UNIT 11 PROSPERITY AND DISTRESS: THE 1920’S AND 1930’S
AP US HISTORY - Mrs. Grover
8 Assignments = 80 points
Wednesday, 3/9 Goal: Identify the criticisms of the authors in the 1920’s
Notes: The Philosophy of the Lost Generation. Read pp. 723 -732. Literacy Strategy: Complete the following
Name Specialty Works Criticisms if any
Add on one of the following:
Create a Venn diagram comparing the themes of a previous artistic period to those in the 1920‟s
Write a poem or essay that illustrates the criticisms the Lost Generation had of this time period
Evaluate if the Harlem Renaissance expresses cynicism or optimism regarding American society
Thursday, 3/10 Goal: Describe the tensions regarding race in the 1920’s and African Americans response
Notes: Race Riots and Lynching (p. 711-712)
Read pp. 730-731, 735 (“The Klu Klux Klan”) Literacy Strategy: Read to answer questions on p. 735. Add on
one of the following:
Write a dialogue between Garvey and DuBois regarding involvement in American society
Explain what the Northern race tensions of the 1920‟s reveal about Northern ideas about race
Read an account of a race riot or lynching and write a personal reaction
Friday, 3/11 Goal: Explain the loss of personal freedoms that accompanied the desire for normalcy in the
Notes: Socialism in the United States. Read pp. 732-737. Literacy Strategy: Complete Frayer squares for
Palmer Raids, Execution of Sacco and Vanzetti, Response to Prohibition, The National Origins Quota Act, and
The Scopes Trial (description, source of fear, how restricted freedom, memory clue) Add on one of the
Create a political cartoon on any one of the topics in this assignments
Identify and explain more recent examples of how fear is related to restrictions on freedom
Write a pro‟s and con‟s list for Prohibition
Read “The Scopes „Monkey‟ Trial” on pp. 743-747 and answer the questions on p. 747.
Monday, 3/14 Goal: Go over economic trends as seen in graphs to identify if 1920’s were good or bad time.
Notes: Economic strengths and weaknesses in the 1920s (pp. 722-723).
Activity: analyze graphs on economic indicators from the 1920s and 1930‟s.
Tuesday, 3/15 Goal: Describe the onset of the Great Depression
Notes: Causes of the Great Depression. Read pp. 750-752. Literacy Strategy: Create a Venn diagram
comparing the causes of the Great Depression given with those given in the notes. Read pp. 754. Literacy
strategy: Make a list of Hoover‟s efforts to improve the economy
Add on one of the following:
Evaluate if Hoover‟s efforts relate to the notes on the causes of the Great Depression
Analyze a list of Hoover‟s assumptions to see where you agree or disagree with his viewpoints.
Wednesday - Thursday, 3/16 -3/17 Goal: Evaluate the success of the New Deal efforts at relief, recovery, and
DBQ Activity. Read pp. 755-766 to describe FDR‟s efforts at relief, recovery, and reform included in a DBQ
Question. Label each document as relating to relief, recovery, or reform. List of how each document could be
used to support your thesis. Write your answer to the question using paragraphs with topic sentences and
Friday, 3/18 Goal: Compare and contrast the social conditions in the 1920s to those in the 1930s
Notes: Social conditions of the 1920‟s (p. 722-726). Read pp. 752-754, 766-769, 772-775. Literacy Strategy:
Create a chart comparing conditions before and after the New Deal for workers, farmers, organized labor,
African Americans, Mexicans, the poor, the middle class, the well-to do, and women. Add one of the following:
Write a letter to FDR as a member of one of the groups above. Express either gratitude or criticism for his
handling of the New Deal
Create 2 journal or diary entries to express how one group of people experienced the Great Depression
Make a list of changes the New Deal brought to American life
5. Describe the impact of WWI and the 1920s on African Americans (pp. 711, 735-
a. African Americans served in segregated regiments, but were not allowed to march in victory celebrations.
b. Black veterans gained a sense of pride and new militancy.
c. When African Americans moved north to work in factories, race riots mostly in the north cities broke out,
killing many blacks. Blacks, however, often fought back killing whites.
