National Spatial Development Perspective (PowerPoint) by liaoqinmei


									National Spatial Development        Policy
Perspective (NSDP)             Coordination and
                               Advisory Service


       Structure of Presentation

1. Overview of NSDP
   •   Approach
   •   Purpose
   •   Principles

2. Reading of Provincial Economy in relation to the
   National Economy
   •   People
   •   Economy


                   A set of principles and mechanisms for guiding
                    infrastructure investment and development

            A shared understanding of the national space
             economy by describing the spatial manifestations of
             the main social, economic and environmental trends

   An interpretation of the spatial realities and the
    implications for government intervention

Purpose of NSDP
‘… it will always be impossible for   ‘…focus and decisiveness on the part
  us to say that we have fully         of government, the will to make
  restored the dignity of all our      trade-offs and make choices as well
  people as long as the                as strategies to inspire all of
  overwhelming majority of our         society…If decisive action is taken
  people suffer under the burden       on a number of focused area, the
  of poverty and deprivation…’         confluence of possibilities is such
                                       that the country would enter a road
              President Thabo Mbeki
                                       of faster economic growth… ‘

  Poverty, inequality and deprivation are manifested in space. Successful
   developmental states, e.g. China and South Korea illustrated the
   enormous impact achieved by allocating resource and directing
   investment in a coordinated and spatially-targeted way
  This implies a greater appreciation of spatial challenges           4
  Purpose of NSDP
                                        Coordinate government action and
      National spatial guidelines       Provide a rigorous base for
     are increasingly recognised as      interpreting strategic direction
                tools to:
                                        Maximise overall social and
                                         economic impact of government
                                         development spending

 Enables a shared understanding
                                            NSDP is SA’s first set of
  of the national space economy
                                         national spatial guidelines, that
 Provides a principle-base approach        establishes an overarching
  to coordinate and guide policy                mechanism which:
  implementation across government
Purpose of NSDP
 Given our objective to grow the economy, create jobs, address poverty
  and promote social cohesion, the NSDP assists government in
  confronting three fundamental planning questions:

 Where should       What kinds of          How can govt as a whole:
  government          spatial forms and
  direct its          arrangements          − Capitalise on complementarities
  investment          are more                  and facilitate consistent
  and                 conducive to the
                      achievement of
                                            −   Move beyond mere focusing on
                                                integration and coordination
  initiatives to      our objectives of
                                                procedures to establishing
  ensure              democratic nation         processes and mechanisms that
  sustainable and     building and social       would bring about strategic co-
  maximum             and economic              ordination, interaction and
  impact?             inclusion?                alignment?
 International theory shows that spatial inequality is a product of growth
  and the dynamic qualities of areas are developed historically and
  culturally over a long period of time:

  Production of GGP
  Most countries            US GGP       50% produced in 2% of space
  have extreme
  spatial inequalities      EUs GGP      82% produced in 36% of space

  Economic development
   Convergence between
                            Southern Took 100 years to reach a similar
   developed and
   undeveloped regions      US States level of economic development as
   takes a long time                  the North

   Regions and countries with unequal spatial economies converge
                    at about 2% a year (if at all)
       The spatial concentration of growth in South Africa reveals:
                      South Africa is not unique…

 Spatial configuration of SA is not only the product of growth but
  also apartheid spatial planning – a disjuncture exist between
  where people live and where economic opportunities exist

           Apartheid spatial planning ensured that the mass of our people
            were located far from social and economic opportunities

 Spatial marginalisation from economic opportunities is still a
  significant feature of our space economy that need to be addressed
  in order to reduce poverty and inequality & ensure shared growth
 International case studies and theory further shows…

                                     
       Unfocused                              Unfocused human
       infrastructure spending                resource
       doesn’t improve GDP                    development doesn’t
       growth                                 improve GDP growth

       Regions which already                 Successful learning
       have some economic

                                     
                                             occurs when institutions
       success are more likely to            and incentives work and
       grow than other regions –             institutions are locally
       this is because individuals,          specific
       firms, industries and
       regions LEARN

      Success achieved through focused and polarised investment

Approach                                                           DEVELOPMENT

         The poor, concentrated around economic centres have
            greater opportunity to gain from economic growth

 Location is                                      Areas with
  critical for the                                  demonstrated economic
  poor to exploit                                   potential provide
  opportunities                                     greater protection due
  for growth                                        to greater diversity of
                              NSDP                  income sources
 Govt needs to                                     Areas with
  ensure that poor                                    demonstrated
  are able to benefit                                 economic potential are
  fully from growth                                   most favourable for
  and employment in                                   overcoming poverty
  these areas

           The poor are making rational choices about                     10
             relocating to areas of opportunity
NSDP principles
The NSDP puts forward a set of normative principles in order to:

   Contribute to the broader growth
   and development policy
   objectives of government

               Surface the spatial dimensions
               of social exclusion and
                           Lift the burden of unequal and inefficient
                           spatial arrangements placed on the state
                            − high transport subsidies)
                            − communities (especially the poor) who incur
                               huge transaction costs by having to
                               commute large distances to and from work
NSDP principles

            Rapid economic growth that is sustained and
            inclusive is a pre-requisite for the achievement
            of other policy objectives, amongst which
            poverty alleviation is key

            Government has a constitutional obligation to
            provide basic services to all citizens (e.g.
            water, energy health and educational facilities)
            wherever they reside

NSDP principles
            Beyond the constitutional obligation identified in
            Principle 2 above, Govt spending on fixed
            investment, should be focused on localities
            of economic growth and/or economic
            potential in order to:

               gear up private sector investment
               stimulate sustainable economic activities
               create long-term employment opportunities

NSDP principles

             Efforts to address past and current social
             inequalities should focus on people not

            In localities where there are both high levels of
             poverty and development potential, this could
             include fixed capital investment beyond basic
             services to exploit the potential of those localities

            In localities with low development potential,
             Govt spending should focus on providing social
             transfers, human resource development and
             labour market intelligence which would enable
             people to become more mobile and migrate to
             localities that are more likely to provide
             sustainable employment or other economic
NSDP principles

            In order to overcome the spatial distortions of
            Apartheid, future settlement and economic
            development opportunities should be
            channelled into activity corridors and nodes
            that are adjacent to or link the main growth

             Infrastructure investment should primarily
              support localities that will become major
              growth nodes in South Africa and the
              SADC region to create regional gateways
              to the global economy

Applying the NSDP
                             Undertaking rigorous analysis of the
Applying and using             space economy to identify areas of
the NSDP within                economic significance & concentrations
the three spheres              of poverty and relative & dynamic
of government (e.g.            comparative advantage of localities
in PGDSs, IDPs,
Sector Plans) means
the following:               Providing a common platform for
                                structured dialogue

           Applying the NSDP will enable government to:

 Focus investment      Capitalise on          Move beyond mere focusing
  and development        complementarities &     on integration & coordination
  interventions to       facilitate consistent   procedures towards strategic
  ensure maximum and     and focussed            coordination, interaction and
  sustainable impact     decision-making         alignment                 16

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