                                         3      greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Perm-Up (permethrin)                       √                                                                                                                                                         3      greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Pyreth-It (pyrethrum)              √                                                                                                                                                                 3      greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Quali-Pro (abamectin)                                                                                                                                               √            √                   6      greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Safari (dinotefuron)                                                                                                         √                                                             √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Sanmite (pyridaben)                                                                                                                                                 √                      √         21     greenhouse, nursery
 Sevin (cabaryl)                                                                                             √                                                                                        1A     nursery, landscape
 Shuttle (acequinocyl)                                                                                                                                                                               20B     greenhouse, nursery
 Talstar (bifenthrin)                                                                                                         √                                                                       3      greenhouse, nursery, interiorscape, landscape
 Talus (buprofezin)                                                                                                           √                                                                       16     greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 Tame (fenpropathrin)               √                √                           √                           √                √           √                                                           3      greenhouse, nursery, landscape
 TetraSan (etoxazole)                                                                                                                                                √                               10B     greenhouse, nursery
 TriStar (acetamiprid)              √                √                                         √             √                √           √                                       √         √         4A     greenhouse, nursery, landscape




166                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chapter V—Insect Control
                                                ARTHROPOD CONTROL ON CHRISTMAS TREES
                                                             J. R. SIDEBOTTOM, Entomology Forestry

TABLE 5-18. ARTHROPOD CONTROL ON CHRISTMAS TREES
** N.C. label
                                    Amount of                               Minimum Interval
INSECT OR MITE                      Formulation per   Amount per 100        (Hours) Between
Insecticide and Formulations        Gallon of Spray   Gallons of Water      Application and Reentry Precautions and Remarks
ADELGIDS (Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Cooley, Eastern Spruce Gall)
bifenthrin (Talstar Nursery                           20 to 40 oz/acre      12                          Will also control twig aphids and spider mites but not rust mites.
Flowable)
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre             24                          Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress. Control is
                                                                                                        achieved only when eggs and crawlers are not present.
** endosulfan (Thionex 3 EC)        1 tsp/gal         2/3 qt/100 gal        24                          Do not apply more than 4 qt per acre per year. Do not apply within 300 ft of
                                                                                                        ponds and streams.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12                          Use full rate to control balsam woolly adelgid.
imidacloprid (Provado 1.6 F)                          4 to 8 oz/acre OR     12                          Adding a spray adjuvant may improve coverage. Do not apply more than 40
                                                      2 oz/100 gal                                      oz per acre per year.
oxydemeton-methyl (MSR                                1 to 2 pt/acre        48 in areas receiving at    Apply specified dosage per acre in sufficient water for complete coverage.
Concentrate)                                                                least 25 in. of rain per    Do not make more than two applications per season.
                                                                            year
ANTS
bifenthrin (Talstar Nursery                           5 to 10 oz/acre       12
Flowable)
carbaryl (Sevin SL)                                   1 qt/acre             12
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre             24                          Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
APHID (including Balsam Twig Aphid and Cinara Aphid)
abamectin (Avid 0.15 EC)                              8 oz/100 gal          12                          Do not apply more than 16 oz or less than 8 oz per acre. To suppress
                                                                                                        aphids, spray must contact young immatures.
Beaveria bassiana (Naturalis T&O)   0.3 to 1 oz/gal   30 to 100 oz/100 gal 4                            Spray immediately after mixing.
bifenthrin (Talstar Nursery                           40 oz/acre            12
Flowable)
carbaryl (Chipco Sevin SL)                            1 qt/acre             12
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre             24                          Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
cinnamaldehyde (Cinnamite)          0.85 oz/gal       85 oz/100 gal         4
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1 1/2 pt/acre    48
Clean Crop)
disulfoton (Di-Syston 15 G)                           1 tsp/tree OR 20 to   48 where rainfall exceeds Spread the granules in the root zone of the trees at the dripline and work
                                                      30 lb/acre            25 in./year               into the soil or water thoroughly within 48 hr of application. Not for use in
                                                                                                      bare-ground plantations.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12


imidacloprid (Provado 1.6 F)                          4 to 8 oz/acre OR     12                          Adding a spray adjuvant may improve control. Do not apply more than 40 oz
                                                      2 oz/100 gal                                      per acre per year.
oxydemeton-methyl (MSR                                1 to 2 pt/acre        48 in areas receiving at    Apply specified dosage per acre in sufficient water for complete coverage.
Concentrate)                                                                least 25 in. of rain per    Do not make more than two applications per season.
                                                                            year
pymetrozine (Endeavor)                                Up to 10 oz/acre      12
BAGWORM
bifenthrin (Talstar Nursery                           5 to 10 oz/acre       12
Flowable)
carbaryl (Sevin SL)                                   1 qt/acre             12
diflourorbenzamide (Dimilin 4L)                       1 to 2 oz/acre        12                          Apply to early instars in mid- to late June.
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1 1/2 pt/acre    48
Clean Crop)
tebufenozide (Confirm)                                4 to 8 oz/acre        4                           Apply to early instar larvae; foliage development should be a minimum of
                                                                                                        20%. Do not apply more than 16 oz per acre per year.
ELONGATE HEMLOCK SCALE
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1 1/2 pt/acre    48
Clean Crop)
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12                          Best results when mixed with dimethoate.
Talus                                                 14 oz/100 gal         12
EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre             24                          Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1 1/2 pt/acre    48
Clean Crop)
phosmet (Imidan 70-WSB or                             1.3 to 1.5 lb/acre    24
Gowan)




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                              167
TABLE 5-18. ARTHROPOD CONTROL ON CHRISTMAS TREES
** N.C. label
                                  Amount of                                  Minimum Interval
INSECT OR MITE                    Formulation per     Amount per 100         (Hours) Between
Insecticide and Formulations      Gallon of Spray     Gallons of Water       Application and Reentry Precautions and Remarks
GYPSY MOTH
bifenthrin (Talstar Nursery                           10 to 20 oz/acre       12
Flowable)
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre              24                         Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
diflourorbenzamide (Dimilin 4L)                       0.5 to 2 oz/acre       12                         Apply to early instar and prior to full leaf expansion.
ozydemeton-methyl (MSR                                1 to 2 pt/acre         48 in areas receiving at   Apply specific dosage per acre in sufficient water for complete coverage. Do
Concentrate)                                                                 least 25 in. of rain per   not make more than two applications per season.
                                                                             year
phosmet (Imidan 70-WSB or                             1.3 to 1.5 lb/acre     24
Gowan)
terbufenozide (Confirm)                               4 to 8 oz/acre         4                          Apply to early instart larvae after each foliage flush at approximately 25%
                                                                                                        foliage expansion. Allow at least 6 hr between application and rainfall to
                                                                                                        assure thorough spray drying.
MIDGE (Douglas fir needle midge, pine needle midge)
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre              24                         Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12
NANTUCKET PINE TIP MOTH
carbaryl (Sevin SL)                                   1 qt/acre              12
                                                      1 to 2 oz/acre         12
diflourorbenzamide (Dimilin 4L)                                                                         Apply when second generation instars are present or 70% of first generation
                                                                                                        pupal cases are empty.
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1 1/2 pt/acre     48
Clean Crop)
**disulfoton (Di-Syston) 15 G                         1 tsp/tree; 20 to 30   48                         Spread granules in the root zone of the trees at the dripline and work into
                                                      lb/acre                                           the soil or water thoroughly within 48 hr of application. Not for use in bare-
                                                                                                        ground plantations.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 fl oz       12                         Apply as needed for control. Spray sufficient gallonage to obtain good
                                                                                                        coverage of entire tree.
permethrin (Permethrin 3.2 EC)                        4 to 8 oz/100 gal      12                         Begin applications when adults appear. Repeat applications may be made in
                                                                                                        5- to 7-day intervals as needed.
phosmet (Imidan 70-WSB or                             1.3 to 1.5 lb/acre     24
Gowan)
tebufenozide (Confirm)                                8 oz/acre              4                          Apply to early instar larvae after each foliage flush at approximately 25%
                                                                                                        foliage expansion. Allow at least 6 hr between application and rainfall to
                                                                                                        assure thorough spray drying.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12
PINE CHAFER
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12
ROSETTE BUD MITE
dimethoate (various brands)                           1.3 pt/100 gal         48
RUST MITES
chloropyridan (Sanmite)                               4 oz/100 gal or 10.7 12
                                                      oz/acre
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre              24                         Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1.5 pt/acre       48
Clean Crop)
spirodiclofen (Envidor 2SC)                           18 to 24.7 oz/acre     24                         Make only one application per season.
SAWFLIES (Redheaded pine, red pine, European pine)
carbaryl (Sevin SL)                                   1 qt/acre              12
diflourorbenzamide (Dimilin 4L)                       2 to 4 oz/acre         12
                                                                                                        Apply to early instars.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12
imidacloprid (Provado 1.6 F)                          4 to 8 oz/acre OR      12                         Adding a spray adjuvant may improve control. Do not apply more than 40 oz
                                                      2 oz/100 gal                                      per acre per year.
malathion (Malation 8 or Gowan)   2 tbsp/gal          1 pt/100 gal           12
phosmet (Imidan 70-WSB or                             1.3 to 1.5 lb/acre     24
Gowan)
SCALE (Pine needle, pine tortoise, spruce bud, black pine, stripped pine)
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre              24                         Do not treat plants under extreme heat and drought stress. Apply when
                                                                                                        scale crawlers are active.
**disulfoton (Di-Syston) 15 G                         1 tsp/tree; 20 to 30   48                         Spread granules in the root zone of the trees at the dripline and work into
                                                      lb/acre                                           the soil or water thoroughly within 48 hr of application. Not for use in bare-
                                                                                                        ground plantations.
oxydemeton-methyl (Metasystox-R                       2 pt/acre              48 in areas receiving at   Apply specified dosage per acre in sufficient water for complete coverage.
or Gowan)                                                                    least 25 in. of rain per   Do not make more than two applications per season.
                                                                             year