d. In 1915, the Klu Klux Klan was reorganized, expanding its prejudice against blacks to also include prejudice
against immigrants, Jews, and Catholics. D.W. Griffith‟s epic film The Birth of a Nation depicted the earlier
KKK as positive and membership grew to 5 million during the 1920s and gained control of state legislatures.
e. The KKK used violence, especially lynching, and destruction of property which eventually caused the public
to turn against it so that it primarily disappeared by 1930.
f. W.E.B. DUBois , as a newspaper editor, led the Harlem Renaissance explosion of African American poets,
writers, playwrights, musicians, and activists which raised awareness of the African American experience.
6. Explain how Wilson’s goals were incorporated in Versailles Treaty but not accepted by the Senate (pp.712-
a. The Big Four (England, France, Italy, and US) determined the Versailles Treaty to end WWI. European
leaders wanted revenge on Germany and Wilson wanted to be forgiving to determine long-term stability.
b. Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points for peace which included 1) the abolition of secret alliance 2) freedom
of trade and the seas 3) reduction of arms 4) prohibiting Europeans from selfishly dividing German colonies
5) national self-determination for the defeated empires 6) the establishment of League of Nations
c. From the 14 points, only the principles of self-determination and the establishment of the League of Nations
were incorporated into the Versailles Treaty. In addition, Germany was held guilty for the war and had to pay
reparations, lost all of its colonies, and could have only limited military
d. The United States Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty because isolationists did not approve of the US
submitting to the League of Nations.
7. Describe conflicts over cultural urban changes pp. 732-735,
a. The Russian Revolution, increasing number of American communists, violent labor strikes, and bombings led
to the Red Scare, a period of fear regarding communists that lasted from 1919 -1920
b. The Palmer Raids involved the arrest and deportations of thousands of radicals after a bombing of the
Attorney General Palmer‟s home.
c. Two Italian radical immigrants Sacco and Venzetti were executed for murder more from prejudice than from
d. Although the 18th Amendment made Prohibition a national law (though the Volstead Act), the law was
disregarded by urban dwellers such ethnic groups such as the Irish and Germans, the middle-class and wealthy,
and the educated.
e. Prohibition did, however, reduce the consumption of alcohol, especially among the lower class, but alcohol-
related crime and gangsters increased dramatically in the cities.
f. Congress defined a literary test in 1917 and a quota system in 1921 to restrict immigration. The National
Origin Quota Act in 1924 further limited immigrants from Europe to 150,000 year, most coming from
Northern Europe, and banned Asian immigrants.
g. The famous Scopes Trial, with attorneys William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow, determined that
Christian fundamentalists‟ success in passing a Tennessee law preventing the teaching of evolution in public
schools was constitutional. During the trial, however, the attorneys‟ debates over fundamentalist belief in
traditional Christian versus progressive scientific and religious thoughts revealed the tensions between the two
8. Analyze the changes of entertainment, morality, and the arts in the Roaring 20s pp. 726 -732
a. Sports, including golf, boxing, baseball, and football, became mania events.
b. Attempts to break records such a Charles Lindbergh‟s solo flight over the Atlantic, marathon dances, and
flag-pole sitting provided excitement.
c. Victorian standards of morality declined in cities as plays, novels, magazines, songs, and films pursued topics
of sexual relationships.
d. Although the number of young people dating without parental supervision (using automobiles as meeting
areas) and engaging in premarital sex doubled, the actual percentage of women doing so was still below 15% .
e. A group of American writers who lived in Paris, led by T.S. Elliott, Ezra Pound, and Ernest Hemingway,
expressed despair over the WWI experience, materialism of American culture, and modern civilization.
f. Margaret Sanger advocated the use of birth control.
g. American painters and writers who lived in the US, such as F. Scot Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, and H.L.
Mencken, also criticized modern American society, even evaluating the changing role of women.
h. African Americans moving northward brought a new music forms, blue and jazz.
