Anatomical Positions, Anatomical Planes & Anatomical Terms

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Anatomical Positions, Anatomical Planes &  Anatomical Terms Powered By Docstoc
					  Anatomical
    Positions
    & Planes
Anatomical Terms
 Dr. Muhammad Rafique
     Anatomy, DIMC
             Objectives

Know the different Anatomical
 Positions
Mentions Anatomical Planes
Have Knowledge of Anatomical
 Terms
          Anatomical Positions
Standard Anatomical Position
Supine Position
Prone Position
Right Lateral Recumbent Position
Left Lateral Recumbent Position
Trendelenberg Position
 Fowler's Position
Lithotomy Position
    Standard Anatomical Position
1. Person standing erect
   position
2. Face directed forward
3. Feet slightly separated
4. Toes pointed forward
5. Arms hanging relaxed at
   the sides
6. Palms of hands facing
   forward
7. Thumb Directed laterally
               Supine Position
The supine position is a position of the body; lying
 down, back touches the surface with the face up,
 person looking upward
               Prone Position
Prone position is lying on surface, chest touches
  surface and face directed downward towards floor
  Right Lateral Recumbent Position
The Right lateral recumbent, means that the patient is
 lying on their right side and right side of body
 touches the surface.
   Left Lateral Recumbent Position
The left lateral recumbent, means that the patient is
 lying on their left side and left side of body touches
 the surface.
               Fowler's Position
A person in the Fowler's position is sitting straight up
  or leaning slightly back. Their legs may either be
  straight or bent.
        Trendelenberg Position
A person in the Trendelenberg position is lying
 supine with their head slightly lower than their
 feet.
             Lithotomy Position
A position lying on your back with knees bent and
  thighs apart; assumed for vaginal or rectal
  examination
            Anatomical Planes

1.   Median Sagittal Plane
2.   Coronal Planes
3.   Para-median Sagittal Plane
4.   Transverse Plane
5.   Horizontal Plane
6.   Oblique Plane
          Median Sagittal Plane
This is an imaginary
  Vertical plane which
  passes through centre
  of the body and
  divides the body into
  two right and left
  halves. The two basic
  movements in the
  sagittal plane
  are flexion and
  extension
Median Sagittal Plane
    Coronal Plane
An imaginary vertical
 plane, right to the
 sagittal plane, passing
 through the body and
 divides the body into
 anterior and posterior
 halves. The primary
 movements in the
 frontal plane are
 abduction and
 adduction
      Para-median or Sagittal Plane
Vertical plane, parallel
 to Median sagittal
 plane, passing
 through any part of
 body, not through
 the center and
 divides the body into
 unequal halves
               Transverse Plane
This is a horizontal plane
  that divides the body or
  any of its parts into
  upper and lower parts.
This plane is not
  necessary to be parallel
  to the horizon or earth
Most movement that
  occurs along this plane
  involve rotation.
              Horizontal Plane
Transverse plane, right
  angle to sagittal
  plane
Divides the body into
  upper and lower
  haves should parallel
  to horizon
              Oblique Plane
Any plane that passes
 through a body part
 at any angle
 between the three
 planes.
               Anatomical Terms
          Terms                  Terms

Anterior – Posterior   Proximal – Distal

Ventral – Dorsal       Superficial – Deep

Superior – Inferior    Outer – Inner

Cranial – Caudal       Plamar – Dorsum

Medial – Lateral       Planter – Dorsum
             Anterior – Posterior
Anterior
A structure lies more in
  front than another
  structure in the body
Posterior
A structure lies more in
  back than another
  structure in the body
    Medial – Lateral
Medial
A structure closer to the
  midline or median
  plane of the body than
  another structure of
  the body
Lateral
A structure away from the
  midline than another
  structure of the body
         Distal – Proximal
Distal
  (Reference to the extremities only)
A structure away from the
  root of the limb than
  another structure in the
  limb
Proximal
  (Reference to the extremities only)
A structure Closer to the root
  of the limb than another
  structure in that limb
                      Ventral – Distal
Ventral
Towards the front or belly

Dorsal
Towards the back
   – Like the Dorsal fin of a
     dolphin.
               Cranial – Caudal
Cranial
A structure near to
  head
Caudal
A structure near to
  foot
    Medial – Lateral
Superior
Structure near to
  upper part of body
Inferior
Structure near to
  lower part of body
            Superficial – Deep
Superficial
Structure near to
  surface
Deep
Structure away
  from surface
             Planter – Dorsum
Planter
Sole of foot or part
  of foot touches
  the ground
Dorsum
Part does not touch
  the ground
             Palmar - Dorsum
Palmar
Surface of hand
  having skin creases
  and facing forward
Dorsum
Surface of hand
  facing backward