168                                                                                                                                              Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-18. ARTHROPOD CONTROL ON CHRISTMAS TREES
** N.C. label
                                   Amount of                                 Minimum Interval
INSECT OR MITE                     Formulation per    Amount per 100         (Hours) Between
Insecticide and Formulations       Gallon of Spray    Gallons of Water       Application and Reentry Precautions and Remarks
SEED BUGS
permethrin (Permethrin 3.2 EC)                        30 oz/acre             12
SPIDER MITE (Spruce spider mites)
abamectin (Avid 0.15 EC)                              4 oz/100 gal           12                          Do not apply more than 16 oz or less than 8 oz per acre.
Beauveria bassiana (Naturalis      0.3 to 1 oz/gal    30 to 100 oz/100 gal 4                             Spray immediately after mixing
T&O)
bifenazate (Floramite)                                2 to 4 oz/100 gal      4                           Add an adjuvant like Silwet L-77 or Slygard 309 to the Floramite solution.
chloropyridan (Sanmite)                               4 oz/100 gal or 10.7 12
                                                      oz/acre
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre              24                          Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress. If eggs are
                                                                                                         present, reapply in 7 to 10 days to control newely hatched nymphs.
clofentezine (Ovation SC)          —                  2 to 4 oz/100 gal      12                          Most effective when applied at first sign of mite activity and mite eggs.
                                                      or 4 to 8 oz/acre
                                                      for low-volume
                                                      applications; do not
                                                      exceed 8 oz/acre
cinnamaldehyde (Cinnamite)         2 tbsp/gal         85 oz/100 gal          4
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1 1/2 pt/acre     48
Clean Crop)
disulfoton (Di-Syston 15G)                            1 tsp/tree             48 where rainfall exceeds Spread the granules in the root zone of the trees at the dripline and work
                                                      20 to 30 lb/acre       25 in./year               into the soil or water thoroughly within 48 hours of application. Not for use in
                                                                                                       bare-ground plantations.
etoxazole (TetraSan 5 WDG)                            8 to 16 oz/100 gal     12                          TetraSan kills mite eggs and nymphs but not adult mite. Treated adults will
                                                                                                         not produce viable eggs.
hexathiazox (Savey) 50 WP          3 to 6 oz/acre     2 oz/100 gal           12                          Do not make more than one application per year.
oxydemeton-methyl (Metasystox-R                       1 to 2 pt/acre         48 in areas receiving at    Apply specified dosage per acre in sufficient water for complete coverage.
or Gowan)                                                                    least 25 in. of rain per    Do not make more than two applications per season.
                                                                             year
propargite (Ornamite-CR)                              3 to 7.5 lb/acre       7 days                      Make no more than three applications per year. Compatibility restrictions.
spirodichlofen (Envidor 2SC)                          18 to 24.7 oz/acre     24                          Make only one application per season.
spiromesifen (Judo)                                   1 to 4 oz/100 gal      12                          Do not apply more than four times per season.
SPITTLEBUG
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4F)                             1 qt/acre              24                          Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12
SPRUCE NEEDLE MINER
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre              24                          Do not treat plants under extreme heat or drought stress.
WEEVILS (pales, northern pine, pitch eating, root collar, white pine
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)          2 tbsp/gal         3 qt/100 gal           24                          Apply as a cut stump drench.
diflourobenzamide (Dimilin 4L)                        4 to 8 oz/acre         12                          Treat prior to egg deposition.
esfenvalerate (Asana XL)                              5.8 to 9.6 oz/100 gal 12
ozydemeton-methyl (Metasystox-R                       1 to 2 pt/acre         48 in areas receiving at    Apply specific dosage per acre in sufficient water for complete coverage. Do
or Gowan)                                                                    least 25 in. of rain per    not make more than two applications per season.
                                                                             year
phosmet (Imidan 70-WSP or                             1.3 to 1.5 lb/acre     24
(Gowan)
WHITE GRUBS
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E)                             1 qt/acre              24                          Incorporate into the soil if possible.
thiamethoxam (Flagship 25WG)                          8 oz/acre              12                          Apply from adult flight through peak hatch of targeted species.
ZIMMERMAN PINE MOTH
dimethoate (Dimethoate 400 or                         1 to 1 1/2 pt/acre     48
Clean Crop)




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                               169
                                                            COMMERCIAL TURF INSECT CONTROL
                                                                  R. L. BRANDENBURG, Entomology Extension

TABLE 5-19. INSECT CONTROL IN COMMERCIAL TURF
PEST                                            Amount Per
Insecticide and Formulation                     1,000 Sq Ft         Precautions and Remarks
ANT (Also see IMPORTED FIRE ANT)
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,        0.5 to 1 fl oz      Use GC formulation for golf courses.
GC; G form also available
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                         1 to 1.5 oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 2E, 4E, 2G, 50            See label         For use on golf courses. See new label.
WP, Pro
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)               See label
GC SC                                         0.27 to 0.44 fl oz
LC SC                                         0.27 to 0.54 fl oz
GC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb
LC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb
cyfluthrin (Tempo 2)                             0.143 fl oz        Home lawns only.
cypermethrin* (Demon) TC                          See label
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                    2 to 3 lb/1,000 ft
fipronil (bait)                                   See label
hydramethylnon* (Maxforce G, Amdro)               See label
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,         See label         Do not make applications within 20 feet of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
CS, GC)
BEE and WASP (Burrowing)
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                            1.5 oz
pyrethroids* (Advanced Garden, Battle,            See label
Deltagard, Menace, Scimitar, Talstar,
Tempo)
BILLBUG
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,       0.25 to 0.5 fl oz    Use GC formulation for golf courses.
GC; G form also available
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)               0.184 to 0.46 fl oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 50 WSP, Pro               See label         For use on golf courses; check new label.
clothianidin (Arena)
.5G                                              14 to 22 oz
50 WDG                                         0.15 to 0.22 oz
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)               See label
GC SC                                         0.27 to 0.44 fl oz
LC SC                                         0.27 to 0.54 fl oz
GC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb
LC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                    2 to 3 lb/1,000 ft
imidacloprid* (Merit) 75 WSP                   3 to 4 level tsp     Make application prior to egg hatch.
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)       See label         Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,         See label         Observe restrictions near water.
CS, GC)
propoxur (Baygon) 1.5 fl oz                          1 pt           Treat area thoroughly. Use at least 15 gal water per 1,000 sq ft. Do not allow spray mixture to stand overnight. Mow
                                                                    grass before treatment.
thiamethoxam (Meridian)                                          Optimum control when applied from peak flight of adults to peak of egg hatch. Also suppresses mole crickets and
0.33 G                                         60 to 80 lb/acre chinch bugs.
25 WG                                         12.7 to 17 oz/acre
CHINCH BUG
acephate* (Orthene T, T&O) 75 S                 1.2 to 2.4 oz
Beauveria bassiana (Botanigard,                   See label
Naturalis-T)
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)               0.184 to 0.46 fl oz Suppression.
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,       0.25 to 0.5 fl oz    Use GC formulation for golf courses.
GC; G form also available
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                         2.5 to 3 oz
chlothianidin (Arena)
.5G                                             1.4 to 1.8 lb
50 WDG                                          0.2 to 0.3 oz
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)               See label
GC SC                                         0.27 to 0.44 fl oz
LC SC                                         0.27 to 0.54 fl oz
GC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb
LC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb




170                                                                                                                                                   Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-19. INSECT CONTROL IN COMMERCIAL TURF
PEST                                            Amount Per
Insecticide and Formulation                     1,000 Sq Ft        Precautions and Remarks
CHINCH BUG (continued)
cypermethrin (Demon) TC                       0.33 to 0.65 fl oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban), 2E, 4E,                 See label         For use on golf courses; check new label.
50 WP, Pro
cyfluthrin (Tempo 2)                              0.2 fl oz        Home lawns only.
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                    2 to 3 lb/1,000 ft
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)      See label         Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,        See label         Do not make applications within 20 feet of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
CS, GC)
permethrin* (Astro)                            0.4 to 0.8 fl oz
CUTWORM, ARMYWORM
acephate* (Orthene T, T&O)                      1.2 to 2.4 oz      Commercial and residential turf only.

azadirachtin* (Neemix, Turplex)                  See label

bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,      0.18 to 0.25 fl oz   Use GC formulation for golf courses.
GC; G form also available
Bt products, various labels                      See label

carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP and baits             0.75 to 1.5 oz      Treat in late afternoon. Apply in adequate water for good coverage but do not flood or water in. Do not cut grass for 1 to
                                                                   3 days after treatment.
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                0.046 to 0.092
                                                    fl oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 4 E, 2 ES,               See label         For use on golf courses; check new label.
50 WP, Pro
chlothianidin (Arena)                                              Cutworms only.
.5G                                             1.4 to 1.8 lb
50 WDG                                          0.2 to 0.3 oz
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)               See label

cyfluthrin* (Tempo 2)                            0.143 fl oz       Home lawns only.

deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                    2 to 3 lb/1,000 ft
entomogenous nematodes*                          See label         Read and follow special application instructions. Effective only against small cutworms.
halofenozide* (Mach 2)                                             Can be used two times per season at these rates.
2 SC                                              1.5 fl oz
1.5 G                                               1 lb
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)      See label         Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
indoxacarb (Provaunt) SC                       0.0625 to 0.25      Not labeled for use on sod farms.
                                                    fl oz
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,        See label         Do not make applications within 20 feet of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
CS, GC)
spinosad A or D (Conserve) SC                 0.25 to 1.25 fl oz   Rate varies with size and species.
trichlorfon (Dylox, Proxol) 80 SP                1.5 to 3 oz
EARTHWORM
                                                                   Usually not a problem. No effective controls available.
FALL ARMYWORM
acephate* (Orthene, T, T&O)                     0.5 to 1.2 oz      Water in immediately after application.
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                0.046 to 0.092
                                                    fl oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 4 E, 2 E,                See label         For use on golf courses; check new label.
50WP, Pro
halofenozide* (Mach 2)                                             Can be used two times per season at these rates.
2 SC                                              1.5 fl oz
1.5 G                                               1 lb
indoxacarb (Provaunt) SC                       0.0625 to 0.25      Not labeled for use on sod farms.
                                                    fl oz
pyrethroids* (Advanced Garden, Battle,           See label
Deltagard, Menace, Scimitar, Talstar,
Tempo)
GRASSHOPPER
acephate* (Orthene T, T&O)                         0.5 oz          Do not mow turfgrass for at least 24 hr after application.
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                    2 to 3 lb/1,000 ft
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,        See label         Do not make applications within 20 ft of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
CS, GC)
GROUND PEARL
                                                                   No effective control—practice good management.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                   171
TABLE 5-19. INSECT CONTROL IN COMMERCIAL TURF
PEST                                             Amount Per
Insecticide and Formulation                      1,000 Sq Ft       Precautions and Remarks
GRUB (white, May beetle, chafers, green June beetle, and others)
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                             3 oz
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                 0.184 to 0.367     Optimal control when applied at egg hatch. Use higher rates later in summer.
                                                     fl oz
clothianidin (Arena)                                               Mole cricket suppression.
.5G                                              14 to 22 oz
50 WDG                                         0.15 to 0.22 oz
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)                See label
halofenozide* (Grubex, Mach 2)                                     Apply during egg hatch or early instar grub development.
2 SC                                               2.9 fl oz
1.5 G                                                3 lb
imidacloprid* (Merit) 75 WP                     3 to 4 level tsp   Make application prior to egg hatch. (Offers some suppression of caterpillars.)
imidacloprid + bifenthin (Allectus. Atera)        See label        Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
thiamethoxam (Meridian)                                          Optimum control when applied from peak flight of adults to peak of egg hatch. Also suppresses mole crickets and
0.33 G                                         60 to 80 lb/acre chinch bugs.
25 WG                                         12.7 to 17 oz/acre
trichlorfon (Dylox, Proxol) 80 SP                  3.75 oz
GRUB, GREEN JUNE BEETLE (only)
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                          1 to 1.5 oz
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                 0.184 to 0.367     Optimal control when applied at egg hatch. Use higher rates later in summer.
                                                     fl oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 50 WSP, Pro               See label        For use on golf courses; see new label.
clothianidin (Arena)                                               Mole cricket suppression.
.5G                                              14 to 22 oz
50 WDG                                         0.15 to 0.22 oz
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)                See label
halofenozide* (Grubex, Mach 2)                                     Apply during egg hatch or early instar grub development.
2 SC                                               2.9 fl oz
1.5 G                                                3 lb
imidacloprid* (Merit) 75 WP                     3 to 4 level tsp   Make application prior to egg hatch. Do not use on sod farms. (Offers some suppression of caterpillars.)
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)       See label        Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
thiamethoxam (Meridian)                                            Optimum control when applied from peak flight of adults to peak of egg hatch. Also suppresses mole crickets and
0.33 G                                         60 to 80 lb/acre    chinch bugs.
25 WG                                         12.7 to 17 oz/acre
GRUB (Japanese beetle)
Bt, various products                              See label
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                             3 oz
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                 0.184 to 0.367     Optimal control when applied at egg hatch. Use higher rates later in summer.
                                                     fl oz
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                 0.184 to 0.367     Optimal control when applied at egg hatch. Use higher rates later in summer.
                                                     fl oz
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)                See label
clothianidin (Arena)                                               Mole cricket suppression.
.5G                                              14 to 22 oz
50 WDG                                         0.15 to 0.22 oz
halofenozide* (Grubex, Mach 2)                                     Apply during egg hatch or early instar grub development.
2 SC                                               2.9 fl oz
1.5 G                                                3 lb
imidacloprid* (Merit) 75 WP                     3 to 4 level tsp   Make application prior to egg hatch. (Offers some suppression of caterpillars.)
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)       See label        Rate varies with pest. Different forumulations for different sites.
thiamethoxam (Meridian)                                            Optimum control when applied from peak flight of adults to peak of egg hatch. Also suppresses mole crickets and
0.33 G                                         60 to 80 lb/acre    chinch bugs.
25 WG                                         12.7 to 17 oz/acre
trichlorfon* (Dylox, Proxol) 80 SP                 3.75 oz
IMPORTED FIRE ANT (See http://www.ncagr.gov/plantindustry/plant/entomology/documents/FireAntMap2009.pdf for latest quarantine areas.)
acephate*
(Lesco-Fate)                                      See label
(Orthene, T, T&O) 75 S                        1 to 2 tsp/mound     Distribute uniformly over mound. For best results apply in early morning or late afternoon.
(Precise 4G)                                     4 oz/mound
hydramethylnon*
(Amdro) 0.88% bait                                    —            Uniformly broadcast 1 to 1.5 lb of bait per acre with ground equipment on pastures, range grasses, lawns, and
                                                                   nonagricultural lands. Or distribute uniformly 5 level tbsp of bait 3 to 4 ft around base of each mound. Do not exceed
                                                                   1.5 lb per acre.

