10/7/2010, Thursday, US History • 5.1 PPT Notes • 5.1 vocab due today—JH, SC, QB, James • Email to me. Unit 2. Bridge to the 20th Century, 1877-1917. ―People are the common denominator of progress.‖ Chapter 5, 1877-1900 • Changes on the Western Frontier. • Chapter 6, 1877-1900. A New Industrial Age. • Chapter 7. 1877-1914. Immigrants and Urbanization. • Chapter 8. 1877-1917. Life at the Turn of the Century. Changes on the Western Frontier • Section 1. Native American Cultures in Crisis. • Pursuit of economic opportunity leads settlers to push westward, forcing confrontation with established Native American cultures. Section 2. Growth of the Cattle Industry. • The cattle industry thrives as the culture of the Plains Indians declines. • A new worker—the cowboy—appears on the scene. Section 3. Settling on the Great Plains • The promise of cheap, fertile land draws thousands of settlers westward to seek their fortunes as farmers. Section 4. Farmers and the Populist Movement. • Farmers band together to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement. 1870 • Red Cloud, chief of the Oglala Sioux, states his people‘s case in Washington, DC. • Impressionism becomes an influential art movement in France. • 1871. Long cattle drive enjoys its heyday. • 1872. Secret ballot is adopted in Great Britain. • 1876. Passengers aboard railroad cars shoot buffalo for sport. • 1876. George A. Custer and his troops are killed at Little Bighorn. 1879. Thomas A. Edison invents the light bulb. • 1881. France occupy Tunisia. • 1885. Karl Benz builds the first automobile powered by internal- combustion engine. • Berlin Conference divides Africa among European nations. • 1887. Worst blizzard in American history causes a great ―die-up‖ of cattle on plains. 1889.Buffalo Bill tours the United States and Europe • with his Wild West Show. • 1890. Wearing shirts like the Arapaho shirt on 213, Native Americans inspired by the Paiute prophet Wovoka perform the Ghost Dance in the hope of reclaiming their lands. • 1893. Collapse of railroads triggers the Panic of 1893. • 1894. Sino-Japanese War is fought. • 1896. William Jennings Bryan runs for president, calling for free coinage of silver. 1899. Boer War in South Africa begins. 5.1 Native American Cultures in Crisis, 214-221. • Learn About: the Native Americans‘ and settlers‘ ways of life. • To Understand the conflicts that occurred during settlement of the Western frontier. The Culture of the Plains Indians, 214. • Most Native Americans knew little of world east of Mississippi River. • Most Easterners knew equally little about the West. – Pictured vast desert, occupied by savage tribes. That was inaccurate. • Two distinct and highly developed Native American ways of life existed on Great Plains. • Eastern side, near lower Missouri River: tribes such as Osage and Iowa planted crops and lived in small villages. • Father west in what is now Nebraska and S Dakota, nomadic tribes such as Sioux and Cheyenne gathered wild food and hunted buffalo. The Importance of Horse and Buffalo. • After Spanish brought horses to New Mexico in 1598, Native American way of life began to change. • Native peoples acquired horses and guns—could travel father, hunt more efficiently. • By 1700s, almost all tribes on Great Plains had abandoned farming villages to roam plains and hunt buffalo. Increased mobility often led to war. • Hunters in one tribe trespassed on other tribes‘ hunting grounds. • War parties and raids—a way to win prestige for young men. More honor by ―counting coup,‖ • touching a live enemy and escaping unharmed, than by killing. • Warring tribes would call truce to trade, share news, enjoy harvest festivals. • Horse—increased mobility. • Buffalo—provided basic needs. Native Americans made: • Teepees, clothes, shoes, blankets from buffalo hides. • Buffalo meat dried into jerky or mixed with berries and fat to make staple food called pemmican. • Buffalo sinews used to make thread and bowstrings. • Buffalo bones and horns to make tools and toys. • Central to life on plains. Family Life • Native Americans on plains lived in small extended family groups with ties to bands that spoke same language. • Men hunted or raided to obtain food and supplies, sharing what they had obtained with group. Women butchered game, prepared hides. • Communal way of life, but • people of plains valued individualism. • Young men trained to become hunters • Young women chose husbands. 