Document Sample

There is an obvious and symbolic relationship between business and society that has continued
to exist from the very beginning of evolution of us, the humans. Being a social creature, we all
like to be included in a group of people like us that makes one feel the sense of being with
others and having a discussion b exchange of ideas. This paradigm continues to exist in all
forms of our societal meetings that include business, family and other formal and informal

A customer’s buying behaviour is also influenced by social factors, such as the groups to which
the customer belongs and social status.
In a group, several individuals may interact to influence the purchase decision. The typical roles
in such a group decision can be summarised as follows:
The person who first suggests or thinks of the idea of buying a particular product or service
A person whose view or advice influences the buying decision
The individual with the power and/or financial authority to make the ultimate choice regarding
which product to buy
The person who concludes the transaction
The person (or persons) who actually uses the product or service

The family unit is usually considered to be the most important “buying” organisation in society. It
has been researched extensively. Marketers are particularly interested in the roles and relative
influence of the husband, wife and children on the purchase of a large variety of products and
There is evidence that the traditional husband-wife buying roles are changing. Almost
everywhere in the world, the wife is traditionally the main buyer for the family, especially in the
areas of food, household products and clothing. However, with increasing numbers of women in
full-time work and many men becoming “home workers” (or “telecommuting”) the traditional
roles are reversing.
The challenge for a marketer is to understand how this might affect demand for products and
services and how the promotional mix needs to be changed to attract male rather than female


honest packaging and advertising, product guarantees, and improved safety standards.

                                                       deplored the rampant consumerism of
contemporary society.


Environmentalism is the promotion in the conservation and recuperation of the natural world. It
is also known as conservationism, or Green Politics.
A conservationist is a person who is worried about the environmental deterioration.

The right to choose. Within reason, consumers have the right to be assured that a selection of
quality products and services are available for them to purchase at competitive prices. It means
that a consumer should have the opportunity to select the goods or services that he or she
wants to purchase.
The right to safety. Consumers have the right to expect protection from hazardous products
and services purchased in the marketplace, particularly if used properly for their intended
purpose. Consumers have protection from the sale and distribution of dangerous goods and
The right to be informed. Consumers have the right to receive adequate information about
products on which to base buying decisions. Reliable sources exist to inform consumers about
products or services.
The right to be heard and the right to voice. Consumers have the right to equal and fair
consideration in government policy-making situations, as well as prompt treatment in
administrative courts or legal communities. In other words, consumers have a right to complain
when there are problems or concerns. They have the right to speak up, to be heard, and to
expect positive results. Through this right, both business and government are expected to
respond to consumers.
The right to redress or remedy. Consumers are afforded an opportunity to have a hearing to
voice dissatisfaction such that a resolution is reached and the complaint is settled satisfactorily.
The right to environmental health. Consumers should be protected from the devastating
effects of air, earth, and water pollution that may result from the performance of daily
marketplace operations. Consumers have the right to live and work in an environment that does
not threaten the well-being of present and future generations.
The right to service. Consumers may expect convenience, the right to be treated with respect,
an appropriate response to their needs and problems, and good quality design and
workmanship in a product. Additionally, consumers may expect a courteous manner while in a
store or other establishment even if a purchase is not made. Service means access to essential
goods and services to include adequate food, shelter, clothing, health care, education and
sanitation basic needs that should be available to all consumers.
The right to consumer education. Consumers are extended the right to continuing consumer
education that supports the benefits and enjoyment of other specific rights. Consumers have the
right to some form of training and mastery of knowledge and skills needed to make informed
decisions in the marketplace.

The Basics - Advertising is providing information, calling attention to, and making known
something that you want to sell or promote.

More Detail - Advertising is a message designed to promote or sell a product, a service, or an
idea. Advertising reaches people through varied types of mass communication. In everyday life,
people come into contact with many different kinds of advertising. Printed ads are found in
newspapers and magazines. Poster ads are placed in buses, subways, and trains. Neon signs
are scattered along downtown streets. Billboards dot the landscape along our highways.
Commercials interrupt radio and television programming.

Print advertisers. Newspapers and magazines essentially invented advertising. They were the
first kind of advertising to reach people in their homes and the first to reach a mass audience.
They have lost much of their audience to online advertisers. Even though they are in decline
print advertising is still potent, newspapers and magazines still reach a huge audience. Free
newspapers are a highly effective media in urban areas.
Broadcast advertising. Broadcasting was traditionally the most potent advertising it was also
highly expensive and often tightly controlled. The number of broadcast outlets has exploded in
recent years but the number of viewers is falling drastically. The effectiveness of broadcast
advertising may no longer warrant its cost.
Online advertising. It started out as a small and niche area of advertising but in many ways it is
now dominant. It can reach large numbers of people but its reach is more limited than people
think. Large numbers of people don’t use the internet or make only limited use of it. Costs are
low but effectiveness is limited.
Guerrilla or nontraditional advertising. This usually means going back to traditional means of
advertising such as handing out free samples, hiring individuals to promote products or services
on street corners and so on. It can be an effective means of reaching large numbers of people
but it is tricky and expensive.
Mobile advertising. This usually means advertising geared towards mobile devices such as cell
phones. It usually employs the methods of online advertising. It can be of very questionable
Sign advertising. Posters and signs were the first advertising tools and they can still be every
effective. In particular they can reach pedestrians right on the street. Signage can be effective if
it is properly done. Posters are a good means of advertising some products and services.
Combined advertising campaigns. This usually means to use several different advertising media
at once. Most large companies now employ this tactic. For example the producers of a new
movie may buy television and print advertising for it, put out online advertising and conduct
guerrilla marketing campaigns in certain areas to promote the movie. This is a costly approach
generally only available to big business.


