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benavente apizaco model united nations 2011 Egyptian Revolution .pdf

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       2011 Egyptian Revolution and its
                        consequences




    benavente apizaco model united nations
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             2011 Egyptian Revolution and its consequences


       The Security Council is one of the most important committees in the UN body.
According to the UN Security Council, some of the main functions and powers are to
maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes
of the United Nations to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to
international friction, to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of
settlement, to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to
recommend what action should be taken, to call on Members to apply economic sanctions
and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression, to take
military action against an aggressor.

       The Security Council has 15 members, among them there are 5 permanent
members; The United States of America, The People´s Republic of China, The Russian
Federation, The French Republic and The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. According to the UN Security Council Membership, the other ten countries can
only have a two year membership, and the countries membership is given by the General
Assembly.

       Also greater decisions on special and delicate matters require nine votes, including
the votes of the five permanent members, votes that are often referred to the “veto
power”(UN Security Council Membership, 2010).


Introduction

       The 2011 Egyptian revolution was a series of street demonstrations, marches,
rallies, acts of civil disobedience, riots, labour strikes, and violent clashes that began in
Egypt on 25 January 2011, a day selected to coincide with the National Police Day. The
protests were largest in Cairo and Alexandria, with significant activities in other cities of
Egypt. At times over a million people were protesting to demand the overthrow of the


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Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, an end to corruption and police repression, and
democratic reforms of the political system. On February 11, Mubarak resigned from office
as a result of determined popular protest. While localised protests had been common in
previous years, the 2011 protests have been the largest demonstrations seen in Egypt
since the 1977 Bread Riots and unprecedented in scope, drawing participants from a
variety of socio-economic backgrounds and faiths.


       International response to the protests has been mixed, though most have called
for some sort of peaceful protests on both sides and moves toward reform. Mostly
Western governments also expressed concern for the situation. Many governments have
issued travel advisories and begun making attempts at evacuating their citizens from the
country.


       Mubarak dissolved his government and appointed military figure and former head
of the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate Omar Suleiman as Vice-President in an
attempt to quell dissent. Mubarak asked aviation minister and former chief of Egypt's Air
Force, Ahmed Shafik, to form a new government. Opposition to the Mubarak regime has
coalesced around Mohamed ElBaradei, with all major opposition groups supporting his
role as a negotiator for some form of transitional unity government. In response to
mounting pressure Mubarak announced he would not seek re-election in September.

       On 11 February, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak would be
stepping down as president and turning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed
Forces. Suleiman said Mubarak had handed power to the high command of the armed
forces. Officials say Mubarak has already left Cairo and is in the Red Sea resort of Sharm
el-Sheikh where he has a residence.


History of the Problem

       Egypt is a republic under a semi-emergency law since 1967, after the 6 Day War.
Under that law, police have wide powers, constitutional rights are suspended and


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censorship is legal. The law clearly restricts any non-governmental political activity: street
demonstrations, unauthorized political organizations, and financial donations are formally
banned unregistered. The Mubarak government has cited the threat of terrorism in order
to extend the emergency law, claiming that opposition groups like the Muslim
Brotherhood could come into power in Egypt if the current government did not forget
parliamentary elections and suppressed the group through actions allowed under
emergency law. Human rights organizations estimate that in 2010 some 5 000 to 10 000
people were arrested in the long term without charge or trial, and that the 1990 figure of
those arrested was more than 20 000. Under the state of emergency, the government has
the right to imprison people indefinitely and without any reason.


       The internal Political corruption in the Ministry of Interior of the Mubarak
administration has increased dramatically because of the increased power over the
institutional system. The rise of powerful businesspeople in the ruling party and the
People's Assembly has led to a great distrust of the population during the tenure of Prime
Minister Ahmed Nazif. A good example is Ahmed Mezz its monopoly in the steel industry
in        Egypt         to        control         60%            of     market         share.
In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, ranked Egypt at the
site 98, with a score of 3.1, based this on the level of corruption in government and
business 10.0 being the absence of corruption and 0.0 the total of extreme corruption.
This problem has created discontent and anger in the Egyptian population.


       The explosion of the population in 1950 was about 20 million and by 1980 was
about 44 million in 2009 reached 83 million inhabitants. The majority of Egyptians live on
the banks of the Nile River in an area of 40 000 km ², the only fertile area of the country.
The emerging crisis of overpopulation has caused problems of poverty, health, education
and housing, as well as a reduction of fertile land available.




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Current Situation

         On January 25, 2011, in Egypt, several protests took place in the cities of Cairo,
Alexandria, Suez and Ismailia. These protests were called by reason of the trouble that
was generated in the Egyptian people about the deplorable living conditions where he
was. The focus of these protests was the resignation and departure of Egyptian President
Hosni Mubarak, who had more than 30 years in power. About 15 000 people protested in
Tahrir Square in Cairo, where the police acted trying to repel the protesters. The Egyptian
government immediately reacted by blaming the Muslim Brotherhood group to lead in this
series of protests against him. This day was known as "The Day of Wrath."


         The Protestants claimed that the protests would continue until the president
resigned. Since that time several protests were called by social networks (Facebook and
Twitter) so that the Egyptian government decided to block communication through the
Internet and various media, although the Protestants were able to communicate across
different systems and networks. Similarly, the government sent military forces to repel the
protests, but the military refused to react against the protesters and were limited to just
watch.