10/13/2010, Wednesday, US History • Finish 5.1 PPT Notes • I need 5.1 JH, QB and James‘ vocab • Then do 5.2 vocab. • Dances with Wolves paper, 250 words. • How is it historically accurate? • How is it not historically accurate? • What you learned. • What you liked. • What you didn‘t like. Plains indian tribes • Believed powerful spirits controlled events in natural world and men or women who demonstrated particular sensitivity to spirits became medicine men or shamans. Children learned codes • Through stories and myths, games, examples. • No individual allowed to dominate group. • Leaders of tribe ruled by counsel rather than by force. • Land held in common for use of whole tribe. Settlers Push Westward, 215. • Culture of white settlers differed from that of Plains Native Americans: – Settlers defined better life and property in terms of private property – Native Americans believed land could not be owned. Miners, prospectors, ranchers • Owning land, staking claim gave them a stake in the country. • Argued Native Americans had forfeited their claims to land by not improving it. • Plains are ―unsettled,‖ so whites streamed west to settle them. The Lure of Silver and Gold, 216. • Prospect of striking it rich—powerful attraction of West. • Gold Fever flared in California in 1849 and never really died out. • Discovery of gold in Colorado in 1858 drew tens of thousands of miners to the region. Mining camps, tiny frontier towns • Filthy, ramshackle living quarters. • Rows of tents and shacks with dirt streets. • Wooden sidewalks • Replaced picturesque landscapes. • Fortune seekers—Irish, German, Swedish, Polish, Chinese, African-American men— crowded camps and boomtowns. And business-minded women • Who worked as • Laundresses, freight haulers, miners. • Virginia City, Nevada • Helena, Montana • Originated as mining camps on Native American land. Farming the Great Plains • Land a powerful attraction also. • 1862: Congress passed Homestead Act. – Offered 160 acres of land free to anyone who would live on and cultivate it for five years. – From 1862 to 1900, between 400,000 and 600,000 families took advantage of the government‘s offer. – They came from South and New England eager to replace worn-out fields for fertile land farther west. German and Scandinavian farmers • Unable to earn living in native lands were lured to America by public relations campaigns sponsored by railroad companies. • Several thousand settlers were exodusters—African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas in a great exodus. Free land alone not enough • They needed a way to ship goods to urban markets and a way to get there themselves. 1862 – Pacific Railroad Act • Granted government loans and huge tracts of land to Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads. • Central Pacific began laying track at Sacramento in 1863. • Union pacific began near Omaha in 1865. • Both companies hired thousands of immigrants, many Chinese among them, to build bridges, dig tunnels, lay track. Until completion of transcontinental RR route in 1869 • Travel on horseback or by wagon train was dangerous, hot, cold, vulnerable to Indian attack and outlaw attack. • After 1869, coast to coast in ten days or less. • RR not for everyone. Bargain fair about $40, a month‘s pay for average person, Omaha to Sacramento. Trains relatively luxurious • All had Indoor toilets • Most were heated • $75—traveler could have a padded seat. • For another $4/night—berth in a Pullman sleeping car. • 15 miles a day in a covered wagon OR • 50 mph in a train. The Government Restricts Native Americans, 216. • Railroads allowed settlers to move westward but • influenced government‘s policy toward Native Americans who lived on plains. 