(Maxforce G)                                      See label
avermectin/B1 (Affirm) 0.011% bait            5 to 7 tbsp/ mound Distribute uniformly 5 to 7 level tbsp of bait 3 to 4 ft around base of each mound.
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F               —            Follow label directions.
G form also available
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 4 E                       See label




172                                                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-19. INSECT CONTROL IN COMMERCIAL TURF
PEST                                            Amount Per
Insecticide and Formulation                     1,000 Sq Ft        Precautions and Remarks
IMPORTED FIRE ANT (continued)
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)               See label
GC SC                                         0.27 to 0.44 fl oz
LC SC                                         0.27 to 0.54 fl oz
GC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb
LC G                                            1.8 to 3.6 lb
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                        2 to 3 lb/
fenoxycarb (Award) 1 B                        1 to 3 level tbsp    Single mound treatment.
                                              1 to 1.5 lb/acre     Apply uniformly with ground equipment.
spinosad (Justice bait)                          See label

fipronil
(Maxforce) .00015                               0.5 to 5.5 oz      Apply as a broadcast. May treat mounds up to four times per year.
                                                5 tbs/mound
(Topchoice) 0.0143                                   2 lb          Apply as a broadcast.
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)      See label         Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
indoxacarb (Advion) bait                         1.5 lb/acre       Bait formulation.
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar,           See label
GC, CS)
methoprene (Extinguish) 0.5 % bait               1.5 lb/acre       Mound or broadcast.
methoprene + hydromethylnon (Extinguish          1.5 lb/acre
Plus)
pyriproxyfen (Distance Fire Ant Bait)            See label         Mound or broadcast.
LEAFHOPPER, SPITTLEBUG
acephate* (Orthene, T, T&O) 75 S                    1 oz
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,      0.25 to 0.5 fl oz    Use GC formulation for golf courses.
GC; G form also available
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                       0.75 to 1.5 oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 4 E, 50 WSP, Pro         See label         For use on golf courses; check new label.
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                        2 to 3 lb
MILLIPEDE
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,      0.25 to 0.5 fl oz    Use GC formulation for golf courses.
GC; G form also available
carbaryl*
(Sevimol)                                       1.5 to 3 oz
(Sevin) 80 WSP                                 0.75 to 1.5 oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 2 E, Pro                 See label         For use on golf courses; check new label.
cypermethrin (Demon) TC                          See label
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,        See label         Do not make applications within 20 ft of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
CS, GC)
MOLE CRICKET
acephate*
(Orthene T, T&O, Lesco-Fate)                     1 to 1.9 oz       Water soil before application. Do not water in.
(Precise 4G)                                        2.8 lb         Apply within 2 weeks of egg hatch for prevention. Irrigate immediately.
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,        0.5 to 1 fl oz     Use GC formulation for golf course.
GC; G form also available
carbaryl* (Sevin) baits                          See label
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) B
cyfluthrin* (Tempo 2, Tempo Ultra)                0.2 fl oz        Home lawn use only.
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                        2 to 3 lb
entomogenous nematodes*                          See label         Various formulations now available. Adequate soil moisture critical for good control.
fipronil
(Chipco Choice) 0.1 G                                              Use slit placement equipment.
(Top Choice) 0.0143                                  2 lb          Apply as a broadcast.
imidacloprid (Merit)                                               Apply while crickets are less than ½ inch long (June, early July).
75 WP                                            4 level tsp
0.5G                                                1.8 lb
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)      See label         Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
indoxacarb (Advion) bait                      50 to 200 lb/acre    Not for use on sod farms.
indoxacarb (Provaunt)                             0.275 oz         Must be in possession of a supplemental label for this use at the time of application.
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,        See label         Do not make applications within 20 feet of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
CS, GC)
propoxur (Baygon) B                              See label
SLUG, SNAIL
Mesurol 2 B                                          1 lb          Apply late in afternoon.
metaldehyde                                      See label




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                             173
TABLE 5-19. INSECT CONTROL IN COMMERCIAL TURF
PEST                                             Amount Per
Insecticide and Formulation                      1,000 Sq Ft        Precautions and Remarks
SOD WEBWORM
acephate*
(Lesco-Fate, Orthene T, T&O)                      0.5 to 1 oz       Home lawns only.
(Precise 4G)                                        2.8 lb          Irrigate immediately.
azadirachtin* (Azatrol, Neemix, Turplex)           0.5 fl oz
Bacillus thuringiensis, various brands           1 to 2 lb/acre
bifenthrin* (Menace, Talstar, others) F,       0.18 to 0.25 fl oz   Use GC formulation for golf courses.
GC; G form also available
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                          2.5 to 3 oz
chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)                 0.046 to 0.092
                                                     fl oz
chlorpyrifos* (Dursban) 4 E, 2 E, 5 G,            See label         For use on golf courses; check new label.
Pro
clothianidin (Arena)
.5G                                               14 to 22 oz
50 WDG                                          0.15 to 0.22 oz
chlothianidin + bifenthrin (Aloft)                See label
cyfluthrin* (Tempo 2, Tempo Ultra)                0.143 fl oz       Irrigate immediately after application. Do not apply to newly seeded stands or bentgrass.
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                         2 to 3 lb
halofenozide (Mach 2)                                               Can be used two times per season at these rates.
2 SC                                               1.5 fl oz
1.5 G                                                1 lb
imidacloprid + bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera)       See label         Rate varies with pest. Different formulations for different sites.
indoxacarb (Provaunt) SC                        0.0625 to 0.25      Not labeled for use on sod farms.
                                                     fl oz
lambda-cyhalothrin*                               See label         Do not make applications within 20 feet of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
(Scimitar WP, CS, GC)
(Battle)
methomyl (Lannate) 90 SP                         0.4 to 0.8 oz
permethrin* (Astro)                             0.4 to 0.8 fl oz
spinosad A and D (Conserve) SC                 0.25 to 1.25 fl oz   Rate varies with size and species.
trichlorfon* (Dylox, Proxol) 80 SP                1.5 to 3 oz
SOWBUG, PILLBUG
bifenthrin* (Talstar) F, GC                    0.25 to 0.5 fl oz    Use GC formulation for golf courses.
G form also available
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WSP                        0.75 to 1.5 oz
cypermethrin* (Demon) TC                          See label
deltamethrin (Deltagard) G                         2 to 3 lb
lambda-cyhalothrin* (Battle, Scimitar WP,         See label         Do not make applications within 20 feet of any body of water. No reentry until spray has dried.
CS, GC)


* Several tradenames available. Check label for active ingredient. Always follow label instructions.




174                                                                                                                                                   Chapter V—Insect Control
                                INSECT CONTROL FOR WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
                                                     M. G. WALDVOGEL and P. ALDER, Entomology Extension



Space limitations preclude listing all pesticide formulations and trade names. Other products or formulations
may be used—but only those products labeled for the intended use. Products labeled for outdoor use only
should never be applied indoors. Some insecticides listed here are designated for professional use only; others
may have different formulations for professionals and the general public. Read the product label for specific
information about the active ingredient, application rates, and detailed instructions on use.
   Mention of pesticides in this section does not imply that chemicals are or should be the first or only means
of pest control. Nonchemical methods, including exclusion and moisture reduction, are critical to controlling
wood-destroying pests.

TABLE 5-20. INSECT CONTROL FOR WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
INSECT                             Formulation1        Use2   Precautions and Remarks
Insecticide
CARPENTER ANT—(a) Indoors
avermectin (Advance)               Bait                P      Apply as directed on label.
allethrin (Ortho)                  Aerosol             G      Apply as directed on label.
avermectin (Advance)               Bait                P      Apply as directed on label.
bifenthrin (Ortho)                 Sprayable           G      Apply as directed on label.
boric acid (Niban, PermaDust)      Bait                P      Apply as directed on label
chlorfenapyr (Phantom)             Sprayable           P      Apply as directed on label.
cyfluthrin                         Sprayable                  Apply as directed on label.
(Bayer Advanced)                                       G
(Tempo)                                                P
deltamethrin                       Sprayable                  Apply as directed on label.
(Bayer)                                                G, P
(Spectracide)                                          G, P
(Suspend)                                              G, P
fipronil                           Bait                       Bait where you see ant activity. Apply as directed on label.
(Combat)                                               G
(Maxforce)                                             P
imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable           P      Apply as directed on label.
(Temprid SC)
indoxacarb (Advion)                Bait (gel)          P      Bait where you see ant activity. Apply as directed on label.
lamda-cyhalothrin                  Sprayable                  Apply as directed on label.
(Demand)                                               P
(Spectracide)                      Spray and foam      G
permethrin (Dragnet)               Sprayable           P, G   Apply as directed on label.
sodium borate                      Sprayable, Dust            Apply as directed on label.
(Boracare, Timbor)                                     P
(Spectracide, Terminate)                               G
thiamethoxam (Optigard)            Sprayable           P      Apply as foam to wall voids or infested wood.
tralomethrin (Saga, Spectracide)   Sprayable           P      Apply as directed on label.
CARPENTER ANT—(b) Outdoors
acetamiprid (Transport)3           Sprayable           P      Apply outdoors only as pinstream, spot, crack and crevice, or perimeter spray.
avermectin (Advance)               Bait                P      Place bait around perimeter.
bifenthrin                         Sprayable                  Spray or inject into wood.
(Ortho)                                                G
(Bifen, Talstar)                                       P
boric acid (Perma-Dust Niban)      Aerosol, Bait       P      Place bait granules around perimeter.
chlorfenapyr (Phantom)             Sprayable           P      Exterior use limited to spot (2 sq ft) and crack and crevice treatments at points of entry.
cyfluthrin                         Sprayable                  Treat into and around the nest, then seal holes.
(Bayer Advanced)                                       G
(Tempo)                                                P
cypermethrin (Demon TC)            Sprayable           P      Treat into and around the nest.
deltamethrin (Suspend SC)          Sprayable           P      Treat into and around the nest.
fipronil (Maxforce, Termidor)      Bait, Granular,     P      Apply bait granules in ant foraging areas. Water area after applying granules.
                                   Powder
hydramethylnon (Maxforce)          Bait                P      Apply granules along perimeter of building or nest. (Maxforce is for professional use.)
imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable           P      Apply as directed on label.
(Temprid SC)
lamda-cyhalothrin                  Sprayable                  Apply as directed on label.
(Demand)                                               P
(Spectracide)                                          G
permethrin                         Sprayable                  Apply as crack and crevice or spot treatment or paint onto surface. Application by drilling and injecting is also
(Dragnet)                                              P      permitted.
(Spectracide)                                          G