         On February 1, 2011 protestants were calling for a march called the "Million
Person March" for which more than one million people of all ages gathered on Tahrir
Square. The heavily guarded by soldiers sympathetic to the Protestants, and had her trip
from the plaza to Mubarak's presidential palace, which was guarded. At that time it was
reported that about 300 people were feared dead, over 3000 were injured and hundreds
were arrested and imprisoned. One day after the march, clashes with sticks and stones,
occur in Liberation Square, the Army, which earlier observed without intervening clashes,
firing into the air in an attempt to curb lawlessness. Mubarak refuses to resign.


         The same organizers of the protests, called for a new on 4 February at the
presidential palace of Heliopolis, which they called "Output Friday." The protesters


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demanded the departure of Mubarak and gave up that day limit to submit his resignation.
In contrast the pro-government protesters have declared that this would be the "Loyalty
Day"


        On February 10 and after several days of uncertainty among the Egyptian people
on whether President Mubarak step down, Mubarak gave a speech on television at 24.00
local time, the speech was previously recorded in the afternoon so the rumours about his
departure grew and a party atmosphere prevailed in the streets. The Egyptian president
went to town to announce that their governance responsibilities delegated to the vice
Omar Suleiman. He added that in September would leave office after elections in which
not participate. To produce this sequence, Mubarak promised to reform the constitution
and repeal the Emergency Law of 1981, but did not accept the departure. Tahir Square in
the direct lived in the speech on giant screens after installation. The protesters shouted
slogans against the president since the first moment he announced he would not leave
Egypt. The army, that afternoon, had recognized that the people's demands were fair and
that will protect them, in addition, delegated to the organizers of the concentration
control over access to Tahir Square.


        Omar Suleiman spoke on television after the message from Mubarak. In the
speech, the president reinforced the messages and focused on the security of Egypt. So,
asked     the     protesters    to     go    home    and     return     to     their    jobs.


        Despite the advice of the army to withdraw in protest on 11 February, the
demonstrators left the square, Mubarak refused to relinquish power and insufficient
considering     the   reforms    announced     in   the    speech     the    previous   day.


        During the afternoon of that day, Vice President Omar Suleiman issued a
statement announcing that President Mubarak had until now abandoned leaving power in
the hands of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, Mohamed Hussein Tantawi,



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Minister of Defense, the front this sparked the euphoria of opponents who were in
Liberation Square in Cairo. The Egyptian army subsequently dissolved both houses of
Parliament. The Egyptian Army would precede the government until the next elections of
September.


Controversial Points

        The Egyptian Revolution is not the first public protest in an Arab country, in a
period of time between 2010 and so far of 2011, there have been unprecedented
uprisings and protests in the countries of Tunisia, Algeria, Yemen, and Jordan, also
there’ve been minor incidents occurring in Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Sudan, Syria,
Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, and Morocco.


        The protests began on December 18, 2010 with an uprising turning into a
revolution in Tunisia, following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest at police
corruption and ill-treatment. Due to similar hardships in the region and ultimately
successful protests in Tunisia, a chain of unrest was started which was followed by
protests in Algeria, Jordan, Egypt and Yemen, and to a lesser degree in other Arab states.
The protests have drawn great attention and concern from around the world, especially in
the Middle East.




Possible solutions

    •   Entablature of Peaceful Talks with Separatist Groups: through diplomacy and
        negotiation would be possible to reach agreements between governments and
        opposition groups to avoid future problems that may endanger peace in the
        countries.




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    •   Not give recognition to countries that are preceded by dictatorships: if a country is
        ruled by a dictatorship under which the people of this country is in deplorable
        living conditions will not be recognized to the UN.


Bibliography
    •   UNODC (2009) FAQ on International Law Aspects of Countering Terrorism. New
        York,                 USA.                   Available                  on:
        http://www.unodc.org/documents/terrorism/Publications/FAQ/English.pdf

    •   - (February 20th, 2011) Fighting for freedom 2011 Style. Available on:
        http://www.crystalinks.com/00freedom.html



    •   Amir_Pharaoh (2011) Egyptian Army. Revolution 2011. Available on:
        http://www.defencetalk.com/forums/intros-off-topic/egyptian-army-revolution-
        2011-a-10984/



    •   Yolande Knell (February 12th, 2011) Egypt Crisis: President Hosni Mubarak resigns
        as leader. Available on: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12433045



    •   Farouk S. Nagi (May 2008) The rising conflict for democracy in the Arab World.
        Available on: http://ojs.uccs.edu/index.php/urj/article/viewFile/1/88



    •   Reuters. (January 26th, 2011) Egypt’s Mubarak faces unprecedented protests.
        Available    on:   http://www.thestar.com/news/world/article/927607--egypt-s-
        mubarak-faces-unprecedented-protests



    •   Sofia (February 1th, 2011) Get up, stand up. Available                            on:
        http://blog.timesunion.com/muslimwomen/category/human-rights/




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    •   Paul Owen, Richard Adams. (February 10th, 2011) Egypt protests – Thursday 10t
        February.                 UK.                  Available                  on:
        http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/blog/2011/feb/10/egypt-middleeast



    •   Wikipedia (2011) Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. Available on:
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_2011_Egyptian_revolution



    •   Brian Whitaker (2009) “Human Rights in the Arab countries” from What’s really
        wrong with the middle East. Saqi Books. Available on: http://www.al-
        bab.com/arab/human.htm




    •   Merga Yonas (February 19th, 2011) Domino effect in the Arab world. Available on:
        http://www.ethiopianreporter.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&view
        =article&id=1854:domino-effect-in-the-arab-world&catid=103:politics-and-
        law&Itemid=513




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