1834 • Federal government passed act that designated entire Great Plains as one enormous reservation. • Reservation: land set aside for Native American tribes. • Settlers streaming west—government changes policy. Government • Begins signing treaties creating definite boundaries for each tribe. • Most Native Americans did not agree to sign treaties with government. • Many ―chiefs‖ who signed did not represent their tribes. Many tribes continued to hunt • On traditional lands, clashing with settlers, miners. • Tragic results. Massacre at Sand Creek • Cheyenne forced into barren area of Colorado Territory known as Sand Creek Reserve • Began raiding nearby trails and settlements for food and supplies. • Governor John Evans ordered militia to attack raiders but urged Cheyenne who did not want to fight to report to Fort Lyon. Most Cheyenne moved back to Sand Creek for winter • Flying US flag and white flag—showing peaceful intentions. • General S. R. Curtis, US army commander in West, sent telegram to John Chivington, militia colonel, telling him, – ―I want no peace till the Indians suffer more.‖ – Chivington and troops attack at dawn and massacre 200 inhabitants of Sand Creek, mutilating bodies. – November 29, 1864. Chivington treated as hero in his hometown, Denver. Death on the Bozeman Trail • Sioux angered by settlement on Bozeman Trail, opened during Civil War. • Major transportation route running directly through favorite Sioux hunting grounds. • Chief Red Cloud appealed to government to stop settlers from using trail; forts continue to be built along it. Sioux, Arapaho, Cheyenne warriors • Begin guerrilla war. • Small bands harass troops • Crazy Horse, warriors, December 21, 1866, lured Captain Wm J. Fetterman and soldiers into ambush at Lodge Trail Ridge. • All soldiers killed. • Battle of One Hundred Slain; whites called it Fetterman Massacre. Government agrees to close Bozeman Trail • After a year or skirmishes. • Sioux agree to sign historic Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868—they agree to live on reservation along Missouri River. • Resemble treaties with southern Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne, Arapaho—promise to live on treaties in return for protection, supplies from US government. Conflicts continued • 1. Supplies arrived late, • 2. Were of poor quality, insufficient quantity. • 3. Treaty of Fort Laramie forced on Sioux. • Sitting Bull, Tatanka Yotanka, medicine man and leader of Hunkpapa Sioux,+ had never signed it. Oglala and Brule Sioux had signed treaty, but • Expected to continue using traditional hunting grounds and come and go as they pleased. 10/14/2010 • Finish 5.1 PPT • Begin 5.2 PPT Bloody Battles continue, 218. • Treaty of Fort Laramie – temporary halt to warfare. • Conflict between two cultures continued. • Gall—‖suppose the people living beyond the great sea told you you must stop farming, killed your cattle, and took your lands and house—would you not fight them? Gall-- • Fought at the Battle of the Little Bighorn with only a hatchet. • Leader of Hunkpapa Sioux • Remembered US Army bullets that wiped out his family. Raids by the Kiowa and Comanche • Late 1868—war again. • Kiowa and Comanche refused to move to reservation in Texas Panhandle. • Began raiding spree • Continued for 6 years. • Led to Red River War of 1874-1875. • US Army—herded friendly tribepeople onto reservations • Opened fire on all others. General Philip Sheridan • Union Army veteran, orders: • ―destroy villages and ponies. • Kill and hang warriors • Bring back all women and children.‖ • Army crushed resistance on Southern plains. Gold Rush • Within 4 years of Treaty of Fort Laramie. • Miners flooding into Black Hills to search for gold. • Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho protested to no avail. • George Armstrong Custer, Civil War hero and colonel in Seventh Cavalry sent to • Investigate reports of gold. • ―Gold from grass roots down.‖ • Gold rush on. • Red Cloud and Spotted Tail appealed to government officials in Washington, who offered to buy the land. Sioux refuse to sell sacred ground. • Stage set for last battles of plains wars. Custer‘s Last Stand • June, 1876, Sioux and Cheyenne held sun dance—Sitting Bull had a vision… • Soldiers and some Native Americans falling from horses. • Interpreted vision as sign that victory would come for his people. • Successful battle with Seventh Cavalry at Rosebud Creek in south central Montana prepared tribes for military‘s next move. • Lieutenant Colonel Custer and troops reached Little Bighorn River, Native Americans ready for them. • Custer expected 1500 warriors. • Between 