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					Breakthroughs in Bioscience
   From NIH-Funded Basic Research
               to Improved Health


      West Virginia
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
                 Nation’s medical research
                  agency
                 Funds the science that leads to
                  medical advancement
                 Campus in Bethesda, MD– but
                  most funding is distributed to
                  university researchers
                  throughout the United States
                    The state received more than $24
                     million in NIH funding during FY08.
                     The majority of the funding went to
                     labs at West Virginia University
                     ($18.5M).
Research Enterprise Is Critical to West
        Virginia’s Economy

 Funding from external sources for total
  sponsored programs at West Virginia
  University was $142.9 million in FY2006, with
  research and development funding at an all
  time record of $88.3 million.
 West Virginia’s biopharmaceutical industry
  produced 5,833 jobs in the state in 2003, and
  generated $521.7 million revenue for the state.
 Scientific research and development in new
  areas such as biometrics puts West Virginia on
  the cutting edge of economic development
  opportunities.
  NIH Grants Support Many Programs in
             West Virginia

 NIH awarded WVU $2.1 million to study air
  pollution’s effect on the cardiovascular system.
 Marshall University (MU), in partnership with West
  Virginia University (WVU), was awarded a
  Biomedical Research Infrastructure Network
  (BRIN) award for a collaborative effort to sponsor
  research at WV undergraduate institutions.
 NIH funds MU’s Center of Biomedical Research
  Excellence, which focuses on cancer research with a
  particular emphasis on the role of transcription
  factors in cancer cell biology.
    NIH: Saving Lives Through Science
 Current annual budget of around $29.3 billion
 Greater than 80% distributed throughout the country
    More than 50,000 grants
    212,000 scientists
    2,800 universities


 Portfolio of basic, translational, and clinical research

   NIH has been involved in nearly all the medical & health
           related discoveries of the past century
      How NIH Makes Science Happen…
 Researchers working at local universities, hospitals and research
  institutions are dependent on federal support to fund their research, hire
  lab personnel and train young scientists
 They write research grant proposals to compete for funding
     Must explain why they think it’s a good idea, how they’re going to do the
      experiments, and what impact it will have on science & medicine
 Proposals are reviewed in a two-tiered system
     Peer-reviewed by scientists to ensure highest quality science
     Reviewed again for applicability to scientific or health priorities by NIH
      officials and other stakeholders, including public members
     NIH review system is the envy of the world!
 Very competitive!!!
     Before - 1 in 3 proposals funded; now closer to 1 in 6
     High quality research is not being done for lack of funding
   Basic Research: From Bench to Bedside

 Much of NIH funding goes to basic or fundamental research
 Basic research is driven by interest in a scientific question
 The main motivation is to expand knowledge and
  understanding, not to create or invent something
 However, the insight into how the human body works and
  understanding of how diseases and disorders operate provides
  the foundation for medical progress
   "People cannot foresee the future well enough to predict
  what's going to develop from basic research. If we only did
  applied research, we would still be making better spears."
                 Dr. George Smoot, Berkeley National Lab
                What about medical breakthroughs?

 Medical breakthroughs often come from unrelated areas of
  science or medicine
    Research on cancer biology has led to drugs for: heart disease;
     viral diseases like influenza, Herpes & AIDS; and osteoporosis
    Physicists studying the effects of magnets on atomic particles
     made the discovery that gave us MRI
 Usually based on years or decades of fundamental knowledge
    Over time, scientists solve or find different pieces of the puzzle
 This makes it difficult to predict where the next
  breakthrough will come from
    Makes it imperative to support a broad range of scientific research
    Much of this research is too basic for the private sector
       The federal investment often lays the foundation for advances in
        healthcare
Evolution of Research to
      Healthcare

  Selected modern examples…
            Cardiovascular disease
    Information on the biochemical structure & synthesis
     of cholesterol led to the development of statins
    Discoveries in basic kidney biology and blood pressure
     regulation converged with an unexpected finding
     involving snake venom to yield ACE inhibitors, one of
     our most effective hypertension medications
    Understanding how the blood clots, together with a
     new cancer treatment and the first commercial use of
     recombinant technologies, resulted in rtPA, a clot-
     busting drug that can prevent death from heart attack
     or stroke

 RESULTS?? 63% REDUCTION IN DEATHS FROM HEART DISEASE
AND A 70% REDUCTION IN DEATHS DUE TO STROKE; MORE THAN 1
            MILLION LIVES SAVED IN 2006 ALONE
                         Cardiovascular disease
                        500                                  ~ 1,329,000
   Deaths per 100,000

                                                               Projected
                        400                               Deaths in 2000
                        300

                        200                                       ~ 514,000
                                                                  Actual
                        100                                       Deaths in
                                                                  2000
                              50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00
                                            Year


                                                                 Economic return
    30-year
                                                                   of improved
Investment per
                                                                   treatment &
   American
                                                                    prevention
~$110.00 Total
                                                                  $2.6 TRILLION
                      HIV / AIDS
 Fundamental knowledge of how viruses replicate gave
  scientists targets for therapy. Researchers looking for a new
  cancer drug hit one of those targets when they discovered a
  way to block replication, resulting in the development of
  AZT.
 Increased understanding of how HIV operates at the
  cellular and molecular level identified more targets, and
  eventually led to the combination of drugs knows as the
  ‘triple cocktail.’