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                          175
TABLE 5-20. INSECT CONTROL FOR WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
INSECT                             Formulation1      Use2   Precautions and Remarks
Insecticide
CARPENTER ANT—(b) Outdoors (continued)
sodium borate                      Sprayable                Spray, brush on, or inject into wood. For long-term protection, apply a water repellent stain to exterior wood surfaces 2
(Boracare, Timbor)                                   P      to 3 weeks after treatment.
(Spectracide)                                        G
tralomethrin (Saga WP)             Sprayable         P
CARPENTER BEE
carbaryl (Sevin)                   Dust, Sprayable   G      Apply liquid as a coarse surface spray and into gallery entrance. Puff into and around entrance holes, using dust
                                                            applicator. Seal with wood plugs, putty, or stainless steel wool.
bifenthrin                         Sprayable                Apply as a coarse surface spray and into entrance hole. Seal entrance hole. Spectracide is for the general public.
(Ortho)                                              G
(Talstar)                                            P
boric acid (Perma-Dust PT 240)     Aerosol           P      Inject into entrance hole or tunnels with wood injector nozzle. Seal entrance hole.
cyfluthrin                         Sprayable                Apply liquid as a surface spray and into entrance hole. Seal entrance hole.
(Bayer Advanced)                                     G
(Tempo)                                              P
cypermethrin (Demon TC)            Sprayable         P
deltamethrin                       Sprayable, Dust          Apply liquid as a coarse surface spray and into gallery entrance. Puff into and around entrance holes, using dust
(Spectracide)                                        G      applicator. Seal with wood plugs, putty, or stainless steel or copper wool.
(Suspend SC)                                         P
imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable         P      Apply as directed on label.
(Temprid SC)
lamda-cyhalothrin                  Sprayable                Spray or inject into wood. Seal holes in wood before injecting. Avoid runoff.
(Demand)                                             P
(Spectracide)                                        G
permethrin                         Sprayable                Spray or inject into wood. Seal holes in wood before injecting. Avoid runoff.
(Dragnet)                                            P
sodium borate
(Boracare, Timbor)                 Sprayable         P
(Spectracide)                      Dust              G      Apply dust formulation directly to galleries.
tralomethrin (Saga, Spectracide)   Sprayable         P
OLD HOUSE BORER
aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin)     Fumigant          P      Apply under gas-tight tarpaulins or in sealed chamber.
bifenthrin                         Sprayable
(Ortho)                                              G
(Talstar)                                            P
cyfluthrin                         Sprayable
(Bayer Advanced)                                     G
(Tempo)                                              P
cypermethrin (Demon TC)            Sprayable         P
deltamethrin (Suspend SC)          Sprayable         P
imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable         P      Apply as directed on label.
(Temprid SC)
permethrin                         Sprayable
(Dragnet)                                            P
(Spectracide)                                        G
sodium borate                      Sprayable                Spray, brush on, or inject into wood. For permanent protection, a water repellent should be applied to exterior surfaces
(Boracare, Timbor)                                   P      2 to 3 weeks after treatment.
(Spectracide)                      Dust              G
sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane)         Fumigant          P      Apply under gas-tight tarpaulins only. Hold for 24 hr at temperature above 60oF. Requires an F-Phase N.C. Structural
                                                            Pest Control License.
POWDERPOST BEETLE
aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin)     Fumigant          P      For infested furniture, stacked lumber, other wood products. Apply under gas-tight tarpaulin or in a sealed chamber.
bifenthrin                         Sprayable
(Ortho)                                              G
(Talstar)                                            P
chlorfenapyr (Phantom)             Sprayable         P
cyfluthrin                         Sprayable                Coarse spray, brush on, or inject into wood. Avoid excessive runoff.
(Bayer Advanced)                                     G
(Tempo)                                              P
cypermethrin (Demon TC)            Sprayable         P
deltamethrin (Suspend SC)          Sprayable         P
imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable         P      Apply as directed on label.
(Temprid SC)
lamda-cyhalothrin                  Sprayable                Apply as directed on label.
(Demand)                                             P
(Spectracide)                                        G
permethrin                         Sprayable
(Dragnet)                                            P
(Spectracide)                                        G
sodium borate                      Sprayable                For long-term protection, apply a water repellent to exterior surfaces 2 to 3 weeks after treatment.
(Boracare, Timbor)                                   P
(Spectracide)                      Dust              G
sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane)         Fumigant          P      For infested furniture, stacked lumber, other wood products. Apply under gas-tight tarpaulin. Hold for 24 hr at a
                                                            temperature above 60oF. Requires an F-Phase N.C. Structural Pest Control License.




176                                                                                                                                            Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-20. INSECT CONTROL FOR WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
INSECT                             Formulation1      Use2   Precautions and Remarks
Insecticide
TERMITE—DRYWOOD SPECIES (Wood Treatment)
acetamiprid (Transport)3           Sprayable         P      Coarse spray or drill and inject wood.
aluminum phosphide (Phostoxin)     Fumigant          P      Apply under gas-tight tarpaulins or in sealed chamber.
bifenthrin                         Sprayable                Coarse spray or inject into wood.
(Ortho)                                              G
(Talstar)                                            P
cyfluthrin (Bayer Advanced, Tempo) Sprayable         P      Coarse surface spray or inject wood.
cypermethrin (Demon TC)            Sprayable         P      Coarse spray or inject into wood for localized infestations.
fipronil (Termidor)                Sprayable, Foam P        Coarse surface spray or inject wood.
imidacloprid (Premise)             Sprayable, Foam P        Drill and inject spray or foam into voids.
imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable         P      Apply as directed on label.
(Temprid SC)
methyl bromide (Meth-O-Gas Q)      Fumigant          P      Apply under gas-tight tarpaulins only. Regulatory use only.
permethrin                         Sprayable                Coarse spray on wood for localized infestation.
(Dragnet)                                            P
(Spectracide)                                        G
sodium borate                      Sprayable                Coarse surface spray or inject wood.
(Boracare, Timbor)                                   P
(Spectracide)                                        G
sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane)         Fumigant          P      Apply under gas-tight tarpaulins only. Hold for 24 hours at temperature above 60oF. Requires an F-Phase N.C.
                                                            Structural Pest Control License.
thiamethoxam (Optiguard)           Sprayable         P      Coarse spray or drill and inject wood.
TERMITE—SUBTERRANEAN SPECIES (a) Wood treatment
acetamiprid (Transport)3           Sprayable         P
bifenthrin                         Sprayable                For use only in voids or channels in damaged wood or to cracks and spaces between wooden members of structures.
(Talstar)                                            P
(Ortho)                                              G
boric acid (Perma-Dust PT 240)     Aerosol           P      Coarse surface spray or inject wood.
chlorfenapyr (Phantom)             Sprayable         P      Coarse spray or inject into wood.
cyfluthrin (Bayer, Tempo)          Sprayable         P      Coarse spray, brush on, or inject into wood. Avoid excessive runoff.
cypermethrin (Demon TC)            Sprayable         P      Coarse surface spray or inject wood.
deltamethrin (Bayer, Suspend SC)   Sprayable         P      Coarse surface spray or inject wood.
diflubenzuron (Exterra, Advance)   Bait              P      Above-ground stations used in conjunction with in-ground baiting systems.
fipronil (Termidor)                Sprayable, Foam P        Coarse spray or inject into wood.
imidacloprid (Premise)             Sprayable, Gel,   P      Gel and foam formulations may be injected into voids or damaged wood.
                                   Foam
imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable         P      Apply as directed on label.
(Temprid SC)
lamda-cyhalothrin                  Sprayable                Apply as directed on label. Localized treatments.
(Demand)                                             P
(Spectracide)                                        G      Spectracide is not recommended as a sole protection against termites.
noviflumuron (Recruit IV AG)       Bait              P      Available only as part of the Sentricon in-ground system (see below).
permethrin                         Sprayable                Coarse spray, brush on, or inject into wood. Avoid excessive runoff.
(Dragnet)                                            P
(Spectracide)                                        G
sodium borate                      Sprayable                Spray, brush on, or inject into wood. For long-term protection, apply a water repellent to exterior wood surfaces 2 to 3
(Boracare, Timbor)                                   P      weeks after treatment.
(Spectracide)                      Dust              G      Not a replacement for a soil treatment.
sulfluramid (FirstLine)            Bait              P      Above-ground stations used in conjunction with in-ground system.
tralomethrin (Saga, Spectracide)   Sprayable         P      Coarse spray, brush on, or inject into wood. Avoid excessive runoff.
TERMITE—SUBTERRANEAN SPECIES (b) Soil treatment
acetamiprid (Transport)3           Sprayable         P      Dig trenches 6 in. wide and at least 4 in. deep along the foundation. Never trench below the top of the footing.
bifenthrin                         Sprayable                Depending upon the depth of footer, rodding may be needed. Dilutions and rates of applications vary among specific
(Bifen, Talstar)                                     P      products. Vertical barriers usually require about 4 gal of spray per 10 linear ft for each ft of depth along a foundation.
(Ortho)                                              G      Follow label restrictions on treatment in crawlspaces containing wells or cisterns. Follow instructions if “excavation and
chlorfenapyr (Phantom)             Sprayable         P      backfill” is permitted. Exercise extreme caution when treating crawlspaces. Wear appropriate protective equipment
                                                            as specified on product label. General (broadcast) treatments of crawlspace soil for termites are prohibited, except as
cypermethrin (Demon, Prevail FT)   Sprayable         P
                                                            noted on the label.
fenvalerate (Tribute)              Sprayable         P      NOTE: Most termite infestations require treatment by a W-phase licensed structural pest control operator.
fipronil (Termidor)                Sprayable         P      Requirements for termite treatments are outlined in 2NCAC 34:.0503, .0505.
imidacloprid (Premise)             Sprayable,        P      Apply Premise or Bayer Advanced granules to trenches as a spot treatment.
(Bayer Advanced)                   Granular          G      Bayer Advanced for the general public is available only in a granular formations.
Imidacloprid-cyfluthrin            Sprayable         P
(Temprid SC)
lamda-cyhalothrin                  Sprayable
(Demand)                                             P      Apply as directed on label. Localized treatments.
(Spectracide)                                        G      Spectracide isnot recommended as a sole protection against termites.

permethrin                         Sprayable
(Dragnet FT, MasterLine)                             P
(Spectracide)                                        G
diflubenzuron (Advance, Exterra)   Bait              P      Termite monitoring and baiting program. Available only through manufacturer-authorized pest control companies.
noviflumuron (Recruit HD)          Bait              P      Termite monitoring and baIting program. Available only through manufacturer-authorized pest control companies.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                               177
    TABLE 5-20. INSECT CONTROL FOR WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
    INSECT                                 Formulation1        Use2    Precautions and Remarks
    Insecticide
    TERMITE—SUBTERRANEAN SPECIES (b) Soil treatment (continued)
    sulfluramid                            Bait                        FirstLine is for professional use only. Terminate is for the general public.
    (FirstLine)                                                P
    (Terminate)                                                G       Terminate is not intended as the sole protection against termite infestation.
1
    Formulation designations:
     Aerosol = injectable or spray Dust = dry application       Fumigant = gas in pressurized cylinder or pellets
     Foam = Injectable foam        Sprayable = liquid concentrate or wettable powder for mixing with water or in a ready-to-use form

2
    Use designations:
        P = Professional applicator (licensed in structural pest control)
        G = General public use

3
    Transport also contains bifenthrin.

*Several trade names available. Check label for active ingredient. Always follow label instructions.




                                                           INSECT CONTROL FOR HOME USE
                                             INSECT CONTROL FOR THE HOME VEGETABLE GARDEN
                                                        J. F. WALGENBACH and M. R. ABNEY, Entomology Extension

Homeowner products are numerous and names change frequently. Insecticides listed below are identified by the active
ingredient. Brand names for homeowner products do not identify the active ingredient; always check the “active
ingredients” portion of the product label to determine if the product is appropriate for your needs. Refer to the product
label for rates and pre harvest intervals.