Types of Advertisements
Consumer Advertising
These are basically nothing but product or service advertisements directed towards the
consumer or the customer as such.
Such advertisements can be in the form of national or local advertisements also. Such kind of
advertisements uses emotional or rational appeal in their advertisement.
Advertisements such as that of DeBeers, pizza hut etc use the emotional appeal to attract the
consumers. On the other hand advertisements such as the Kawasaki bajaj caliber, Vim Bar etc.
use the rational appeal to address its target audience.
The advertisement of DeBeers uses an emotional appeal because the statement “I have my feet
firmly planted on the ground except when I’m wearing the millennium diamond” suggests that by
wearing them u can fly high in the sky and feel like what Urmila does in the advertisement
Advertising to business or profession
This type of advertising is aimed at resellers and professionals. The media used here is direct
mail or professional magazines. These are ads which are not directed towards the final
Corporate ads are also a part of these types of ads. The target groups of corporate advertising
are most often customers, stockholders, employees, financial institutions, political leaders and
government. The objectives of the corporate or the institutional ads may be to establish or boost
corporate identity and image, counter negative attitudes towards a company, industry or to
promote and relate the company to some worthwhile social public interest cause. The recent
Aditya Birla group campaign would fit into this category
 Non- product advertising
In this type of advertising advertisements depicting an idea, a social cause etc is included.
Surrogate advertisements are also a part of such non- product advertisements.


The most commonly used advertising media are:
Telephone and mobiles
Hoardings, boards and posters
A product can be advertised through television via commercials and bulletins. Television is an
excellent media for advertising something as it is one of most commonly used medium by the
If the commercial is well made, it attracts the people towards itself and the product.
Hence while making a TV commercial it is very important that the theme of the commercial is
good it is well made and the concept should compel the viewer to look at it rather then changing
the channel during a commercial break of a program.
A famous figure or a celebrity if used as model for selling the product diverts people attention
more and hence is a good way of promotion.
Radio is another common media used for advertising. It can be done through audio radio
commercials or the host of a show can be paid to promote the product.
Since the radio commercials are audio and not visual it’s important that the audio commercial
made is well spoken and has sounds and words that catch the attention of the listener.
The best way however, to promote something through radio is via a popular host or an RJ,
someone people listen to or follow.
Hoardings, Boards and Posters
Another common media for advertising are board, hoardings and posters. These media are an
excellent source for advertising especially large hoardings on the roadsides.
However in order to grab the attention of a passerby these boards and posters of course have
to be attractive and must be bold and clear.
Posters and boards are one of the oldest means for advertising something, before the invention
of TV, radio, computers and phones; these were a common media chosen for advertising.
Newspapers and Magazines
News papers are yet another very common and a very old media for advertising. Small or large
ads can be given on a newspaper either on the side of a news column of in front of the paper.
Magazines are also a very good media for advertising. Magazines are very popular among the
masses and an advertisement given in a magazine is sure to grab attention.
Telephones and Mobile Phones
These media are not very commonly used but are in many cases used as the media for
Mobile telecom companies advertise their new packages by sending sms to their users.
Companies to companies advertisement takes place through telephones commonly.
Internet in today’s world can be stated as one of the best media for advertising.
Ads can be given on the sides of popular websites most importantly on social networking
websites that are extremely popular amongst the youth.
Fan pages and groups of communities of many brands companies are made on many social
networking sites where advertisement for new launches and products by the companies are


Information that concerns a person, group, event, or product and that is disseminated through
various media to attract public notice.
Public interest, notice, or notoriety achieved by the spreading of such information.
The act, process, or occupation of disseminating information to gain public interest.
The condition of being public.

Publicity includes coverage in the mass media such as on television, radio, internet or
newspapers in order to promote a book directly to consumers. It is best utilized in conjunction
with marketing techniques and highly dependent on timing to ensure its effectiveness, such as a
book launch, world event or book release. Publicity often includes literary reviews or features in
state and national newspapers or trade publications. In order to secure features or reviews, the
publisher prepares media releases, press kits, bound proofs and advance notices.

A publicity-seeker tries to "make the news" -- i.e., to convince reporters/editors to present news
coverage about a particular person, organization, or event -- by saying or doing something that
the news media will choose to report of their own volition as part of their usual task of informing
the public. The publicity-seeker's intent is to gain free and hopefully favorable editorial

Other people and organizations who are fearful of receiving negative or harmful publicity will
employ public relations practitioners to try to suppress or counteract negative media coverage.

Publicity-seekers are entirely at the mercy of the media's editors and other staff members. The
editors, not the individual or organization who wants the publicity, decide whether or not
anything will be reported in the media. And, even when something is reported, it's the media
staff who decide how it will be reported and how much attention it will be given. It's very possible
that information which an organization offers the media in a positive and flattering news release
could show up in a news story that casts a negative or critical light on the organization that
supplied it.

For years the conventional wisdom was that the biggest advantages of publicity were the lack of
direct cost and the apparent "third-party endorsement" effect.

      It's not necessary to buy media space/time, but publicity is not totally free. There are
       salary and production costs involved in having someone prepare news releases or
       perform other publicity work.
      Media audiences often give information presented as publicity more credibility than if the
       same information were presented in an ad. That's because they know that presumably
       objective editors decide what's included in the news whereas self-serving organizations
       decide what to put in their ads.