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									                        Update on
                IMO Activities and Initiatives
                 Relevant to WHTI Themes

                                            Curtis A. Roach
                                 Regional Maritime Adviser (Caribbean)
                                  International Maritime Organization

The views expressed are those of the Adviser and should not be construed as reflecting the policies or views of the IMO or
                                                    the Secretariat
        Themes and Objectives

• WHTI Technical WG
  – Maritime safety, environmental protection and
    sustainable development

  – Safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean

• IMO Voluntary Audit Scheme and
  Mandatory IMO Instruments
• Maritime Security Update
• Special Areas
• Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSA)
Framework for the Voluntary
  IMO Member State Audit

  Assembly Resolution A.974(24)
        (ANNEX PART I)
The objective of the audit is to determine
to what extent Member States are
implementing and enforcing the applicable
IMO instruments. In order to achieve this,
a number of issues will be observed and
Areas to be covered (1)
•   Jurisdiction
•   Organization and authority
•   Legislation, rules and regulations
•   Promulgation of IMO mandatory
    instruments, rules and regulations
•   Enforcement arrangements
•   Control, survey, inspection, audit,
    verification, approval and certification
    Areas to be covered (2)

•   Selection, recognition,authorization,
    empowerment and monitoring of ROs,
    as appropriate, and of nominated
•   Investigations required to be reported to
•   Reporting to IMO, other Administrations,
    and organizations
 Technical co-operation (1)
In order to obtain the full benefits of the
scheme, consideration of capacity-building
matters is essential, particularly in respect
of human and financial resources. Where
appropriate, Member States will be assisted
in order to prepare for the audit, as well as
to address audit findings.
 Technical co-operation (2)
Capacity-building includes an adequate
supply of suitably trained personnel, with
maritime and audit skills, along with the
required software systems. The need for
infrastructural facilities, defined as
including workspace, utilities and
communication systems relevant to
meeting initially the needs of the audit and
ultimately the aims of the scheme, is also
to be taken into account.
      Audit standard

Code for the Implementation
     of Mandatory IMO

   Assembly Resolution

       Maritime Training and Human   10
              Element Section

• Enhance global maritime safety and
  protection of the marine environment
• Note -
  – An Administration is only bound by the
    instruments to which it is Party
  – Some Administrations may have a greater role
    as coastal or port State than as a flag State but
    this does not diminish their duties in each role
To meet the objective of the Code there should be a
  strategy covering:
• Implementation and enforcement of relevant
• Adherence to international recommendations, as
• Continuous review and verification of the
  effectiveness of the State in respect of meeting its
  international obligations
• The achievement, maintenance and improvement
  of overall organizational performance and capability
      Mandatory IMO Instruments
•   SOLAS 74
•   SOLAS 74 + PROT 78
•   SOLAS 74 + PROT 88
•   MARPOL 73/78 + PROT 97
•   STCW 78
•   LOAD LINES 66 + PROT 88
•   Tonnage 69
•   COLREG 72
•   All instruments (Codes etc.) made mandatory
    through these conventions and protocols
     Government Responsibility

• The Government of a State Party to a
  mandatory IMO instrument must be in a
  position to implement and enforce its
  provisions through appropriate national
  legislation and to provide the necessary
  implementation and enforcement
     Maritime Security Update

• MSC Circulars – 81st session –June 2006

• Regional workshops on maritime security
              MSC Circulars (1)

• Circ.1188 - Guidelines on training and
  certification for port facility security officers
  – Required by MSC when Circ.1154 – Training for
    CSOs was approved
• Circ. 1189 - Interim scheme for the
  compliance of special purpose ships with the
  special measures to enhance maritime security
  – These ships were not previously required to
    comply. Scheme is to facilitate smooth compliance
            MSC Circulars (2)
• Circ.1190 - Guidance on the provision of
  information for identifying ships when
  transmitting ship security alerts
  – Inadequate information provided for ship
• Circ.1191 - Further reminder of the obligation
  to notify flag states when exercising control
  and compliance measures
  – Update of Circ.1133 because of continued failure
    to issue the required notifications
               MSC Circulars (3)
• Circ.1192 - Guidance on voluntary self-assessment by
  SOLAS contracting governments and by port facilities
  – Replaces Circ.1131 (Dec. 2004) Interim guidance , which
    was revised
• Circ.1193 - Guidance on voluntary self-assessment by
  administrations and for ship security
• Circ.1194 - Effective implementation of SOLAS
  chapter XI-2 and the ISPS Code
  – Gives Guidance on basic elements of national oversight
    programmes for SOLAS XI-2 and the ISPS Code
            • Reasons for MSC Circular 1194
• Available information suggested that:
  – some port facilities appeared to fail to comply with their
    obligations under SOLAS chapter XI-2 and the ISPS Code
    and in some instances ships had no alternative but to
    implement their own additional protective security
  – despite the provisions of the ISPS Code and the
    promulgation of MSC/Circ. 1112 on Shore leave and access
    to ships under the ISPS Code, seafarers continued to
    encounter difficulties with certain SOLAS Contracting
    Governments in relation to shore leave and access to ships;
  – despite the provisions of the ISPS Code and the
    promulgation of MSC/Circ. 1156 on Guidance on the access
    of public authorities, emergency response services and
    pilots onboard ships, Government officials continued to
    ignore the security measures on board ships and conduct
    themselves in a manner which was not conducive to the
    aim and objectives of SOLAS chapter XI-2 and the ISPS
– despite the promulgation of MSC/Circ.1133 on
  Reminder of the obligation to notify flag States when
  exercising control and compliance measures, a
  number of SOLAS Contracting Governments continue
  to fail to notify the Administrations concerned and the
  Organization, when taking control measures or steps
  against ships pursuant to the provisions of SOLAS
  regulation XI-2/9 on Control and compliance
  measures; and
– the information posted by SOLAS Contracting
  Governments on the Maritime Security module of the
  IMO Global Integrated Shipping Information System,
  which contains the information communicated to the
  Organization pursuant to the provisions of SOLAS
  regulation XI-2/13 on Communication of information,
  are incomplete, outdated or in some cases inaccurate.
         Recent TC activities (1)

