Chapter 16 Sections 1

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					                                     Chapter 16 Sections 1
                                    The Road to World War I
European nations are competing over colonies and trade
Two loose alliances----Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (1882)
-Triple Entente-France, Great Britain, and Russia (1907)
Austria-Hungary and Russia are rivals over Balkans
1914 European states angry with each other
Nationalism-other groups want their independence
Slavic groups in Balkans and Poles under Russian rule want their own nations
Irish (under British rule) want independence-rebellion in Dublin, lose, but eventually get
independence in 1921

                                          Militarism
Big armies create tension in Europe
Russian army 1.3 million men; French and German 900k each; British, Italian, and Austro-
Hungarian armies 250k to 400k each
Militarism, alliance systems, and nationalism are long-term causes of WWI

                                    Direct Causes of WWI
1914 Serbia (supported by Russia) wants to become independent; Austria-Hungary doesn’t want
this
June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand (heir to Austria-Hungarian throne) visits Bosnia with
wife Sophia
Terrorist organization called Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist group wanted Bosnia to be free from
Austria-Hungary and to be part of Serbian Kingdom
Gavrilo Princip shot Francis and Sophia
Austria-Hungary gets support from Germany (called a “blank check”) from Emperor William II
saying Austria-Hungary has Germany’s support even if Russia gets involved
Ridiculous ultimatum goes to Serbia; Serbia must reject it
July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

                                    Russia Gets Involved
Russia helps Serbia
Czar Nicholas II orders mobilization of Russian army (getting ready for war)
Germany reacts and warns Russia to stop; Russia ignores this warning
Germany declared Russia on August 1, 1914

                                       Schlieffen Plan
German military plan drawn up by General Alfred von Schlieffen-known as Schlieffen Plan
Send some troops to Russia but most to France
After defeating France, concentrate on Russia
August 3 Germany declares war on France
Germany orders Belgium to let troops pass through their territory
August 4 Great Britain declares war on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality
By August 4, all of the great European powers were at war!

                            Chapter 16 Section 2 World War I
Before 1914 leaders thought war would not be worth fighting and diplomats could prevent war
Government propaganda-ideas to spread influence public opinion for or against a cause-stirred up
national hatreds before war
Most people thought their nation’s cause was just
People thought war would be over in a few weeks; soldiers thought they would be home by
Christmas

                                         Western Front
Schlieffen Plan called for Germans to surround French army
First Battle of the Marne (Sept. 6-10); Germans close to Paris; 2,000 Paris taxicabs with troops
sent to front line
stalemate- due to trench warfare
Trenches stretched from the English Channel to Switzerland
Both sides basically did not move for 4 years
Trenches protected by barbed wire (5 ft), troops lived in holds in the ground, the area between
trenches known as “No Man’s Land”
    Sometimes artillery would tear down barbed wire and have soldier charges but few worked
    In 10 months at Verdun, France 700k men died over a few miles of land
    WWI was a war of attrition-a war of wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy
    losses

                                              Eastern Front
    Russian army moves into Germany but was defeated at the Battle of Tannenberg (Aug. 30) and
    Battle of Masurian Lakes (Sept. 15)
    Russians no longer a major threat to Germany
    Austria-Hungary forced out of Serbia by Russians
    Italians betray Triple Alliance, attack Austria and join Triple Entente; they are now called the
    Allied Powers
    Germany helps Austria-Hungary defeat Russia and push them back to their own territory
    2.5 million Russians killed, captured, wounded
    Bulgaria joins Germany and Austria-Hungary Sept 1915 and defeat Serbians
    Germans able to focus on west.

                                                War in the Air
    1915 airplanes on battlefront for the first time
    At first, they are used to find enemies, then used to attack
    Pilots first fired at each other with pistols, later machine guns mounted on planes
    Germans also used zeppelins-giant airships to bomb London, but they were full of hydrogen,
    which made them burn easily when hit

                                         Widening of the War
    Ottomans join Germany; Allies declare war on Ottomans
    Allies land at Balkan front of Gallipoli; Allies lose
    Britain promises to give Italy some of Austrian territory
    1917-a world conflict
    British officer Lawrence of Arabia urged Arab princes to revolt against Ottomans
    British forces from Egypt destroy Ottoman Empire in Middle East
    Allies seize German’s colonies (weak navy, strong army)
    Japan (British ally) seize German islands in the Pacific
    Australia seized German New Guinea

