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What are the Trends in Nursing Education

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					What are the Trends in Nursing
         Education?
     Trends in Nursing Education
   Traditional focus of curriculum has been
    changed
   Post-RN baccalaureate degrees have been
    developed
   Post graduate degrees were started
   Research component was added to nursing
    curricular
   Baccalaureate degree in Nursing has been
    developed
Is Nursing a Profession?
            Criteria for professions
•   A body of knowledge on which skills and services are based


•   An ability to deliver a unique service to other humans


•   Education that is standardized and based in colleges and
    universities


•   Control of standards for practice


•   Career commitment by members
      Criteria for professions……..

•   Responsibility and accountability of members
    for their own actions

•   Independent functions

•   An active and solid professional organization

•   Recognized social worth and contribution
                 Nursing process
•   Assessment

•   Nursing diagnosis

•   Planning

•   Implementation

•   Evaluation
What is subjective data?
             Subjective Data
• Nurse/care giver cannot observe
• Obtained directly from the patient
• Person’s own description about
  – Feelings
  – Thoughts
  – Experiences
  – Needs
  – perceptions
What is objective data?
          Objective data
• Obtained by the nurse through
   • Clinical observation
   • Histories
   • Examinations
   • Lab results
What is Nursing Diagnosis?
            Nursing diagnosis
• Decisions made by the nurse about the
  person’s condition

• These conditions may be
  – Needs of persons
  – Problems of persons
  – Strengths of the persons
          Nursing diagnosis……
• Includes a cause and its effect

• Effect may be a certain result or a clinical
  manifestation that you can observe in
  patients.

• You may identify the effect from a patient by
  examination or by an interview the patient

• Cause is the underlying reason for the effect,
  or the condition that you observed or
  identified from the patient
        Nursing diagnosis………
• Nursing diagnosis always should include
  these two parts

  – Effect and the cause

           or

  – Resulting condition and the underlying reason
Example for a nursing diagnosis

   Anemia due to sever blood loss

    effect           cause
   (result)        (underlying reason)
    What are the Strengths of a
             person?
• Persons’ unique characteristics

• Help persons to reach their goals

• Always positive features

• Otherwise can be weaknesses not strengths
What is planning?
                  planning
• Begin from setting goals

• Otherwise may get lost

• Lead your actions by setting goals

• Then actions must be planned under the
  goals to meet the set goals
                 Evaluation
• Compare the results of nursing actions by the
  nurse and the client
• Nurse and the client decide whether they
  have meet their goals or not
• Making judgments regarding the nursing
  interventions
• Justifications or the rationale should be given
  foe the decisions made by the nurse
The importance of nursing theories



         What is a Theory?
                  Theory
“A theory is a systematic explanation of
an event in which constructs and
concepts are identified and
relationships are proposed and predictions
made”
         (Speziale & Carpenter, 2003)
       Components of a Theory
• Purpose

• Concepts

• Definitions

• Theoretical statements

• Structures

• Assumptions
          Purposes of Theories
• Helps develop more knowledge to improve
  nursing practice

• Organize information logically

• Discovers the gap in nursing knowledge

• Provides reasons for data collections from
  clients in making sound decisions

• Provides the measure to judge the quality of
  care
    Relationship among Theory,
       Research and Practice
• Nursing research is combined with the
  theory development to provide a
  rational basis for practice
• Practice is based on the theories that
  are validated through research
• Theory, research, and practice affect
  each other in a reciprocal, cyclical, and
  interactive way
 Theory- Research relationship
• Theories are tested by researches

• Theories are validated by researches

• Theories are modified by researches

• Theories are disproved or supported by
  researches
  Theory- Practice relationship
• Theory guide nursing practice

• Theory provides goals for practice

• Theory is shaped through practice

• Theory makes practice more efficient
  and effective
Research – Practice relationship
• Research promote evidence-based
  practice

• Practice is a source of research problem
   Theories influence nursing
• Systems theory

• Interpersonal theory

• Needs theory
                Systems theory
• Encourage the nurse to examine all aspects of
  the individual
• Open system-
  Means that the individual is interacting with
  his/her environment

• Sub system-
   Component parts within the system
  (physical,psychological,sociological, cultural and
  spiritual aspects)

• Suprasystem-
   Components outside the system
   (family members,employment, health care
  facilities,religious activities, education)
     Concepts basic to Nursing
• Person

• Environment

• Health

• Nursing
                     Person
• First basic concept in nursing

• A being composed of sociological, biological,
  psychological, and spiritual needs

• Holistic being in the world

• An open system and human energy field

• An adaptive system

• A being who is greater than sum of parts
               Environment
• External elements affect the person

• Internal conditions influence the person

• Significant others with whom the person
  interacts are part of it

• Open system with boundaries that permit the
  exchange of matter, energy, and information
                    Health
• Ability to function independently

• Successful adaptation to life’s stressors

• Achievements of one’s full life potential

• Unity of mind, body, and soul
                    (Thorne et al., 1998)
      Four models of health
• Clinical model

• Role performance model

• Adaptive model

• Eudaemonistic model
              Clinical Model
• The condition in which no signs or symptoms
  of disease or injury present is considered as
  healthy or not being sick.
      Role performance model
• Health depends on the person’s ability to act
  on their role

• People who can act on their roles are
  considered healthy even if they are
  chronically ill
              Adaptive model
• There is a belief that people are constantly
  interacting with their environments

• Health is the result of adapting very well to
  one’s environment interacting with it in the best
  possible way

• Disease is failure of adaptation

• Treatment is helping persons to adapt with the
  environment
        Eudaemonistic model
• Most complete view of health

• Health is seen as realization of person’s
  potential

• A person is healthy;
   if he can do everything he want
   if he can become what he wants to
  become
                   Nursing
• A science and an art
• Practice discipline involves caring
• Care of the well and sick, assisting with self
  care activities
• Helping individual to attain their potential
• Facilitate, support, and assist individuals,
  families, communities, and societies to
  enhance, maintain, and recover heath and
  reduce the effects of illness
                   (Thorne et al., 1998)
           Health promotion?
• “process of enabling people to increase control
  over, and to improve, their health
                     (W.H.O., 1986)
• Based on individual and collective (community)
  empowerment

• Emphasized the importance of prevent disease
  and promote well-being rather than rely upon
  remedial efforts to damaging effects

• Aimed at social and political actions and
  advocacy to facilitate changes in work place and
  community
        Health protection
• Actions by government and industry to
  minimize environmental health threats

• maintaining occupational safety
  controlling radiation and toxic agents

• preventing infectious diseases
  preventing accidents
     Preventive Health Services
Actions of health care providers to
 prevent health problems

(maintaining clinics for family planning, S.T.D.,
 chronic non communicable diseases,
 immunization, antenatal & postnatal clinics)
 What is community empowerment?

• “ personal empowerment, transforming
  knowledge and skills to individuals and the
  development of small mutual support
  groups, community organizations, networks
  or coalitions”

                   (Labote, 1990; Rissel, 1994)

				
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