Tutorial: “Role Playing Strategy Games for Intelligence Analysis” Barry G. Silverman, Ph.D.1, Richard L. Rees, Ph.D.2, Jozsef A. Toth, Ph.D.3 1 Electrical & Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) (firstname.lastname@example.org) 2 3 Great Falls, VA Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), Alexandria, VA Overview. With intelligence analysis, mechanism for eliciting and capturing the know- one is continually trying to get people to: 1) see how of more senior analysts and domain gurus, the alternative hypotheses of what might be and of preserving that knowledge to help sharpen motivating various subjects of interest; 2) break new employees’ skills in the three areas out of thought silos and biases; and 3) explore mentioned above, although it also helps seasoned the potential effects of diverse actions straddling analysts as well. This is particularly true as one economic, psychological, cultural, political, increases the realism of the scenarios in the diplomatic, military, and other domains. Games gameworld and of the agent-based software that often can be the best way to provide such emulates the opponents and other world actors. thinking shifts. As opposed to other forms of In our case, we make use of a large- analysis, games are immersive; are self- scale, agent-based human behavior system that controlled; are discovery-, problem-, and emulates human stress, personality (Hermann learning-based; and provide a safe means for type profiles), and emotion that permits agents to testing hypotheses and rehearsing solutions. In a make autonomous game strategy decisions based Monte Carlo simulation mode, they also can be on their own preference structures—a model used to study a space of potential outcomes. they form of the other player’s intentions, and In this workshop, participants will first the standards of behavior they adopt regarding be exposed to a number of role playing game trust, deception, relationships, commitments, and (RPG) ideas and videogame examples that actions. By tuning these parameters, our illustrate the three categories of intelligence- synthetic agents tend to approximate the analytic thinking listed above. This will be part behaviors of real world counterparts. The tutorial of a talk aimed at elucidating the aesthetics, will explore how this works, and the participants mechanics, and methodology of game design. will be provided with take-home materials for The participants will then have a hands-on further study. session playing a world strategy game that is a Intended Audience. This tutorial is publicly releasable derivative of one developed informative for intelligence analysts, but is also for the U.S. Government. They will first play geared for non-analysts or theorists interested in against each other in a paper-based version improving the practice via novel methods of called PolicyMaker (soon to appear at stores). strategy RPGs and realistic emulation of real- Next, participants will interact with a computer- world characters and situations. No prior based variation of PolicyMaker—called knowledge is required, but practical experience LeaderSim—including a set of agent-based with some games is desirable. software opponents (see game description at Purpose. Participants will explore the www.seas.upenn.edu/~barryg/Athena.doc). following topics: Lastly, in a learn-by-doing session, we will break 1) Game design methodology with particular into teams and brainstorm new role playing emphasis on aesthetics and mechanics of games that may be of value to the participants. RPGs and strategy games that will help Game design is often thought to be the achieve the three intelligence-analytic sole domain of the entertainment industry. objectives outlined in the description (This However, with the average age of videogame is analogous to software designers learning players now being thirty, role-playing games are software requirements and concept design— increasingly understood by the workforce. roughly on a par with formal methods such Games have the potential to harness young as first-level object oriented analysis and analysts’ enthusiasm and to create spontaneously related methods). In addition to a lecture, self-generating gameplay communities, analysts participants will practice the methodology who never tire of trying out alternative ways to with the help of two hands-on, learning-by- influence the situation. doing sessions—one for the case study Our own experience with RPG design board game, and the other to begin applying has revealed that game design is also an intuitive these methods to participants’ own domains. 2) How to use game design sessions to elicit Ackoff Center for Advancement of the System and capture domain know-how so as to Approach (ACASA). He holds the BSE (’75), improve analyst performance (experts as MSE (’77) and PhD (also ’77) all from the well as novices). University of Pennsylvania, is a Fellow of IEEE, 3) Ways to evaluate what a game provides and AAAS, and the Washington Acad. of Science, proposals for guidelines to determine when a and sits on the board of several organizations and design might be finished, or how and when journals in the intelligent systems fields. The its aesthetics and mechanics need to be focus of his research has largely been on further refined (this happens via play- aesthetic and cognitive engineering of embedded testing, an activity explored in the hands-on game-theoretic agents that can help humans session). improve their learning, performance, and 4) By walking all the way through the case- systems thinking in task-environments. Over the study, we also hope to acquaint the years, his lab has produced or is in the process of participants with what’s involved in creating patient and human physiology translating a paper based game design into simulations; a terrorist campaign and crowd electronic gameworlds and realistic software simulator; numerous autonomous and emergent agents. We sincerely hope participants will agent tools; several distributed, computer- gain a realistic sense of the modules and mediated, human-to-human collaborative effort that might be required for such a systems; 3 role playing games (RPGs); the system to become useful in terms of idea- AESOP interactive fiction game generator; and discovery, action rehearsal, and potential the PMFserv human modeling system for outcomes simulation tool. enhancing the realism of game AI. As a result of all this, Barry is the author of over 120 articles, Outline. 13 books/proceedings, over 100 tech reports, 9 • Introduction, Rationale (R. Rees) – 10 copyrighted software systems, a boardgame, and minutes several research and teaching excellence awards. • Game Design Principles (B.G. Silverman) Dr. Richard Rees earned his Ph.D. in 1979 in – 30 minutes clinical psychology and re-trained in industrial- • Definition of a Game organizational psychology. He is licensed as an • Game Aesthetics & Mechanics applied psychologist in Virginia. For the past 26 • Game Design Methodology years, he has pursued the application of • Game/Entertainment (ENT) psychological principles to the world of work, Metrics and Sub-Dimensions especially the performance of executives and the • A Few Aesthetic Models (kinds of fun) personality and contextual factors that lead to • Rock, Paper, Scissors pro- and anti-social behavior in organizations. • Social Aspects of Games: Team Rock, Dr. Rees has designed and taught college, Paper, Scissors doctoral and post-doctoral symposia. • 5 Steps for Game Development • Case Study: Design a Game to Teach About Dr. Jozsef A. Toth is a Research Staff Member Influencing World Leaders (R. Rees, BGS) at the Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria – 20 min VA, and has been involved in the research and • Hands-On Session #1 – Play-test Policy development of cognitive modeling, simulation, Maker Boardgame – 60 minutes and theory for the past twenty-five years. Since • Play LeaderSim online – 20 minutes 1998, Dr. Toth has been engaged in the • Programming the Game (B.G. Silverman) – exploitation of cognitive, AI, and organizational 25 minutes theory in the development and evaluation of • PlayTest and Evaluation (J. Toth) – 15 min tools and business models to support training, • Hands-On Session #2 - Create Your Own analysis, planning, and operations in the next Organizational Improvement Game – 60 generation of counterterrorism, minutes counterintelligence, and counterproliferation. He is presently working with the Joint Intelligence Dr. Barry G. Silverman is Professor in Task Force—Combating Terrorism at DIA and Engineering (ESE & CIS), in Medicine, and in the Missile Defense Agency in the domain of Wharton (OPIM) at the University of crisis action planning regarding the human and Pennsylvania where he is also Director of the social factors of collaborative software.
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