10/7/2010, Thursday, US History
• 5.1 PPT Notes
• 5.1 vocab due today—JH, SC, QB, James
• Email to me.
Unit 2. Bridge to the 20th
―People are the common
denominator of progress.‖
Chapter 5, 1877-1900
• Changes on the Western Frontier.
• Chapter 6, 1877-1900. A New Industrial
• Chapter 7. 1877-1914. Immigrants and
• Chapter 8. 1877-1917. Life at the Turn of
Changes on the Western Frontier
• Section 1. Native American Cultures in
• Pursuit of economic opportunity leads
settlers to push westward, forcing
confrontation with established Native
Section 2. Growth of the Cattle
• The cattle industry thrives as the culture of
the Plains Indians declines.
• A new worker—the cowboy—appears on
Section 3. Settling on the Great
• The promise of cheap, fertile land draws
thousands of settlers westward to seek
their fortunes as farmers.
Section 4. Farmers and the
• Farmers band together to address their
economic problems, giving rise to the
• Red Cloud, chief of the Oglala Sioux, states his
people‘s case in Washington, DC.
• Impressionism becomes an influential art
movement in France.
• 1871. Long cattle drive enjoys its heyday.
• 1872. Secret ballot is adopted in Great Britain.
• 1876. Passengers aboard railroad cars shoot
buffalo for sport.
• 1876. George A. Custer and his troops are
killed at Little Bighorn.
1879. Thomas A. Edison invents
the light bulb.
• 1881. France occupy Tunisia.
• 1885. Karl Benz builds the first
automobile powered by internal-
• Berlin Conference divides Africa among
• 1887. Worst blizzard in American history
causes a great ―die-up‖ of cattle on plains.
1889.Buffalo Bill tours the United
States and Europe
• with his Wild West Show.
• 1890. Wearing shirts like the Arapaho shirt on 213,
Native Americans inspired by the Paiute prophet
Wovoka perform the Ghost Dance in the hope of
reclaiming their lands.
• 1893. Collapse of railroads triggers the Panic of 1893.
• 1894. Sino-Japanese War is fought.
• 1896. William Jennings Bryan runs for president, calling
for free coinage of silver.
1899. Boer War in South Africa
5.1 Native American Cultures in
• Learn About: the Native Americans‘ and
settlers‘ ways of life.
• To Understand the conflicts that occurred
during settlement of the Western frontier.
The Culture of the Plains Indians,
• Most Native Americans knew little of world
east of Mississippi River.
• Most Easterners knew equally little about
– Pictured vast desert, occupied by savage
That was inaccurate.
• Two distinct and highly developed Native
American ways of life existed on Great Plains.
• Eastern side, near lower Missouri River: tribes
such as Osage and Iowa planted crops and lived
in small villages.
• Father west in what is now Nebraska and S
Dakota, nomadic tribes such as Sioux and
Cheyenne gathered wild food and hunted
The Importance of Horse and
• After Spanish brought horses to New
Mexico in 1598, Native American way of
life began to change.
• Native peoples acquired horses and
guns—could travel father, hunt more
• By 1700s, almost all tribes on Great Plains
had abandoned farming villages to roam
plains and hunt buffalo.
Increased mobility often led to war.
• Hunters in one tribe trespassed on other
tribes‘ hunting grounds.
• War parties and raids—a way to win
prestige for young men.
More honor by ―counting coup,‖
• touching a live enemy and escaping
unharmed, than by killing.
• Warring tribes would call truce to trade,
share news, enjoy harvest festivals.
• Horse—increased mobility.
• Buffalo—provided basic needs.
Native Americans made:
• Teepees, clothes, shoes, blankets from buffalo
• Buffalo meat dried into jerky or mixed with
berries and fat to make staple food called
• Buffalo sinews used to make thread and
• Buffalo bones and horns to make tools and toys.
• Central to life on plains.
• Native Americans on plains lived in small
extended family groups with ties to bands
that spoke same language.
• Men hunted or raided to obtain food and
supplies, sharing what they had obtained
Women butchered game, prepared
• Communal way of life, but
• people of plains valued individualism.