                                         U.S. Enters WWI
   U.S. tries to stay neutral
   Britain and Germany try to blockade each other; Britain has naval power; Germany has
   submarines (u-boats)
   May 7, 1915 British ship Lusitania was sunk by Germans
   1100 civilians died, including over 100 Americans
   German government agreed to avoid antagonizing U.S.
   January 1917 German officers convinced Emperor William II to resume unrestricted submarine
   warfare
   Emperor said he was concerned about the U.S., Naval officers tell him not to worry
   German Admiral Holtzendorff said, “I give your Majesty my word as an officer that not one
   American will land on the continent.”
   Said British would surrender before U.S. could get involved
THEY WERE WRONG
   British DID NOT surrender
   U.S. got involved in war in April 1917; supplied psychological boost and good source of money
   and war goods
   Many soldiers arrive in 1918


                                        WWI – Total War
 WWI became total war-involved complete mobilization of resources and people
 Affected lives of all citizens
 People had to be organized to support war effort
Government Power
 Government expands power
 Countries draft tens of millions of men
 Also expand power over economies
      Government made price, wage and rent controls; rationed food and materials; regulated imports
         and exports
      Economies in Europe were – planned economies
      All citizens were considered to be part of the country’s dedication to victory
     Manipulation of Public Opinion
      As casualties got worse, less support for war
      Authoritarian regimes like in Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary use force to control
         population
      Democracies even expand police powers to stop internal dissent
      British government under the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) allow the government to arrest
         protestors as traitors
      Newspapers were censored and suspended
     Propaganda
      Governments use propaganda to arouse enthusiasm for war
      They exaggerate the atrocities of opposing forces
      Use propaganda to encourage participation in military and support of war
     Women’s Roles
      New roles for women because of war
      Became chimney sweeps, truck drivers, farm laborers, factory workers in heavy industry
      At the end of the war, these jobs would be quickly taken from women
      By 1919 650,000 unemployed women in Britain
      Wages for women still employed would be lower
      Women’s participation did have a positive impact on the women’s movement
      In Germany, Austria, U.S., and Britain, women given the right to vote
      More upper and middle class women begin to have jobs and get their own apartments
                                   Russian Revolution Chapter 16 Section 3
      After losing to Japan, Russia is not prepared for WWI
      No good military leaders
      Czar Nicholas II insists on controlling army even though he doesn’t have good training
      Not enough military equipment (soldiers trained with brooms)
      Soldiers without guns told to get one from dead comrade
      2 million killed
      4-6 million wounded or captured
      Czar Nicholas II wife-German born Alexandria fell under influence of Grigori Rasputin
      Rasputin-uneducated Siberian peasant
      She believed Rasputin was holy and could stop her son from bleeding (son Alexis was a
         hemophiliac)
      Czar at war; Alexandria made decisions; she consults Rasputin
      He interferes with government affairs
      Military and economic disasters
      People upset with czar
      Conservative aristocrats assassinate Rasputin (had to be shot three times, tied up, and thrown into
         a river; he drowned but had managed to untie the knots)
     March Revolution
      Strikes led by working class women at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) 1917
      Women had to wait in line for bread for 12 hours and work 12 hour days
      Women demand “peace and bread”
      Women joined by other workers
      Started a strike all factories in Petrograd shut down
      Nicholas orders his troops to break up the crowd
      Soldiers join the movement and refuse to fire on crowds
Fall of Czar Nicholas II
      Duma (legislature) meets (Nicholas tried to ban it) urges czar to step down
      Czar Nicholas II steps down on March 15, 1917 because he has no support from aristocrats or
         army
      Government headed by Alexander Kerensky-he wanted to finish WWI
      Soviets oppose government – they were councils made up of workers and soliers
      soviets represent interests of lower class
The Rise of Lenin
      Bolsheviks came under leadership of V.I. Lenin – they are dedicated to violent revolution
      Hated capitalism and thought only violent revolution could stop it
      April 1917 Germans, hoping to create disorder in Russia, send Lenin back to Russia (after
         spending many years away)
       Lenin wanted support from soldiers, workers and peasants and to get them to help him overthrow
        the government
     Bolsheviks promised to get out of WWI, redistribute land, and transfer factories from capitalists to
        committees of workers, and transfer government power from the provisional government to
        soviets
     Bolshevik slogan was: “Peace, Land, Bread”…”Worker Control of Production”…”All Power to
        the Soviets”
Bolsheviks Seize Power
     Leon Trotsky head of Petrograd soviet
     Nov. 6, 1917 Bolsheviks seize Winter Palace, the seat of the provisional government with little
        bloodshed
     Only Soviets in Russian government
     Lenin turns over power to the Congress of Soviets (really the government was controlled by
        Lenin)
     March 3, 1918 Lenin signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with German and gave up east Poland,
        Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic provinces because he had promised peace to the people
Civil War in Russia
     Many opposed Bolshevik or Communist regime
     Allies sent thousands of troops to Russia hoping to bring Russia back into the war; gave material
        aid to anti-Communist forces
     Between 1918-1921, the Communist (Red) Army fought A LOT; from Siberia the anti-communist
        (White) army attacked from the east
     Ukrainians also attack but are retaken by Russia by 1920
     Communists also regain control over independent nationalist governments of Georgia, Russian
        Armenia, and Azerbaijan
     Czar and family were taken into captivity and were murdered by the Soviets and burned in a mine
        shaft
    Communists Win
     Trotsky organized red army well
     Anti-communist units distrusted each other
     Some whites even wanted to restore czar
     Whites had no common goal
     Reds (communists) had secret police now called Cheka-aimed to destroy all those who opposed
        the new regime
     Japanese, British, Ameircan, and French were helping the anti-communists (which made the reds
        seem more patriotic)
     1921 Communists completely command Russia
     Russia becomes a centralized state dominated by one party, the communists
     Communists hostile toward allies for helping anti-communists during Civil War