2,000 and 3,000 were waiting. • Men and horses exhausted. • Split up his regiment and attacked with barely 200 men. • Led by Crazy Horse, in warpaint and • Bonnets, with raised spears and rifles— outflanked and overpowered Custer‘s troops. • Within 20 minutes, Custer and all his men were dead. American people shocked • Many criticized him for bad judgment • Nation demanded revenge. • Army continued to raid Native American camps and to slaughter buffalo. • By late 1876, Sioux beaten. • Sitting Bull and a few followers took refuge in Canada, where they remained until 1881. Sitting Bull surrenders • To prevent starvation of his people. • In 1885, he became an attraction in William F. ―Buffalo Bill‖ Cody‘s Wild West Show. The Government Supports Assimilation, 219. • Debate over treatment of native Americans continued. • Helen Hunt Jackson exposed government‘s many broken promises in 1881 book, A Century of Dishonor. Failure of the Dawes Act. • Aim to ―Americanize‖ Native Americans by cultivating in them desire to own property and to farm. • Broke up reservations and distributed some of reservation land • 160 acres for farming or 320 acres for grazing to each adult head of Native American family. Remainder of reservations to be sold to settlers • Income to be used for farm implements • Native Am received nothing from sale of these lands. • By 1934, most of best land taken— speculators had grabbed it to sell at a profit. • Remaining land useless for farming. Educating the Native Americans • Dawes Act—physical assimilation of native Americans • Education—minds and spirits. • Off-reservation boarding schools. • ―kill the Indian and save the man.‖ • Taught children their traditional ways superstitious and backward. • Values of white civilization promoted. ―Educated‖ children returned to reservation • To find skills learned in school useless. • Generation of young people caught in tragic conflict between culture of parents and that of teachers. • Didn‘t fit in on reservation; • Faced discrimination when they tried to live in white world. The Destruction of the Buffalo, 220. • Most significant blow to tribal life on plains. • RR companies like Kansas Pacific hired buffalo hunters to accompany workers and supply them with meat as they laid track westward. • Often vioated treaties. • William F. cody killed nearly 4,300 bison in eight months working for RR, earned nickname ―Buffalo Bill.‖ Trappers turned to buffalo • Having destroyed beaver, other wildlife. • ‗Wherever the Whites are established,‖ a Sioux chief bitterly obsreved, ―the buffalo is gone, and the red hunters must die of hunger.‖ • Tourists, fur traders shot buffalo for sport from speeding trains. General Sheridan approved that • Buffalo hunters were destroying Plains Indians‘ main source of food, clothing, shelter, fuel. • 1800—15 million buffalo • 1886—600 reamined. • In 1900 US had a single wild herd of buffalo in Yellowstone National Park. The Battle of Wounded Knee • Ghost Dance—if Sioux did this ritual dance, the vision would become real. • Sioux had turned to Wovoka, a Paiute prophet who had had a vision— • Native American lands were restored. • Buffalo returned. • Whites disappeared. Ghost Dance movement • Spread rapidly among 25,000 Sioux on Dakota reservation. • Military leaders alarmed; local reservation agent arrested Sitting Bull. • 40 Indian policemen sent to arrest him; • His bodyguard, Catch-the-Bear, shot one of them. • Policemen returned fire, killing Sitting Bull. • Free-for-all ensued. Sitting Bull‘s horse sat • Began performing tricks it had learned in Wild West Show with Buffalo Bill— • Was the horse performing the Ghost Dance? • Army not satisfied Sitting Bull was dead. • December 29, 1890, Seventh Cavalry— Custer‘s old regiment that had been defeated at Little Bighorn-- Rounded up 350 starving and freezing Sioux • Took them to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. • Soldiers demanded Native Americans give up all weapons. • One resisted and fired. • Soldiers fired back with cannons. • 300 unarmed Native Americans slaughtered within minutes, including children. Corpses left to freeze on ground. • Battle of Wounded Knee brought Indian wars and entire era to bitter end.
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