• Young men trained to become hunters
• Young women chose husbands.
10/13/2010, Wednesday, US
• Finish 5.1 PPT Notes
• I need 5.1 JH, QB and James‘ vocab
• Then do 5.2 vocab.
• Dances with Wolves paper, 250 words.
• How is it historically accurate?
• How is it not historically accurate?
• What you learned.
• What you liked.
• What you didn‘t like.
Plains indian tribes
• Believed powerful spirits controlled events
in natural world and men or women who
demonstrated particular sensitivity to
spirits became medicine men or shamans.
Children learned codes
• Through stories and myths, games,
• No individual allowed to dominate group.
• Leaders of tribe ruled by counsel rather
than by force.
• Land held in common for use of whole
Settlers Push Westward, 215.
• Culture of white settlers differed from that
of Plains Native Americans:
– Settlers defined better life and property in
terms of private property
– Native Americans believed land could not be
Miners, prospectors, ranchers
• Owning land, staking claim gave them a
stake in the country.
• Argued Native Americans had forfeited
their claims to land by not improving it.
• Plains are ―unsettled,‖ so whites streamed
west to settle them.
The Lure of Silver and Gold, 216.
• Prospect of striking it rich—powerful
attraction of West.
• Gold Fever flared in California in 1849 and
never really died out.
• Discovery of gold in Colorado in 1858
drew tens of thousands of miners to the
Mining camps, tiny frontier towns
• Filthy, ramshackle living quarters.
• Rows of tents and shacks with dirt streets.
• Wooden sidewalks
• Replaced picturesque landscapes.
• Fortune seekers—Irish, German, Swedish,
Polish, Chinese, African-American men—
crowded camps and boomtowns.
And business-minded women
• Who worked as
• Laundresses, freight haulers, miners.
• Virginia City, Nevada
• Helena, Montana
• Originated as mining camps on Native
Farming the Great Plains
• Land a powerful attraction also.
• 1862: Congress passed Homestead Act.
– Offered 160 acres of land free to anyone who
would live on and cultivate it for five years.
– From 1862 to 1900, between 400,000 and
600,000 families took advantage of the
– They came from South and New England
eager to replace worn-out fields for fertile land
German and Scandinavian farmers
• Unable to earn living in native lands were
lured to America by public relations
campaigns sponsored by railroad
• Several thousand settlers were
exodusters—African Americans who
moved from the post-Reconstruction
South to Kansas in a great exodus.
Free land alone not enough
• They needed a way to ship goods to urban
markets and a way to get there
1862 – Pacific Railroad Act
• Granted government loans and huge
tracts of land to Union Pacific and Central
• Central Pacific began laying track at
Sacramento in 1863.
• Union pacific began near Omaha in 1865.
• Both companies hired thousands of
immigrants, many Chinese among them,
to build bridges, dig tunnels, lay track.
Until completion of transcontinental
RR route in 1869
• Travel on horseback or by wagon train
was dangerous, hot, cold, vulnerable to
Indian attack and outlaw attack.
• After 1869, coast to coast in ten days or
• RR not for everyone. Bargain fair about
$40, a month‘s pay for average person,
Omaha to Sacramento.
Trains relatively luxurious
• All had Indoor toilets
• Most were heated
• $75—traveler could have a padded seat.
• For another $4/night—berth in a Pullman
• 15 miles a day in a covered wagon OR
• 50 mph in a train.
The Government Restricts Native
• Railroads allowed settlers to move
• influenced government‘s policy toward
Native Americans who lived on plains.
• Federal government passed act that
designated entire Great Plains as one
• Reservation: land set aside for Native
• Settlers streaming west—government
• Begins signing treaties creating definite
boundaries for each tribe.
• Most Native Americans did not agree to
sign treaties with government.
• Many ―chiefs‖ who signed did not
represent their tribes.
Many tribes continued to hunt
• On traditional lands, clashing with settlers,
• Tragic results.