9. List the weaknesses in the booming economy of the 1920s that lead to the Great Depression pp. 720-723
a. The US experienced an great economic boom from 1922-1929 as average incomes increased 30%, industrial
productivity doubled, and the Gross Domestic Product rose 40% as new technology such as cars, airplanes,
electric appliances, and electric engines caused a second industrial Revolution.
b. Efficiency studies, marketing, and easy credit resulted in an overproduction of consumer goods and large
c. Traditional railroad, coal, and cotton industries struggled to compete with new technology such as trucking,
petroleum and gas, and synthetic fabric.
d. Farmers‟ income declined as Europe recovered from WWI and reduced its agricultural imports from US.
e. The wealth of the 1920s was unequally distributed: Most went mostly to the middle and upper class. While
laborers wages increased only 11%, prices slightly decreased and living standards had improved.
f. Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon called for the drastic cut of income tax on the wealthy to encourage
investment while tariffs were increased in a “Return to Norlmacy”
f. Affluence led to increasing investments in stocks, especially speculation or buying cheap stocks expecting a
quick large profit.
g. In the late 1920‟s easy credit and raising stock prices encouraged extensive speculation in purchasing stocks
on credit or on the margin.
10. Explain the events leading to the Great Depression and its effects pp. 750-754, 765-766)
a. On Oct 24, 1929, known as Black Thursday, the stock market crashed as prices fell 50%
b. Banks which lost much money in the stock market crash restricted lending to maintain their finances
resources or went bankrupt.
c. Consumer purchasing declined with fewer loans and business reduced production, laid off workers, and
closed plants causing further reductions in purchases.
d. By 1935 unemployment reached 25% and production fell 33%.
e. African – Americans workers were the first laid off and Hispanic immigrants were often deported back to
f. Many middle- and upper-class people lost homes, stopped seeking health care, and became impoverished.
g. Vagrants or hobos often rode empty train cars and joined camps of homeless.
h. After the New Deal‟s NRA, John Lewis successful established a new union the Committee on Industrial
Organization (CIO) to represent the auto and steel industries, expanded to 5 million and successfully won
i. Unskilled laborers in other industries became organized in unions for the first time but efforts were limited
and only 28% of the population was in unions.
j. The New Deal added urban voters, immigrants, African-Americans, and labor to the Democratic core of the
south and west and the Republicans became the party of the well-to-do, rural and small town Americans.
k. After FDR‟s second term, a bipartisan conservative coalition formed of southern democrats who voted with
conservative Republicans that lasted for 25 years.
11. Compare Hoover’s and Roosevelt’s attempts to end the Depression pp. 753-765)
a. Hoover originally felt the economic depression was due to economic instability in Europe and relayed on
voluntary cooperation of business leaders to maintain high wages and prices and voluntary relief given by
charities to the poor.
b. When businesses were forced to cuts prices and wages to survive and charities were exhausted, Hoover did
not believe in creating new governmental powers to assist or control.
c. Eventually Hoover created a Federal Farm Board to loan money to farmer cooperatives and buy surplus
d. Hoover cut taxes and began a limited federal jobs program to provide jobs for unemployed men, but he
refused to provide direct assistance (relief) to those in need.
e. In 1932 Hoover proposed the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) which began to loan money to
banks faced bankruptcy as the number of bank failures rose steadily as customers fearing the loss of their
money made runs on banks, emptying their vaults.
f. Hoover ordered General MacArthur to use mounted troops to clear the bonus army of WWI veterans who
camped in Washington when their request for an early payment for a bonus was rejected by Congress.
g. Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), who won the presidency for the Democrats in 1932 promising a New Deal,
accomplished within his first Hundred Days 1)declaring a brief bank holiday and government supervision and
aid to prevent further bank closures 2) beginning weekly radio broadcasts or “ fireside chats” to citizens 3) led
Congress to pursue both lead recovery from the depression and provide direct relief
h. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to develop a interstate regional plan to control river systems and
i. The National Recovery Act (NRA) set up a voluntary association of businesses that would adhere to the
jointly writing rules for production, prices, and wages until the Supreme Court declared the agency as an
unconstitutional use of government power.
j. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), which set limits on acreage production of crops and
offered subsidies to farmers to not overplant, benefited large farmers and forced small farmers and tenant
farmers to relocate to the city.