  RESULTS?? AIDS HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED FROM AN ACUTE
 FATAL ILLNESS TO A CHRONIC CONDITION; THE PROPHYLACTIC
   USE OF ANTI-VIRALS PREVENTED ALMOST 350,000 DEATHS
                     WORLDWIDE IN 2005
HIV / AIDS


             Deaths from
             AIDS dropped
             nearly 70%
             between 1995
             and 2000


         Survival rates for
        those infected with
         HIV has increased
            by 10 years
                         Cancer

 Basic research into the shape and characteristics of the
  estrogen receptor gave us tamoxifen, which can reduce
  breast cancer incidence among women at risk by over 45%.
 The breakthrough finding that human papillomavirus
  (HPV) could cause cervical cancer has led to a new vaccine
  that NIH estimated could reduce cervical cancer incidence
  by as much as 90%.
 While investigating the cellular machinery controlling cell
  growth, scientists developed bortezomib - now used to treat
  patients with multiple myeloma.

      RESULTS?? FROM 1993-2002, CANCER DEATH RATES
     DROPPED 1.1% PER YEAR; MORE THAN 2/3 OF PEOPLE
   DIAGNOSED WITH CANCER CAN EXPECT TO LIVE 5+ YEARS
                       Cancer
Increase in Cancer Survivors




  Millions of People
                       9

                       6

                       3


                       1971 1986 1990 2003




                           30-year
                       Investment per
                          American
                       ~$260.00 Total
                  Infant mortality
 Studies on lung function led to the discovery of surfactant.
  This protein-lipid mixture is crucial for the survival of
  premature infants, decreasing the number of infant deaths
  from respiratory distress from 15,000 per year to less than
  1,000.
 The use of anti-virals to prevent mother to child HIV
  transmission has reduced the rate from 25% to about 1% in
  the U.S.
 Studies on a metabolite of progesterone, known as
  progesterone 17P, have led to the finding that injections of
  this compound can reduce pre-term deliveries by as much as
  30%, a particularly important result for African American
  women.
  RESULTS?? IN LESS THAN A CENTURY, INFANT MORTALITY IN
    THE U.S. HAS BEEN REDUCED BY 90%, TRANSLATING TO
          ALMOST 500,000 BABIES SAVED PER YEAR
        NIH-Funded Discoveries
           in West Virginia

 A study conducted at WVU revealed that
  residents of mining communities are at an
  increased risk of developing chronic heart,
  lung and kidney diseases.
 Research at Alderson-Broaddus College has
  yielded advances in the study of tumor
  inhibition in ovarian cancer.
 A Davis & Elkins College research project
  revealed certain weed killers could damage
  the kidney.
          The Bottom Line…
 People are living longer, healthier lives
  because of NIH funded medical research
 What were once swiftly fatal illnesses have
  become treatable or manageable conditions
 For those suffering from diseases that have
  no current treatment or cure, medical
  research provides hope – which has a major
  impact on quality of life
                  The Challenge…
 NIH funding is entirely dependent on Congressional support
 In recent years, Congressional support has diminished, and
  the NIH budget is slowly eroding from lack of funding and
  inflation
 Lack of understanding in Congress about the importance of
  medical research and the treatments and hope it provides
 As the NIH budget falls, success rate also falls
   Diminished investment in NIH = loss of
talented researchers = missed opportunities
        = delays in medical progress
    West Virginia’s Congressmen Need
      to Advocate for NIH Funding

 Nothing should surpass improving our health as a
  national priority

 Opportunities for discoveries that translate to
  improved health for our citizens have never been
  greater

 Every increase in the NIH budget means additional
  funding for research in the state and new jobs
          We Need Your Help:
        Working Together for NIH

 Contact Senators Byrd and Rockefeller, and
  your Congressional Representative
    Let them know that medical research is
     important to you and what a bargain it is
 Write a letter to the newspaper and talk to
  your friends
    Help educate policymakers and neighbors
     about the important work NIH is doing
 Nothing is more important than our health
    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) should
     be an American priority
          Want to know more??




                   Please visit
              http://opa.faseb.org


Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB)

				
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posted:10/9/2011
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