    TABLE 5-21. INSECT CONTROL FOR THE HOME VEGETABLE GARDEN
                                                                                                     Minimum Interval
                                                                                                     (Days) Between
    COMMODITY                                                                                        Last Application
    Insect                                                                  Insecticide                and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
    ASPARAGUS
    Asparagus beetle, Japanese beetle, grasshopper, and aphid               permethrin                      3
    BEAN
    Aphid                                                                   malathion                       1
                                                                            insecticidal soap               0
    Corn earworm                                                            carbaryl                        0
                                                                            spinosad                        3
    Mexican bean beetle, bean leaf beetle, flea beetle, Japanese            carbaryl                        3           On foliage as needed. Use low rate of carbaryl on small plants.
    beetle, and cucumber beetle
    Potato leafhopper, fleahopper, lygus, and stink bug                     malathion                       1
    Spider mite                                                             difocol                         7
                                                                            malathion                       1
                                                                            insecticidal soap               0           Apply treatment at first sign of mites and speckled plants.
    Whitefly                                                                Beauveria bassiana              0
                                                                            insecticidal soap               0
    BEET
    Flea beetle, beet webworm, and blister beetle                           carbaryl                      3 (14)        On foliage as needed. Fourteen days if tops used; 3 days if tops not
                                                                                                                        used.
    BROCCOLI, CAULIFLOWER, BRUSSELS SPROUTS, RUTABAGA
    Aphid and flea beetle                                                   malathion                       7
                                                                            insecticidal soap               0
    Cabbage looper, diamondback moth, and imported                          Bacillus thuringiensis          0
    cabbageworm                                                             esfenvalerate                   3
                                                                            spinosad                        1
    Harlequin bug                                                           malathion                       7




178                                                                                                                                                        Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-21. INSECT CONTROL FOR THE HOME VEGETABLE GARDEN
                                                                                        Minimum Interval
                                                                                        (Days) Between
COMMODITY                                                                               Last Application
Insect                                                         Insecticide                and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
CABBAGE
Aphid                                                          dimethoate                      3
                                                               malathion                       7
                                                               insecticidal soap               0
Cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, diamondback moth,        Bacillus thuringiensis          0           Start control program when worms are small, and treat foliage every
and cutworm                                                                                                5 to 7 days.
                                                               carbaryl                        3           On foliage as needed. Will not control cabbage looper. Carbaryl is
                                                                                                           suggested for cutworm.
                                                               esfenvalerate                   3
                                                               lambda-cyhalothrin              1
                                                               spinosad                        1
Flea beetle and thrips                                         carbaryl                        3
                                                               malathion                       7

Harlequin bug                                                  lambda-cyhalothrin              1           On foliage as needed.
                                                               malathion                       7           On foliage as needed.
CANTALOUPE
Aphid and thrips                                               malathion                       1
                                                               insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
Cucumber beetle (spotted and striped), pickleworm, squash bug, esfenvalerate                   3
and squash vine borer
Spider mite                                                    insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
CARROT
Armyworm, leafminer, and leafhopper                            Bacillus thuringiensis          0           B.t. will not control leafhoppers.
                                                               carbaryl                        0           On foliage as needed.
                                                               cyfluthrin                      0
CELERY
Aphid, flea beetle, leafminer, and flea hopper                 malathion                       7           On foliage as needed.
                                                               permethrin                      3           On foliage as needed.
COLLARD
Aphid and flea beetle                                          malathion                       7           On foliage as needed.
                                                               insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
Cabbage looper, diamondback moth, and imported                 Bacillus thuringiensis          0           Begin foliage treatments early and repeat as necessary. Include a
cabbageworm                                                                                                spreader/sticker.
                                                               spinosad                        1
Harlequin bug                                                  malathion                       7


CORN (SWEET)
Corn earworm, sap beetle, flea beetle, and Japanese beetle     esfenvalerate                   1
Corn earworm, European corn borer, and fall armyworm           Bacillus thuringiensis          0           Consult specific label. B.t. is effective while worms are feeding on the
                                                                                                           foliage.
                                                               cyfluthrin                      0
                                                               esfenvalerate                   1
                                                               lambda-cyhalothrin              1
                                                               permethrin                      3
                                                               spinosad                        1
CUCUMBER
Cucumber beetle (spotted and striped), pickleworm, and squash esfenvalerate                    3
bug
Spider mite                                                    insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
Whitefly                                                       insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
EGGPLANT
Aphid and thrips                                               malathion                       3           On foliage as needed.
                                                               insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
Colorado potato beetle, hornworm, and corn earworm             Bacillus thuringiensis          0           For Colorado potato beetle only. Treat when small larvae are present.
                                                               var. tennebrionus                           Not effective against adults or large larvae.
                                                               carbaryl                        3           Treat when most Colorado potato beetle eggs have hatched.
                                                               spinosad                        1
Flea beetle                                                    carbaryl                        3           On foliage as needed. Flea beetles are most serious on small plants.
                                                               malathion                       3
Lace bug, spider mite, and white fly                           malathion                       3           On foliage as needed.
                                                               insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
LETTUCE
Aphid                                                          malathion                 14 leaf, 7 head   On foliage as needed.
                                                               insecticidal soap               0           On foliage as needed.
Cabbage looper, corn earworm, and leafhopper                   Bacillus thuringiensis          0           On foliage as needed.
                                                               spinosad                        1           On foliage as needed.
Leafhopper                                                     malathion                 14 leaf, 7 head   On foliage as needed.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                              179
TABLE 5-21. INSECT CONTROL FOR THE HOME VEGETABLE GARDEN
                                                                                          Minimum Interval
                                                                                          (Days) Between
COMMODITY                                                                                 Last Application
Insect                                                           Insecticide                and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
MUSTARD GREENS
Aphid, Flea beetle                                               malathion                       7        On foliage as needed.
                                                                 insecticidal soap               0        On foliage as needed.
Cabbage looper, diamondback moth, and imported                   Bacillus thuringiensis          0        Begin foliage treatments early and repeat as necessary.
cabbageworm                                                      spinosad                        1
OKRA
Aphid and leafminer                                              malathion
Corn earworm, European corn borer, flea beetle, and stink bug    carbaryl                        1
Stink bug                                                        malathion                       1
ONION
Onion thrips                                                     lambda-cyhalothrin             14
                                                                 malathion                   3 (Green)
                                                                 insecticidal soap               0
PEAS
Aphid and leafminer                                              insecticidal soap               0
PEPPER
Aphid and thrips                                                 esfenvalerate                   1
                                                                 malathion                       3
                                                                 insecticidal soap               0
European corn borer, flea beetle, tomato fruitworm, hornworm,    carbaryl                        3
and stink bug                                                    cyfluthrin                      7
                                                                 esfenvalerate                   1
                                                                 permethrin                      3
                                                                 spinosad                        1
POTATO, Irish
Aphid                                                            diazinon                       35        On foliage as needed.
                                                                 malathion                       0
European corn borer                                              carbaryl                        0        Apply when eggs begin to hatch and every 5 days as needed.
                                                                 esfenvalerate                   1
Potato leafhopper, potato flea beetle, Colorado potato beetle,   Bacillus thuringiensis          0        For Colorado potato beetle only. Treat when small larvae are present. Not
blister beetle, and stink bug                                    var. san diego                           effective against adults or large larvae.
                                                                 var. tennebrionus
                                                                 carbaryl                        0        On foliage as needed. Treat when most Colorado potato beetle eggs
                                                                                                          have hatched.
Potato tuberworm                                                 Bacillus thuringiensis          0
                                                                 carbaryl                        0        Treat 10 and 3 days before harvest or when foliage or tuber damage is
                                                                                                          noted. Do not leave dug potatoes exposed in the field over night. Practice
                                                                                                          sanitation in storage.
                                                                 esfenvalerate                   1
PUMPKIN—See SQUASH AND PUMPKIN
RADISH
Aphid                                                            malathion                       7        On foliage as needed.
Flea beetle and imported cabbageworm                             cyfluthrin                      0
SPINACH
Aphid, thrips, and leafminer                                     insecticidal soap               0        On foliage as needed.
Corn earworm and loopers                                         Bacillus thuringiensis          0
                                                                 spinosad                        1
SQUASH AND PUMPKIN
Aphid                                                            insecticidal soap               0
Cucumber beetle (spotted and striped), flea beetle, and          esfenvalerate                   3
leafhopper
Pickleworm                                                       esfenvalerate                   3
                                                                 spinosad                        3
Squash bug                                                       malathion                       1
TOMATO
Aphid                                                            malathion                       1
                                                                 insecticidal soap               0
Cutworm (surface type)                                           esfenvalerate                   1
Flea beetle and Colorado potato beetle                           Bacillus thuringiensis          0        For Colorado potato beetle only. Treat when small larvae are present.
                                                                 var. san diego                           Not effective against adults or large larvae.
                                                                 var. tennebrionus
                                                                 carbaryl                        3        On foliage as needed.
                                                                 spinosad                        1
Spider mite                                                      malathion                       1        On foliage as needed.
                                                                 insecticidal soap               0        On foliage as needed.




180                                                                                                                                          Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-21. INSECT CONTROL FOR THE HOME VEGETABLE GARDEN
                                                                                  Minimum Interval
                                                                                  (Days) Between
COMMODITY                                                                         Last Application
Insect                                                   Insecticide                and Harvest    Precautions and Remarks
TOMATO (continued)
Stink bug                                                cyfluthrin                      7        Do not make more than 6 applications per season.
                                                         lambda-cyhalothrin              5
                                                         malathion                       1
                                                         permethrin                      7        Do not apply on cherry tomatoes or varieties less than 1 inch in
                                                                                                  diameter.
Thrips                                                   insecticidal soap               0
Tomato fruitworm, cabbage looper, tobacco hornworm       Bacillus thuringiensis          0        Treat weekly, if necessary. Begin when fruits are 0.5 in. in diameter.
                                                                                                  Fruitworms are most serious after August 1.
                                                         carbaryl                        3
                                                         cyfluthrin                      7        Do not make more than 6 applications per season.
                                                         esfenvalerate                   1
                                                         lambda-cyhalothrin              5
                                                         permethrin                      7        Do not apply on cherry tomatoes or varieties less than 1 inch in
                                                                                                  diameter.
                                                         spinosad                        1
Whitefly                                                 Beauveria bassiana              0        Apply when whiteflies observed. Repeat in 4- to 5-day intervals.
                                                         malathion                       1
                                                         pyrethrum products              0
                                                         insecticidal soap               0
TURNIP, TURNIP GREENS
Aphid, flea beetle                                       insecticidal soap               0
Cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm   Bacillus thuringiensis          0        On foliage as needed.
                                                         spinosad                        1
Harlequin bug                                            Gamma-cyhalothrin               1        On foliage as needed.
WATERMELON
Aphid                                                    insecticidal soap               0        On foliage as needed.
Cucumber beetle (spotted and striped)                    esfenvalerate                   3
                                                         malathion                       1
Spider mite                                              insecticidal soap               0
Thrips                                                   carbaryl                        3
                                                         malathion                       1
                                                         insecticidal soap               0




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                   181
                                                             CONTROL OF HOUSEHOLD PESTS
                                                                 (Products For Use by the General Public)
                                                   P. ALDER and M. G. WALDVOGEL, Entomology Extension

Mention of pesticides in this section does not imply that chemicals are or should be the first or only means of control.
Nonchemical methods, including exclusion and sanitation, are important to long-term pest management.
  Space limitations preclude listing all pesticide formulations and trade names. Other appropriate products or formulations may
be used.
  Never use products that are not labeled for the intended use. Products labeled for outdoor use only should never be applied
indoors. Read the product label for specific pest information about the active ingredient, application rates, and detailed
instructions on the product’s use.