k. The Farm Security Administration (FSA) loaned money to tenant farmers and sharecroppers but not at
l. The RFC began to began to give relief assist to those in need; the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) gave
government jobs to young males in building the nations public lands; the Public Works Administration
(PWA) , the Civil Works Administration (CWA), and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) created
government jobs not only for relief but to stimulate the economy.
m. The WPA also employed artists of all types in various projects.
n. The New Deal by 1935 did not restore (recovery) the economy to prosperity but did alleviate some of the
suffering (relief) of the period.
o. In 1935, FDR began to pursue reform to end inequalities as radical critics such as Father Coughlin, Upton
Sinclair, Huey Long, and Francis Townsend , called for more drastic measures.
p. The Social Security Act, based on Townsend‟s ideas, set up various new taxes to provide 1) old-age
pensions 2) temporary pay for employees laid off 3) welfare assistance to the blind, handicapped, needy elderly
, and dependent children.
q. The Wagner Act created a National Labor Relations Board to monitor labor-management relations to
include collective bargaining and “union shops” where a majority of workers voted for unions to represent
r. The Fair Labor Standards Act established minimum wages and maximum 40-hour work week for most
s. The Rural Electrification Administration brought electricity to 90% of the American farms.
12. Describe the effect of the Great Depression and the New Deal on minorities (pp. 766-768)
a. Black sharecroppers and tenant farmers suffered when crop priced dropped below that needed to live.
b. More than 50% of urban blacks were unemployed by 1933 and prejudice increased as jobs dwindled.
c. NRA wage codes allowed lower wages for blacks and the AAA led to eviction of black tenant farmers and
d. The New Deal provided assistance to 40% of the nation‟s blacks and employed more than one million blacks
e. Black farmers and domestic servants were not covered by Social Security or minimum wage laws
f. In response to FDR‟s appointment of a number of African Americans to high-ranking positions, Eleanor‟s
Roosevelt invitation to Marian Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial, as well as the New Deals
employment and assistance to blacks, African Americans switched their loyalty from the Republican Party to
the Democratic Party .
g. Mexican-American agricultural workers likewise suffered from the drop in crop prices and increased
competition for jobs when the farmers displaced by the Dust Bowls in the Great Plains, but the New Deal did
less to assist them as since migrant workers had a difficult time meeting standards.
h. In 1934 the Indian Reorganization Act restored tribal unity and government; the Indian Bureau employed
more Native Americans and emphasized education, and the development of native handiwork.
i. Even though the number of working wives and women in the work force increased, married women were
expected to work at home and the single women worked for lower wages and had higher unemployment rates.
j. Eleanor Roosevelt and other high-ranking appointees of FDR such as Francis Perkins, the Secretary of State,
ambassadors, and federal judges) held influential government positions. Women also were elected to office in
k. Law and medical schools and colleges and university faculties discouraged female professionals.
13. Explain the difficulties Roosevelt faced in his second term (pp. 769-775)
a. The Supreme Court declared several New Deal programs unconstitutional and threatened to do so to
b. When FDR proposed changing the law to add up to six new judges to the Supreme Court which he would
appoint, the Senate refused to pass the “court-packing” measure viewed as designed to allow FDR to pick
judges that would not declare his programs unconstitutional.
c. The Supreme Court began to decide in favor of the New Deal programs, so FDR did not pursue his plan to
change the court.
d. FDR‟s second term failed to produce new legislation even though a national health insurance and
antilynching bills had been proposed. Consequently, FDR unsuccessfully worked against the re-election of
conservatives Democrats further deteriorating his relationship with Congress.
e. When FDR cut back the government spending, a severe recession occurred in 1937 until he asked for new
f. Full recovery from the Depression did not occur until mobilization for WWII began to offer economic
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon‟s policies did which of the following?
a. reduced income-tax rates for the wealthy to release money for private
b. provided aid to the Allies during the First World War
c. provided federal guarantees for bank deposits
d. restricted loans to Mexico after the Tampico and Veracruz incidents
e. combated the Depression by giving lower-income groups more purchasing