Massacre at Sand Creek
• Cheyenne forced into barren area of
Colorado Territory known as Sand Creek
• Began raiding nearby trails and
settlements for food and supplies.
• Governor John Evans ordered militia to
attack raiders but urged Cheyenne who
did not want to fight to report to Fort Lyon.
Most Cheyenne moved back to
Sand Creek for winter
• Flying US flag and white flag—showing peaceful
• General S. R. Curtis, US army commander in
West, sent telegram to John Chivington, militia
colonel, telling him,
– ―I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.‖
– Chivington and troops attack at dawn and massacre
200 inhabitants of Sand Creek, mutilating bodies.
– November 29, 1864.
Chivington treated as hero in his
Death on the Bozeman Trail
• Sioux angered by settlement on Bozeman
Trail, opened during Civil War.
• Major transportation route running directly
through favorite Sioux hunting grounds.
• Chief Red Cloud appealed to government
to stop settlers from using trail; forts
continue to be built along it.
Sioux, Arapaho, Cheyenne warriors
• Begin guerrilla war.
• Small bands harass troops
• Crazy Horse, warriors, December 21,
1866, lured Captain Wm J. Fetterman and
soldiers into ambush at Lodge Trail Ridge.
• All soldiers killed.
• Battle of One Hundred Slain; whites called
it Fetterman Massacre.
Government agrees to close
• After a year or skirmishes.
• Sioux agree to sign historic Treaty of Fort
Laramie, 1868—they agree to live on
reservation along Missouri River.
• Resemble treaties with southern Kiowa,
Comanche, Cheyenne, Arapaho—promise
to live on treaties in return for protection,
supplies from US government.
• 1. Supplies arrived late,
• 2. Were of poor quality, insufficient
• 3. Treaty of Fort Laramie forced on Sioux.
• Sitting Bull, Tatanka Yotanka, medicine
man and leader of Hunkpapa Sioux,+ had
never signed it.
Oglala and Brule Sioux had signed
• Expected to continue using traditional
hunting grounds and come and go as they
• Finish 5.1 PPT
• Begin 5.2 PPT
Bloody Battles continue, 218.
• Treaty of Fort Laramie – temporary halt to
• Conflict between two cultures continued.
• Gall—‖suppose the people living beyond
the great sea told you you must stop
farming, killed your cattle, and took your
lands and house—would you not fight
• Fought at the Battle of the Little Bighorn
with only a hatchet.
• Leader of Hunkpapa Sioux
• Remembered US Army bullets that wiped
out his family.
Raids by the Kiowa and Comanche
• Late 1868—war again.
• Kiowa and Comanche refused to move to
reservation in Texas Panhandle.
• Began raiding spree
• Continued for 6 years.
• Led to Red River War of 1874-1875.
• US Army—herded friendly tribepeople onto
• Opened fire on all others.
General Philip Sheridan
• Union Army veteran, orders:
• ―destroy villages and ponies.
• Kill and hang warriors
• Bring back all women and children.‖
• Army crushed resistance on Southern
• Within 4 years of Treaty of Fort Laramie.
• Miners flooding into Black Hills to search
• Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho protested
to no avail.
• George Armstrong Custer, Civil War hero
and colonel in Seventh Cavalry sent to
• Investigate reports of gold.
• ―Gold from grass roots down.‖
• Gold rush on.
• Red Cloud and Spotted Tail appealed to
government officials in Washington, who
offered to buy the land.
Sioux refuse to sell sacred ground.
• Stage set for last battles of plains wars.
Custer‘s Last Stand
• June, 1876, Sioux and Cheyenne held sun
dance—Sitting Bull had a vision…
• Soldiers and some Native Americans
falling from horses.
• Interpreted vision as sign that victory
would come for his people.
• Successful battle with Seventh Cavalry at
Rosebud Creek in south central Montana
prepared tribes for military‘s next move.
• Lieutenant Colonel Custer and troops
reached Little Bighorn River, Native
Americans ready for them.
• Custer expected 1500 warriors.
• Between 2,000 and 3,000 were waiting.