NOTE: The insecticides listed below are identified by the common name. The brand names of most consumer insecticide products do not
identify the specific chemical used, and the formulation and/or its contents may be changed by the manufacturer. Always check the “Active
ingredients” portion of the product label to determine if the product is appropriate for your needs.
TABLE 5-22. CONTROL OF HOUSEHOLD PESTS−Products for Use by the General Public
Insecticide                              Formulation                   Precautions and Remarks
ANT (a) Indoors (For information on carpenter ants, see Insect Control for Wood and Wood Products)
allethrin (Ultrakill)                    Aerosol
avermectin (Raid Max Ant Bait)           Bait Station                  Place bait stations in areas where ants are active. Keep of out of reach of children and pets. Use dust
bifenthrin (Ortho)                       Liquid                        formulations only in inaccessible areas.
borax/boric acid (Hot Shot, Terro)       Bait, Dust, Bait Station      Treat ant-traveled areas. Re-treat as effectiveness diminishes. Some products are not suitable for use in
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                       Liquid                        residential kitchens or commercial food/feed preparation sites. Read the product label carefully. Remove food
                                                                       from storage areas before treating.
hydramethylnon (Amdro)                   Bait Station
propoxur (Ortho)                         Bait Station                  Imoprothrin is usually formulated with other pesticides in these products.

sodium O-phenylphenate (Bayer)           Liquid                        Apply products as directed on the label.
cypermethrin (Hot Shot)                  Fogger
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)          Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid, Bayer)          Aerosol Spray, Dust, Liquid
fipronil (Combat)                        Bait
imoprothin (Hot Shot, Raid)              Aerosol Spray
indoxacarb (Hot Shot)                    Bait Station
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)          Liquid
mint oil (Victor)                        Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Raid)                        Aerosol Spray
prallethrin (Hot Shot)                   Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide,      Aerosol Spray
Hot Shot)
tetramethrin (Hot Shot)                  Fogger
dinotefuran (Hot Shot)                   Bait
deltamethrin (Black Flag, Raid)          Liquid
lemongrass oil (Hot Shot)                Liquid, Aerosol Spray
ANT (b) Outdoors (Also see “Ant” and “Imported Fire Ant” under Home Lawns table.)
bifenthrin (Ortho)                       Granular, Liquid              Apply granular bait around nest. Place bait stations in areas where ants are active.
borax (Terro)                            Bait                          Treat nest and surrounding area. May be applied along building perimeter.
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                       Granular, Liquid              Apply chemicals as directed on the label.
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)          Dust
dinotefuran (Hot Shot)                   Bait
fipronil (Combat)                        Bait
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide,         Liquid, Granules
Terro)
hydramethylnon (Amdro)                   Bait
indoxacarb (Spectracide)                 Bait Station
BED BUG
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)          Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid)                 Aerosol Spray, Dust
imoprothin (Raid)                        Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Hot Shot)                    Liquid
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Hot Shot)         Aerosol Spray
sumithrin (Enforcer)                     Aerosol
BEE (a) Indoors
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)          Dust                          Apply only for sporadic invaders. If bees are found frequently, locate and remove the nest.
eugenol (Bioganic)                       Aerosol Spray, Dust           Apply products as directed on the label.
imoprothin (Raid)                        Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Hot Shot)                    Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum                    Aerosol Spray, Liquid
tetramethrin (Ortho)                     Aerosol Spray




182                                                                                                                                                 Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-22. CONTROL OF HOUSEHOLD PESTS−Products for Use by the General Public
Insecticide                           Formulation                Precautions and Remarks
BEES (b) Outdoors For carpenter bees, see section Insect control for Wood and Wood Products
carbaryl (Sevin)                      Dust, Liquid, Powder       Apply after dark when insects have returned to nest. Some materials available in pressurized cans that propel an
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid                     insecticide stream up to 10 ft. Re-treatment may be necessary.
eugenol (Bioganic)                    Aerosol Spray, Dust        Apply products as directed on the label.
Bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Liquid
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid
prallethrin (Hot Shot)                Aerosol
tetramethrin (Ortho)                  Aerosol
BOOKLOUSE (psocid) (Indoors and outdoors)
allethrin (Hot Shot, Raid)            Aerosol Spray              Apply as a barrier spray along foundation and entry points (doors and windows). Read labels to determine which
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Liquid                     products are suitable for indoor use. Clean up moisture problems, which may attract insects indoors. Excess
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid                     moisture may impede product effectiveness.

diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid)              Aerosol Spray, Dust
imoprothin (Raid)                     Aerosol Spray              Imoprothin is formulated with other pesticides in these products.
mint oil (Victor)                     Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Raid)                   Aerosol Spray
BOXELDER BUG (Outdoors)
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Liquid                     Harmless insects become nuisances when searching indoors for hibernation sites in the fall. Treat door
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Liquid                     thresholds, window ledges, and other areas where the insects congregate or may gain entry.

lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid
BROWN DOG TICK (a) Indoors
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Aerosol Spray, Liquid
cypermethrin (Raid)                   Fogger
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid)              Aerosol Spray, Dust
imoprothrin (Hot Shot)                Aerosol Spray
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Hot Shot)                 Liquid
tetramethrin (Raid)                   Aerosol Spray
BROWN DOG TICK (b) Outdoors and under buildings
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Granules                   See also Control of Insects on Pets section.
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid, Granule
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid)              Aerosol Spray, Dust
gamma-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid, Granule
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Liquid
tetramethrin (Ortho)                  Liquid
CARPET BEETLE (a) Nonfabric areas and infested areas of carpets only
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust
eugenol (Bioganic)                    Aerosol Spray, Dust
imoprothrin (Hot Shot, Raid)          Aerosol Spray
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray
CARPET BEETLE (b) On fabric
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust
prallethrin (Black Flag)              Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum                 Aerosol Spray, Liquid
CENTIPEDE (a) Indoors
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid)              Aerosol Spray, Dust
gamma –cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid, Granule
imoprothrin (Hot Shot, Raid)          Aerosol Spray
lambda-cyhalothrin ( Spectracide)     Liquid
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Hot Shot)                 Liquid
CENTIPEDE (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Granules, Liquid
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Granules, Liquid           Treat infested areas around building foundations, vents, and similar access points. Barrier sprays of 12 to 18 in.
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust                       along perimeter may be effective.
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide       Liquid
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol
tetramethrin (Raid)                   Aerosol



Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                              183
TABLE 5-22. CONTROL OF HOUSEHOLD PESTS−Products for Use by the General Public
Insecticide                           Formulation                 Precautions and Remarks
CHIGGER (Red bug) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Granular, Liquid            Apply to grass, bushes, and weeds in the infested areas. Thoroughly saturate soil, but avoid runoff into ponds,
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid                      lakes, or other bodies of water. Repeat as needed. Apply labeled repellent products to shoes, ankles, and legs
gamma-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid, Granule             before entering suspected chigger-infested areas.

lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Liquid
CLOTHES MOTH (a) Nonfabric areas and infested areas of carpet only See Carpet Beetle
CLOTHES MOTH (b) On fabric See Carpet Beetle
CLOTHES MOTH (c) In storage areas
dichlorvos (Pest Strip)               Strip                       Hang on strip in clothes closets or storage chests up to 1,000 cubic feet in capacity. Not for use in occupied
Ortho No-Pest Strip                                               rooms or in closets in occupied rooms. Follow label instructions carefully.
paradichlorobenzene (PDB)             Crystals or similar solid   Effective repellents on clean fabric in airtight enclosures. Avoid contact with plastic buttons and zippers.
napthalene
CLOVER MITE (a) Indoors
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Aerosol Spray, Liquid
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid)              Aerosol Spray, Dust
imoprothin (Raid)                     Aerosol Spray
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray
CLOVER MITE (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Granular                    Treat around points of entry, such as foundations, vents, windows, and doors. Maintain a 12-in. wide vegetation-
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Granular, Liquid            free zone along foundation. Spray 1 to 2 feet high along the foundation wall and a 3- to 5-ft barrier on the grass or
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust                        landscaped areas around the foundation. Water immediately after applying granules.

lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid                      Apply products as directed on the label.
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol
COCKROACH (a) Indoors
allethrin (Ultra-Kill)                Liquid                      Apply sprays along baseboards, under sinks, in cabinets and other infested areas. Remove and cover food,
avermectin (Raid Max)                 Bait Station                cooking, and eating utensils before spraying cabinets. Do not restock shelves until surface dries completely.
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Aerosol Spray, Liquid       Some products are not suitable for use in residential kitchens or commercial food/feed preparation sites. Read
                                                                  the product label carefully.
boric acid                            Bait, Dust
                                                                  Imoprothin is formulated with other pesticides in these products.
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid
                                                                  Place bait stations in infested areas; follow label instructions. Keep out of reach of children and pets. Sanitation
cypermethrin (Raid, Hot Shot)         Fogger
                                                                  is critical; before using baits, eliminate other food sources. Place bait stations in cabinets under sinks and behind
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust                        stoves and refrigerators. Slow acting but gives long-lasting control. Force small amounts into all hidden nesting
deltamethrin (Black Flag)             Liquid                      areas with dust applicator. Avoid overapplication and inhalation of dust. Some formulations may contain pyrethrins
dinotefuran (Raid, Hot Shot)          Bait                        or pyrethrum. Do not contaminate food preparation or storage sites.
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid, Bayer)       Aerosol Spray, Dust, Liquid Use diatomaceous earth in the same manner as boric acid powders. Some formulations contain pyrethrins and
fipronil (Combat)                     Bait, Bait Station          pyrethrum.
hydramethylnon (Combat, Amdro)        Bait                        Hydroprene is an insect growth regulator and should be used with an adulticide.
hydroprene (Egg Stopper)              Bait Station                Apply products as directed on the label.
imoprothrin (Hot Shot, Raid)          Aerosol Spray
indoxacarb (Hot Shot bait)            Bait
lambda-cyhalothrin (Hot Shot,         Liquid
Spectracide)
lemongrass oil (Hot Shot)             Liquid, Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Hot Shot fogger)        Fogger
permethrin (Hot Shot, Bengal, Raid)   Aerosol Spray
prallethrin (Hot Shot)                Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Hot Shot)      Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Hot Shot)               Fogger
COCKROACH (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Aerosol Spray, Liquid       Some species of cockroaches can live indoors and outdoors. Cockroaches that live outdoors tend to hide under
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid, Granule             mulch, ivy, and similar cover. Treat groundcover and along foundation walls, patios, and other areas where
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust                        cockroaches are seen. Certain products cannot be used on or around edible plants. Read product labels for any
                                                                  limitations.
dinotefuran (Hot Shot)                Bait
                                                                  Apply products as directed on the label.
hydromethylnon (Amdro)                Bait
gamma-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid, Granule
CRICKET (Indoors and in crawlspaces)
boric acid                            Bait                        Crickets enter homes through basements and similar areas. Some formulations may be sprinkled along
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid, Powder              foundation. Read product label before using outdoors.
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuart)       Dust                        Treat along foundation walls, patios, and other areas where crickets are seen.
eugenol (Bioganic, Bayer)             Aerosol Spray, Dust, Liquid Apply products as directed on the label.
imoprothrin (Raid)                    Aerosol Spray
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid                      Apply in a light 2- to 4-in. band around foundation. Do not use excessive amounts, and do not apply to foliage of
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray               ornamentals or to food crops.
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Liquid                      Imoprothin is formulated with other pesticides in these products.
tetramethrin (Raid)                   Aerosol Spray               Apply products as directed on the label.