• Regional seminar on maritime security, Vera
  Cruz, México, 24 to 28 October 2005
• Objectives
  – Assessment of the status of implementation of
    maritime security measures in the region;
    identification of specific needs for technical co-
    operation; issues of long-term compliance; and
    promotion of regional & Interagency
    communication, co-ordination & co-operation
          Recent TC activities (2)
• Caribbean Seminar on maritime security, piracy and
  armed robbery against ships - Trinidad and Tobago -
  April 2006
  – update participating States on recent maritime security
  – assess the levels of compliance with SOLAS chapter XI-2 and
    the ISPS Code among participating States
  – identify and promulgate best practices in the region,
    particularly those pertaining to the security of cruise ships
  – formulate appropriate regional action plans for combating
    terrorism, enhancing maritime security, countering piracy
    and armed robbery against ships, and combating drug
     MARPOL Special Areas (1)
• A sea area where for recognised technical
  reasons in relation to its oceanographical and
  ecological condition and to the particular
  character of its traffic, the adoption of special
  mandatory methods for the prevention of sea
  pollution is required.
• provided with a higher level of protection than
  other areas of the sea
• Identified in MARPOL Annexes
        MARPOL Special Areas (2)
•   Oil – MARPOL Annex I
•   Noxious Liquid Substances (NLS) – Annex II
•   Garbage – Annex V
•   Sulphur oxide (SOx) Emission Control Areas –
    Annex VI
    Wider Caribbean Region Special
           Area – Annex V

 Adopted          Date of Entry   In Effect From
                  into Force
 4 July 1991      4 April 1993    Not in effect

• Adequate reception facilities not reported
• MEPC Circular 470 – Waste reception facility
  reporting requirements
• Global Integrated Shipping Information System
  (GISIS) – Port reception facility database
• Consider WCR Special Area for Oil and NLS also
       Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
• An area that needs special protection through action by IMO
  because of its significance for recognized ecological or socio-
  economic or scientific reasons and which may be vulnerable to
  damage by international maritime activities
• An application for PSSA designation should contain a proposal
  for an associated protective measure or measures aimed at
  preventing, reducing or eliminating the threat or identified
• When an area is approved as a particularly sensitive sea area,
  specific measures can be used to control the maritime
  activities in that area, such as routeing measures, strict
  application of MARPOL discharge and equipment requirements
  for ships, such as oil tankers; and installation of Vessel Traffic
  Services (VTS).
  A.982(24) Revised guidelines for the
identification and designation of PSSAs
– include criteria to allow areas to be designated a PSSA if
  they fulfil a number of criteria, including: ecological criteria,
  such as unique or rare ecosystem, diversity of the
  ecosystem or vulnerability to degradation by natural events
  or human activities; social, cultural and economic criteria,
  such as significance of the area for recreation or tourism;
  and scientific and educational criteria, such as biological
  research or historical value.
– provide advice to IMO Member Governments in the
  formulation and submission of applications for the
  designation of PSSAs to ensure that in the process, all
  interests - those of the coastal State, flag State, and the
  environmental and shipping communities - are thoroughly
  considered on the basis of relevant scientific, technical,
  economic, and environmental information regarding the area
  at risk of damage from international shipping activities
            MEPC Circular 510
• Guidance document for submission of PSSA proposals
  to IMO
  – Provides guidance for the development, drafting and
    submission of proposals to IMO for the designation of a
  – Sets forth the issues that should be included in such a
    proposal to facilitate its assessment and approval by MEPC
• The assessment and determination of whether a
  PSSA should be designated are ultimately controlled
  by whether the proposal meets the provisions of
• The Guidelines and Guidance document are


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