• Men and horses exhausted.
• Split up his regiment and attacked with
barely 200 men.
• Led by Crazy Horse, in warpaint and
• Bonnets, with raised spears and rifles—
outflanked and overpowered Custer‘s
• Within 20 minutes, Custer and all his men
American people shocked
• Many criticized him for bad judgment
• Nation demanded revenge.
• Army continued to raid Native American
camps and to slaughter buffalo.
• By late 1876, Sioux beaten.
• Sitting Bull and a few followers took refuge
in Canada, where they remained until
Sitting Bull surrenders
• To prevent starvation of his people.
• In 1885, he became an attraction in
William F. ―Buffalo Bill‖ Cody‘s Wild West
The Government Supports
• Debate over treatment of native
• Helen Hunt Jackson exposed
government‘s many broken promises in
1881 book, A Century of Dishonor.
Failure of the Dawes Act.
• Aim to ―Americanize‖ Native Americans by
cultivating in them desire to own property
and to farm.
• Broke up reservations and distributed
some of reservation land
• 160 acres for farming or 320 acres for
grazing to each adult head of Native
Remainder of reservations to be
sold to settlers
• Income to be used for farm implements
• Native Am received nothing from sale of
• By 1934, most of best land taken—
speculators had grabbed it to sell at a
• Remaining land useless for farming.
Educating the Native Americans
• Dawes Act—physical assimilation of native
• Education—minds and spirits.
• Off-reservation boarding schools.
• ―kill the Indian and save the man.‖
• Taught children their traditional ways
superstitious and backward.
• Values of white civilization promoted.
―Educated‖ children returned to
• To find skills learned in school useless.
• Generation of young people caught in
tragic conflict between culture of parents
and that of teachers.
• Didn‘t fit in on reservation;
• Faced discrimination when they tried to
live in white world.
The Destruction of the Buffalo, 220.
• Most significant blow to tribal life on plains.
• RR companies like Kansas Pacific hired
buffalo hunters to accompany workers and
supply them with meat as they laid track
• Often vioated treaties.
• William F. cody killed nearly 4,300 bison in
eight months working for RR, earned
nickname ―Buffalo Bill.‖
Trappers turned to buffalo
• Having destroyed beaver, other wildlife.
• ‗Wherever the Whites are established,‖ a
Sioux chief bitterly obsreved, ―the buffalo
is gone, and the red hunters must die of
• Tourists, fur traders shot buffalo for sport
from speeding trains.
General Sheridan approved that
• Buffalo hunters were destroying Plains
Indians‘ main source of food, clothing,
• 1800—15 million buffalo
• 1886—600 reamined.
• In 1900 US had a single wild herd of
buffalo in Yellowstone National Park.
The Battle of Wounded Knee
• Ghost Dance—if Sioux did this ritual
dance, the vision would become real.
• Sioux had turned to Wovoka, a Paiute
prophet who had had a vision—
• Native American lands were restored.
• Buffalo returned.
• Whites disappeared.
Ghost Dance movement
• Spread rapidly among 25,000 Sioux on
• Military leaders alarmed; local reservation
agent arrested Sitting Bull.
• 40 Indian policemen sent to arrest him;
• His bodyguard, Catch-the-Bear, shot one
• Policemen returned fire, killing Sitting Bull.
• Free-for-all ensued.
Sitting Bull‘s horse sat
• Began performing tricks it had learned in
Wild West Show with Buffalo Bill—
• Was the horse performing the Ghost
• Army not satisfied Sitting Bull was dead.
• December 29, 1890, Seventh Cavalry—
Custer‘s old regiment that had been
defeated at Little Bighorn--
Rounded up 350 starving and
• Took them to a camp at Wounded Knee
Creek in South Dakota.
• Soldiers demanded Native Americans give
up all weapons.
• One resisted and fired.
• Soldiers fired back with cannons.
• 300 unarmed Native Americans
slaughtered within minutes, including
Corpses left to freeze on ground.
• Battle of Wounded Knee brought Indian
wars and entire era to bitter end.