                                           Chapter 16 Section 4
                                      The Last Year of World War I
     1917 was bad for the Allies (former Triple Entente)
        -Russia withdrew
     Good stuff for Allies – the U.S. enters the war in 1917
     Erich von Ludendorff led Germans and they could focus on the western front; he decides on larger
        German offensive to break stalemate
     Attack launched March 1918
     By April, Germans are within 50 miles of Paris
    Second Battle of Marne
     French, Moroccan, and U.S. troops fought Germans at the Second Battle of Marne in July 1918
     Allies win!
     over 1 million U.S. troops were on their way to the France so Allied forces move toward Germany
     Ludendorff knows the war was lost and demands the government ask for peace
    Armistace – The End of World War I
     Allies unwilling to make peace with an autocratic imperial Germany
     Councils of workers in Germany were forming and take over civilian and military offices
     William II has lost control and flees to the Netherlands
     Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert announce creation of a democratic republic
     Nov. 11, 1918 Germans sign an armistice – a truce
     German communist party forms and try to seize power in Berlin but lose
     German middle class fear communism
     Austria-Hunary-different ethnic groups want independence
        -no more Austro-Hungarian Empire
    -independent republics of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and monarchy state of Yugoslavia
Peace Settlements – Wilson’s Fourteen Points
 U.S. president Woodrow Wilson proposes “Fourteen Points”
    -peace agreements openly
    -reduce militaries
    -right of people to have own nation
    -create democratic governments
    -should create and association of nations to guarantee political independence
Paris Peace Conference
 1919 Paris-determine peace settlement
 British Prime Minister David Lloyd George said make Germans pay for the war
 French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau wanted security from Germans in the future and
    revenge – wanted reparations and a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and
    Germany
 Italy is also at the conference but plays smaller role
 British, French, and U.S. – Big Three argue over what to do
 U.S. wants League of Nations to prevent future wars
 Britain and France want Germany to pay!
 No separate Rhineland, but a defense alliance between U.S., Britain and France (U.S. Senate
    refuses to ratify this agreement)
Treaty of Versailles
 5 separate treaties with defeated nations – Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey
 Treaty of Versailles was with Germany signed on June 28, 1919
 Germans unhappy with the War Guilt Clause – saying that Germany and Austria were responsible
    for the war and they had to pay damages to the Allies
 Germans had to reduce army, navy, and eliminate air force
 Alsace and Lorraine were taken from Germany and given back to the French
 Part of Eastern Germany was given to a new Polish state
 German land on both sides of the Rhine River was made a demilitarized zone
 Germans angry but must accept the treaty
A New Map of Europe
 Germany lost territory
 Russia lost territory
 Austro-Hungarian Empire disappears
 Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary emerge as new
    nation-states
 New territorial arrangements in Balkans: Romania acquired more land
 Serbia formed the center of a new state called Yugoslavia
 France will lose its alliance with Russia as a result of the Paris Peace Conference
 There are still conflicts with ethnic minorities in these Eastern European states
Ottoman Empire Falls
 Ottoman Empire is broken up by the peace settlement
 Allies promised to recognize the independence of Arab states in the Ottoman Empire for their
    support during the war
 When the war is over they changed their minds!
 France took control of Lebanon and Syria
 Britain takes Iraq and Palestine
 These acquisitions were called mandates; Wilson opposes this; Britain and France would officially
    govern these nations as a mandate on behalf of the League of Nations but they did not own this
    territory
The War Legacy
 Destroyed progress
 Government power over people had increased
 Strong central government
 Freedom of press and speech were limited
Casualties of World War I
 Almost 10 million die in World War I (military)
 Almost 10 million civilians die
 21 million wounded

				
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