184                                                                                                                                              Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-22. CONTROL OF HOUSEHOLD PESTS−Products for Use by the General Public
Insecticide                            Formulation                   Precautions and Remarks
EARWIG (a) Indoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                     Aerosol Spray, Liquid
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                     Liquid
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)        Dust
eugenol (Bioganic, Raid, Bayer)        Aerosol Spray, Dust, Liquid
imoprothrin (Raid)                     Aerosol Spray
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)        Liquid
prallethrin (Hot Shot)                 Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Hot Shot)                Fogger
EARWIG (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                     Granular, Liquid              Repeat treatments at 14-day intervals if necessary. Granular formulations are for outdoor use only and must be
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                     Granular, Liquid              watered in or applied before rain.
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)        Dust
gamma-cyhalothring (Spectracide)       Liquid, Granule
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid
FLEA (a) Indoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                     Aerosol Spray                 Only use products specifically labeled for flea control. Apply to carpets, crevices in flooring. Do not leave chemical
boric acid                             Dust                          residue on surface. Avoid accidental inhalation during application.
cyfluthrin (Bayer, Raid)               Liquid                      Treat sleeping quarters of pets and other localized areas, such as under cushions and furniture, as specified on
eugenol (Bioganic, Bayer)              Aerosol Spray, Dust, Liquid label. Vacuum carpets and furniture before applying and dispose of contents properly. Sprays may be used for
                                                                   general area treatment. Also treat cracks, crevices, and similar areas only. Foggers are only effective when used
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)        Liquid
                                                                   in conjunction with other sprays to other critical areas. Treat infested animals with properly labeled product for
deltamethrin (Spectracide)             Aerosol Spray
                                                                   lasting control.
permethrin (Hot Shot)                  Liquid
                                                                   Apply as directed on the label.
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Hot Shot)       Liquid, Fogger, Aerosol
                                       Spray
tetramethrin (Hot Shot, Raid)          Aerosol Spray, Fogger,
                                       Liquid
sumithrin (Enforcer)                   Dust
methoprene (Precor)                    Aerosol Spray, Fogger,        Insect growth regulators that control immature fleas only. Usually formulated with an adulticide.
pyriproxyfen                           Liquid
FLEA (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                     Liquid                        Concentrate on kennels and shaded areas where animals tend to rest of congregate. Apply liquid formulations
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                     Liquid                        with sufficient spray volume to saturate soil. Granular formulations must be watered in or applied before rain.
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)        Dust                          Repeate as needed at 4- to 6-week intervals.

gamma-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)        Liquid, Granule
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid                        Apply as directed on the label.
deltamethrin (Spectracide)             Aerosol Spray
FLIES (a) Indoors
dichlorvos (Vapona, Pest Strip,        Strip                         Strips can only be used in unoccupied areas. Apply as a surface spray to areas or objects (such as garbage
Ortho No-Pest Strip, Hot Shot)                                       cans) infested with flies. Repeat treatments as may be necessary. See label before treating areas of vegetation.
eugenol (Bayer)                        Liquid                        Sanitation in the area is essential for satisfactory control of flies.
lemongrass oil (Hot Shot)              Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Raid, Hot Shot)            Aerosol, Fogger
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (various)        Aerosol Spray, Liquid
tetramethrin (Ortho)                   Aerosol
tetramethrin (Hot Shot fogger)         Fogger
deltamethrin (Spectracide)             Aerosol Spray
FLIES (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                     Liquid                        Apply as a surface spray to areas or objects (such as garbage cans) infested with flies. Repeat treatments may
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                     Liquid                        be necessary. See label before treating areas of vegetation.
imidacloprid (Maxforce)                Bait                          Sanitation in the area is essential for satisfactory control using any of these chemicals but particularly important
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid                        with baits.
prallethrin (Hot Shot)                 Aerosol Spray                 Use as directed.
tetramethrin (Ortho)                   Aerosol
HORNETS, MUD DAUBERS, WASPS, YELLOW JACKETS (a) Indoors
eugenol (Bioganic)                     Aerosol Spray, Dust
prallethrin (Ultrakill, Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum                  Aerosol Spray, Liquid
S-bioallethrin (Spectracide)           Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Ortho, Raid)             Aerosol Spray
HORNETS, MUD DAUBERS, WASPS, YELLOW JACKETS (b) Nest and adjacent areas
bifenthrin (Ortho)                     Liquid                        Apply to nest or opening after dark when insects have returned to nest. Re-treatment may be necessary. Most are
carbaryl (Sevin)                       Dust, Liquid                  packaged in pressurized containers that direct an insecticide stream of up to 10 ft. For yellowjackets and other
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                     Liquid                        soil-dwelling wasps, apply chemical to nests in soil.

diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)        Dust
eugenol (Bioganic)                     Aerosol Spray, Dust
permethrin (Hot Shot)                  Aerosol
prallethrin (Ultrakill)                Aerosol
prallethrin (Spectracide)              Aerosol
deltamethrin (Spectracide)             Aerosol
tetramethrin (Ortho, Raid)             Aerosol Spray



Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                    185
TABLE 5-22. CONTROL OF HOUSEHOLD PESTS−Products for Use by the General Public
Insecticide                           Formulation                  Precautions and Remarks
LICE: body, head, crab (on person)
malathion (Ovide)                     Liquid                       Shampoo formulations. Thoroughly treat infested areas of body with lotion. Wash infested clothing with strong
                                                                   soap and very hot water. Dryclean woolens. Qwell and Ovide require a physician’s prescription. Insecticidal
permethrin (Nix)                      Liquid
                                                                   treatment of furniture, carpets, or other areas of the home is not needed.
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Rid)           Liquid
MILLIPEDE (a) Indoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Liquid
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)       Dust
eugenol (Bioganic)                    Aerosol Spray, Dust
imoprothrin (Raid)                    Aerosol Spray
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid
mint oil (Victor)                     Aerosol Spray
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Hot Shot)                 Liquid
prallethrin (Hot Shot)                Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray
MILLIPEDE (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Granular, Liquid             Use as barrier treatment along foundation wall, door threshold, window ledges. Some sprays may damage
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Granular, Liquid             vegetation under hot, humid conditions. Read label precautions. For lawn treatment, apply an insecticide band
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)       Dust                         10 to 15 ft wide. Apply liquid formulations with sufficient spray volume to saturate soil. Use granular formulations
                                                                   outdoors only; water in or apply before rain. Repeat as needed at 4- to 6-wk intervals.
gamma-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid, Granule
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid
MOSQUITOES (a) Indoors
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray
lemongrass oil (Hot Shot)             Aerosol Spray
permethrin (Hot Shot)                 Liquid
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Raid)          Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Hot Shot)               Fogger
tetramethrin (Ortho)                  Aerosol
MOSQUITOES (b) Outdoors (See also Community Pest Control Section)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bti)          Solid                        A “biopesticide” containing bacteria that kill mosquitoes and some biting flies. Place in small ponds, birdbaths,
(Mosquito Dunks)                                                   and ornamental pools (not swimming pools). Follow instructions for specifics of application.
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Liquid                       Long-term control requires eliminating or cleaning mosquito breeding areas, such as discarded containers,
gamma –cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid, Granule              ditches, and other artificial sources of standing water. Spraying nearby vegetation may eliminate some mosquito
lambda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)      Liquid                       resting sites, but some formulation as may damage vegetation. Aerosols or foggers may be used for temporary
                                                                   relief when winds are insignificant.
                                                                   Use repellents on exposed body areas.
PANTRY PESTS (Pests in food storage areas)
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid                      Discard infested material. Overall treatment of storage shelves and pantry usually not necessary; treat cracks,
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)       Dust                        crevices, moldings, and similar areas only. Remove and cover food, cooking, and eating utensils before spraying
eugenol (Bioganic, Bayer)             Aerosol Spray, Dust, Liquid storage cabinets. Do not restock shelves until surfaces are dry. Cover treated shelves with shelf paper if desired.
                                                                  Some products are not suitable for use in residential kitchens or commercial food/feed preparation sites. Read
imoprothrin (Raid)                    Aerosol Spray
                                                                  the product label carefully.
lambda-cyhalothrin (Hot Shot,         Liquid
                                                                  Imoprothin is formulated with other pesticides in these products.
Spectracide)
mint oil (Victor)                     Aerosol Spray
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Hot Shot)      Aerosol Spray
SILVERFISH
allethrin (Ultra-Kill)                Aerosol Spray                Treat cracks, crevices, moldings, and similar areas. Attic treatment may be necessary.
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Liquid                       Apply to cracks and crevices, behind and underneath appliances.
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid                       Spray along baseboards and other areas where silverfish are found.
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)       Dust                         Imoprothin is formulated with other pesticides in these products.
eugenol (Bioganic)                    Aerosol Spray, Dust          Follow label directions.
imoprothrin (Raid)                    Aerosol Spray
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid
lamda-cyhalothrin (Hot Shot)          Liquid
mint oil (Victor)                     Aerosol Spray
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Hot Shot)      Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Raid)                   Aerosol Spray
SOWBUGS AND PILLBUGS (a) Indoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                    Liquid                       Clean up breeding and hiding places, and treat thoroughly. Outdoor barrier treatments along foundation and door
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                    Liquid                       thresholds are usually sufficient. Some products are not suitable for use in residential kitchens or commercial
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)       Dust                         food/feed preparation sites. Read the product label carefully.

eugenol (Bioganic)                    Aerosol Spray, Dust          Follow label directions.
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)       Liquid
mint oil (Victor)                     Aerosol Spray
deltamethrin (Spectracide)            Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)   Aerosol Spray




186                                                                                                                                              Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-22. CONTROL OF HOUSEHOLD PESTS−Products for Use by the General Public
Insecticide                               Formulation                  Precautions and Remarks
SOWBUGS AND PILLBUGS (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                        Granular, Liquid
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                        Granular, Liquid
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)           Dust
gamma-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)           Liquid, Granule
lambda-cyhalothrin (Sepctracide)          Liquid
deltamethrin (Spectracide)                Aerosol
SPIDERS (a) Indoors
allethrin (Ultra-Kill)                    Aerosol Spray                Treat infested areas, along baseboards. Use foggers if rooms have been undisturbed for some time and spider
bifenthrin (Ortho)                        Liquid                       populations are extensive. Some products are not suitable for use in residential kitchens or commercial food/feed
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                        Liquid                       preparation sites. Read the product label carefully.

diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)           Dust                         Imoprothin is formulated with other pesticides in these products.
eugenol (Bioganic, Bayer)                 Aerosol Spray, Dust, Liquid Follow label directions.
imoprothrin (Raid)                        Aerosol Spray
lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)           Liquid
mint oil (Victor)                         Aerosol Spray
deltamethrin (Spectracide)                Aerosol Spray
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide        Aerosol Spray
Terro, Hot Shot)
tetramethrin (Raid)                       Aerosol Spray
SPIDERS (b) Outdoors
bifenthrin (Ortho)                        Liquid                       Apply as a barrier treatment along foundation. Spray corners of decks, eaves, porches and other areas where
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                        Liquid                       spiders tend to build webs. Webbing can be knocked down as an alternative. Exercise caution when spray in
diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)           Dust                         crawlspace. Avoid inhaling spray.
                                                                       Follow label directions.
SPRINGTAILS (Indoors and outdoors)
allethrin (Ultra-Kill)                    Aerosol Spray                Apply as a barrier spray along foundation and entry points. Some products may be used indoors for temporary
bifenthrin (Ortho)                        Granular, Liquid             relief. Clean up moisture conditions that may attract insects indoors. Excess moisture may impede product
cyfluthrin (Bayer)                        Liquid                       effectiveness.

diatomaceous earth (PermaGuard)           Dust                         Use indoors for temporary relief. Some products are not suitable for use in residential kitchens or commercial
                                                                       food/feed preparation sites. Read the product label carefully.
eugenol (Bioganic)                        Aerosol Spray, Dust
imoprothrin (Raid)                        Aerosol Spray                Imoprothin is formulated with other pesticides in these products.

lamda-cyhalothrin (Spectracide)           Liquid                       Follow label directions.
mint oil (Victor)                         Aerosol Spray
deltamethrin (Spectracide)                Aerosol
pyrethrins, pyrethrum (Spectracide)       Aerosol Spray
tetramethrin (Raid)                       Aerosol Spray
STINGING CATERPILLARS See Trees and Woody Ornamentals Section
STORED FOOD PESTS See Pantry Pests.
TICKS (Outdoors) See Brown Dog Tick and Control of Insects on Pets section
WASPS, YELLOWJACKETS See Hornets, etc.

Formulation Designations
Bait may be gel or granular
Fogger is a total release aerosol
Liquid for mixing with water or ready-to-use
Powder for mixing with water




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                187
                                                              INSECT CONTROL FOR HOME LAWNS
                                              R. L. BRANDENBURG and S. B. BAMBARA, Entomology Extension
NOTE: Some products are for use only by professionals. Homeowner products are numerous and names change frequently, so it is not possible to list all homeowner
products by brand names. When choosing a product to use at home, look at the label and use this table to choose the most effective active ingredient.

TABLE 5-23. INSECT CONTROL FOR HOME LAWNS
PEST                                            Amount per
Insecticide and Formulation                     1,000 Sq Ft        Precautions and Remarks
ANT (Also see IMPORTED FIRE ANT)
carbaryl* (Sevin) 50 WP and baits                 6 to 8 oz        Treat mounds and surrounding area or apply broadcast.
clothianidin
+
benethrin
(Aloft)
G                                               1.8 to 3.61 lb
SC                                            0.27 to 0.54 fl oz
hydromethylnon* (Maxforce G)                     See label
pyrethroids* (Advanced Lawn, Bug-B-              See label
Gone, Deltaguard, Scimitar, Talstar, Tempo)
ARMYWORM, FALL ARMYWORM, CUTWORM
azidirachtin* (Azatrol, Neemix, Turplex,         See label
etc.)
carbaryl* (Sevin) 50 WP and baits                 6 to 8 oz        Apply as a coarse spray in sufficient water for good coverage. Treat when first injury noted. Repeat as needed. Do not
                                                                   water into soil. Do not cut grass for 1 to 3 days after treatment.
chlorotraniliprole (Acelepryn)
G                                               1.15 to 2.3 lb
SC                                             0.046 to 0.092
                                                    fl oz
halofenozide* (Mach 2)                                             Can be applied two times per season at these rates.
2 SC                                              1.5 fl oz
1.5 G                                              1.0 lb
indoxacarb (Provaunt) G                        1.15 to 2.3 lb
pyrethroids* (Advanced Lawn, Bug-B-              See label
Gone, Deltaguard, Menace, Scimitar,
Talstar, Tempo)
spinosad A and D (Conserve) SC                0.25 to 1.25 fl oz   Rate varies with size and species.
trichlorfon* (Dylox, Proxol) 80 SP               1.5 to 3 oz
various entomogenous nematode and B.t.           See label
products
BEE and WASP
carbaryl* (Sevin) 50 WP                           6 to 8 oz        Most of these are parasitic on soil pests, especially grubs; therefore they are beneficial. Sometimes there are so many
                                                                   bees and wasps burrowing in the soil that chemical treatments are necessary to prevent damage or reduce danger
pyrethroids* (Advanced Lawn, Bug-B-              See label
                                                                   from stings. Spot spray ground nest openings. Bee, wasp, and hornet sprays in pressurized cans are also effective.
Gone, Deltaguard, Scimitar, Talstar, Tempo)
CHINCH BUG
Beauveria bassiana* (Naturalis-T)                See label
pyrethroids* (Advanced Lawn, Bug-B-              See label
Gone, Deltaguard, Menace, Scimitar,
Talstar, Tempo)
GRUB, GREEN JUNE BEETLE (only) (Also see WHITE GRUB.)
carbaryl* (Sevin) 50 WP                             2 oz           Apply to the soil surface but do not water in.
GRUB, WHITE (Japanese beetle, Southern chafer, European chafer, billbug, green June beetle)
carbaryl* (Sevin) 50 WP                             6 oz
carbaryl* (Sevin) 50 WP                          See label         Use as a mound drench.
chlorotraniliprole (Acelepryn) G               1.15 to 2.3 lb
clothianidin (Arena) G                         1.84 to 3.67 lb
clothianidin
+
benethrin
(Aloft)
G                                               1.8 to 3.61 lb
SC                                            0.27 to 0.54 fl oz
clothianidin (Arena)                             See label         Toxic to aquatic invertebrates. Do not apply near or allow runoff to surface or intertidal areas.
halofenozide* (Mach 2) 2 SC and 1.5 G            See label
imidacloprid (Advanced Lawn Grub                 See label
Control, Merit)
thiomethoxam (Meridian)                          See label         Highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates.
trichlorfon* (Proxol/Dylox) 80 SP                  3.75 oz
various entomogenous nematodes                   See label         Must be Heterorhabditid species to be effective.



188                                                                                                                                                    Chapter V—Insect Control
TABLE 5-23. INSECT CONTROL FOR HOME LAWNS
PEST                                              Amount per
Insecticide and Formulation                       1,000 Sq Ft        Precautions and Remarks
IMPORTED FIRE ANT
acephate* (Orthene T, T&O) 75 S                1 to 2 tsp/ mound Distribute uniformly over mound. For best results apply early in morning or late afternoon.
Ortho Fire Ant Killer
avermectin B1 (Ascend) 0.11% bait              5 to 7 tbsp/ mound Distribute uniformly 5 to 7 level tbsp of bait 3 to 4 ft around base of each mound.
carbaryl (Sevin XLR)                                See label        Use as a mound drench.
d-limolene (Orange Guard)                           See label        Mound treatment. Acceptable to organic growers. May also be used around fruit and vegetable gardens.
fipronil (Over n’ Out) 0.0103 (Top Choice)             2 lb          Apply as a broadcast.
(Fire Ant Killer Granules)
hydramethylnon*                                                      Follow label directions precisely.
(Amdro Fire Ant Bait, Amdro Pro)                       —

(Maxforce G)                                        See label        Use fresh bait. Repeat treatment usually required.
indoxacarb                                          See label
(Spectracide Fire Ant Once and Done)
(Over ‘n Out Fire Ant Killer Mound
Treatment)
Advion
methoprene (Extinguish) bait                        See label        Mound or broadcast. Follow label directions. Repeat treatments usually required.
methoprene + hydromethylnon (Extinguish             See label        Follow label directions precisely. Repeat treatments usually required. Use fresh bait. Found in broadcast or mound
Plus, Amdro Firestrike) bait                                         treatment packaging.
pyrethroids (Bayer Advanced, Menace,                See label
Ortho Fire Ant Killer, Mound Treatment,
Talstar One, Tempo)
pyriproxyfen (Distance) bait                        See label        Mound or broadcast bait.
spinosad (Come and Get It Fire Ant Bait by          See label        Acceptable to organic growers. Follow label directions precisely. Repeat treatments usually required. Use fresh bait.
Fertilome, Entrust, Payback, Green Light                             May also be used around fruit and vegetable gardens.
Fire Ant Control with Conserve, Green
Light Fire Ant Killer with Spinosad Mound
Drench)
MOLE CRICKET
carbaryl* (Sevin) 80 WP and baits                     8 oz
fipronil (Over ‘n Out)                                 2 lb          Apply as a broadcast.
imidacloprid (Advanced Lawn Grub                    See label
Control, Merit)
indoxacarb (Advion Mole Cricket Bait)               See label
indoxacarb (Provaunt) SC                           0.275 fl oz
pyrethroids* (Advanced Lawn, Bug-B-                 See label
Gone, Deltaguard, Menace, Scimitar,
Talstar, Tempo)
Various entomogenous nematode products             See labels        Require irrigation.
SLUG, SNAIL
measurol 2% B                                          1 lb          Apply in late afternoon.
metaldehyde                                         See label        Apply in late afternoon.
SOD WEBWORM (also BURROWING SOD WEBWORM)
carbaryl* (Sevin)                                                    Do not water in sprays. Use 6 gal water plus the insecticide per 1,000 sq ft. Treat in late afternoon. Do not cut grass
80 W                                                  6 oz           for 1 to 3 days after treatment. Granules must be watered in.
50 WP                                                 8 oz
halofenozide* (Mach 2)                                               Can be applied two times per season at these rates.
2 SC                                                1.5 fl oz
1.5 G                                                1.0 lb
pyrethroids* (Advanced Garden, Deltagard,           See label
Scimitar, Talstar, Tempo)
spinosad A and D (Conserve) SC                  0.25 to 1.25 fl oz   Rate varies with size and species.
trichlorfon* (Dylox, Proxol) 80 SP                 1.5 to 3 oz       Use sufficient water for good coverage.
various entomogenous nematode and B.t.              See label
products

*Several trade names available. Check label for active ingredient. Always follow label instructions.




Chapter V—Insect Control                                                                                                                                                                       189
                                                             CONTROL OF INSECTS ON PETS
                                                                  S. M. STRINGHAM, Entomology Extension

TABLE 5-24. CONTROL OF INSECTS ON PETS
                                                                  Amount of
                                                                 Formulation
                                                                 per 3 Gallons
Insecticide and Formulation                                        of Spray    Precautions and Remarks
FLEA—(a) Outdoor areas
carbaryl (Sevin) SL                                                 7.5 fl oz     Limited to treatment of building exteriors; see label.
fenvalerate                                                             —         Repeat treatment every 7 to 14 days as needed. See label for proper concentration and use directions.
cyfluthrin (Tempo) 20 WP or 2 L                                    See label      Suppression of adult fleas.
pyriproxyfen (Pyri-Shield) 1.3 EC                                    3 fl oz      This slow-acting insect growth regulator is most effective when used in combination with other
                                                                                  insecticides.
S. carpocapsae (Bio Flea Halt)                                                    Parasitic nematode for flea suppression. Availability is sporadic; check with suppliers of beneficial
                                                                                  insects.
FLEA—(b) Kennels, buildings
dichlorvos (Vapona) 0.5 AB                                             —          Spot treat all cracks, crevices, carpets, and other areas where fleas develop. Dichlorvos has short
                                                                                  residual, but gives a quick kill.
pyriproxyfen (Pyri-Shield) 1.3 EC                                    3 fl oz      This slow-acting insect growth regulator is most effective when used in combination with other
                                                                                  insecticides.
esfenvalerate (Endure)                                                 —          Repeat treatment every 7 to 14 days as needed. See label for proper concentration and use directions.
permethrin                                                             —          May be formulated with one of the following insect growth regulators (IGRs)—methoprene, pyriproxyfen.
FLEA— (c) Dogs and cats
Not all products listed are suitable for cats. Follow ALL label instructions carefully. Many of these products are prescription only.
etofenprox + methoprene (Bio-Spot) spot-on                             —          Follow label directions; FOR CATS ONLY.
etofenprox 55% + pyriproxyfen 2.2% (Sergeant’s Gold)                   —          See label directions.
fipronil (Frontline, TopSpot) spray, spot-on                                      See label directions.
fipronil + methoprene (Frontline Plus) spot-on                         —          See label directions.
imidacloprid (Advantage) spot-on                                       —          See label directions.
imidacloprid + moxidectin (Advantage Multi) spot-on                    —          See label directions.
imidacloprid + permethrin (K9 Advantix) spot-on                        —          See label directions; FOR DOGS ONLY.
limonene                                                               —
Iufenuron (Program) oral                                               —          See label directions.
lufenuron + milbemycin (Sentinel) oral                                 —          See label directions; FOR DOGS ONLY.
metaflumizone (ProMeris) spot-on                                       —          See label directions; FOR CATS ONLY.
nitenpyram (Capstar)                                                              May be used in combination with other flea control products (see label). May be given to dogs or cats at
                                                                                  least 4 weeks old as long as they weigh at least 2 pounds.
permethrin                                                             —          See label for use and concentrations. May be formulated with one of the following insect growth
                                                                                  regulators (IGRs)—methoprene, pyriproxyfen.
pyrethrins 0.1 A + synergist                                           —          May be formulated with one of the following insect growth regulators (IGRs)—methoprene, pyriproxyfen.
tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon)                                              —          Follow all label directions.
selamectin (Revolution) spot-on                                                   Prescription only. See label directions.
spinosad (Comfortis)                                                   —          FOR DOGS ONLY
TICK—(a) Outdoor areas
carbaryl (Sevin) SL                                                    —          Limited to treatment of building exteriors; see label.
cyfluthrin (Tempo) 20 WP or 2 L                                    See label      Follow label directions.
tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon) 50 WP                                      4.5 oz
TICK— (b) Kennels, buildings
carbaryl (Sevin) SL                                                 7.5 fl oz     Limited to treatment of building exteriors; see label.
cyfluthrin (Tempo) 20 WP or 2 L                                    See label      Remove animals before treatment.
TICK— (c) Dogs and cats

amitraz + pyriproxyfen (Preventic Plus Flea and Tick Collar)           —          Watch for possible skin reaction at collar.
etofenprox + methoprene (Bio-Spot) spot-on                         See label      FOR CATS ONLY.
fipronil (Frontline, TopSpot)                                                     See label directions.
fipronil + methoprene (Frontline Plus) spot-on                         —          See label directions.
selamectin (Revolution)                                                —          Prescription only. See label directions.




190                                                                                                                                                     Chapter V—Insect Control

				
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