Greywater and Houseboats

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					Greywater and Houseboats




    Ken Hall, Professor Emeritus,UBC
               June 16, 2010
        Contents of Presentation
•   What is greywater, sources?
•   Water use in households.
•   Contaminants in greywater
•   Toxic contaminants
•   Environmental occurrence of contaminants
•   Greywater relative contributions
•   Trace metals in greywater
•   Organic contaminants in greywater
•   Shuswap houseboat greywater
•   Loadings to Shuswap Lake
•   Conclusions
          What is Greywater?
• The terms greywater and blackwater
  originate from the separation of the toilet
  waste (blackwater) from the rest of our
  wastewater discharges (greywater)

     Blackwater




                               Greywater
                           Sources of Greywater &
                              Contaminants
•   Kitchen sink Compostable household waste (kitchen garberator),
    fats, oils, salt, flavours, preservatives, nutrients, soil, food particles,
    biocide residues, detergents, soaps, other cleaning agents
•   Dishwasher           Fats, oils, flavours, preservatives, detergents, soaps,
    salt, nutrients, food particles, oils and grease, cleaning agents.
•   Laundry/Washing machine                     Hair, soil & sediment, detergents,
    washing powders, soap, salt, softners, bleach, dyes, cleaning agents,
    fabric whiteners, preservatives, oil and grease, personal care products,
    perfumes, fecal/urine contamination, clothing materials and fibers.
•   Hand basin           Soap, shampoo, detergents, preservatives, hair dyes,
    toothpaste, other personal care products, hair, soil, sediment, organic
    matter, fecal/urine contamination, cleaning agents.
•   Shower               Soap, shampoo, hair dyes, toothpaste, other personal
    care products, preservatives, soil, sediment, organic matter, fecal/urine
    contamination, cleaning agents.
•   Bathtub              Soap, shampoo, hair dyes, other personal care
    products, preservatives, soil, sediment, organic matter, hair, fecal/urine
    contamination, cleaning agents.
     Compounds in Household
    Chemicals & Personal Care
            Products
•   Compound Category          Number of Compounds
•   Surfactants                      53
•   Emulsifiers                      26
•   Fragrances & Flavours            48
•   Preservatives                    20
•   Softeners & Plasticizers           3
•   UV Filters                         4
•   Solvents                         10
•   Dyes                              11
•   Miscellaneous                    62
    Water Use in Households
Water Use   Case 1   Case 2   Case 3
Personal    35-37%   25%      ND
Hygiene
Kitchen     17-25%   8%       ND
Laundry     13-15%   8%       ND
Mixed       ND       ND       53-81%
Greywater
Toilet      20-27%   40%      19-47%
Flushing
Other       5-7%     7%       ND
     Contaminants in Greywater
•   Nutrients- Nitrogen and Phosphorus
•   Pathogens
•   Degradable Organic Matter (BOD)
•   Toxic Substances
•     (1) Trace Metals
•     (2) Organic Contaminants
           Toxic Contaminants
• Trace Metals – essential metals (copper, zinc) non-
  essential metals (cadmium, mercury, arsenic)
• Organic Contaminants:
•    - POP (Persistant Organic Pollutants) PCBs, PBDEs
  (flame retardants), some pesticides.
•    -PCPs (Personal Care Products), fragrances, soaps,
  detergents, tooth paste, deodorants, antibiotics etc.
•    - EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Compounds) steroid,
  birth control medication, hormone mimics.
Contaminants
found in 139 U.S.
streams.
Surveyed for 95
different
chemicals.
50% of streams
had 7 or more
chemicals
     Data Sources on Greywater
• Houseboats
• Cruise Ships
• Condos (with wastewater separation)
      Greywater Contaminant
    Contributions to Wastewaters
Contaminant   Study 1   Study 2
BOD           63%       51-80%
Nitrogen      8%        ND
Phosphorus    37%       ND
Lead          59%       ND
Cadmium       38%       ND
Mercury       15%       ND
Suspended     ND        23-64%
solids
  Characteristics of Greywater from
    Houseboat Sources (mg/L)-1
Quality      Shower   Laundry   Kitchen   Dishwasher
Parameter                       Sink
BOD          320      340       230       1000

Suspended    60       180       140       260
Solids

Oil &        45       14        140       210
Grease
Phosphorus   16       82        21        71
  Characteristics of Greywater from
    Houseboat Sources (mg/L)-2
Quality      Shower   Laundry   Kitchen   Dishwasher   Domestic
Parameter                       sink                   Wastewater
                                                       (medium)
BOD
             320      340       230       1000         190

Suspended
solids
             60       180       140       260          210

Oil &
Grease
             45       14        140       210          90

Phosphorus
             16       82        21        71           7
       Trace Metals in Cruise Ship
       Greywater (ug/L)- Averages
Ship          Copper   Lead   Zinc

Large ship    103      4      179
(n=15)
Large ships   97       2      291
(n=16)
Small ships   146      3.7    442
(n=8)
Freshwater    2-4      1-7    30
Guideline
 Selected Organic Contaminants in
         Greywater (ug/L)
Contaminant   Use             Mixed     Ship      Guideline
                              Greywater Greywater
Acetone Solvent               ND        <3-400    none
              Preservative
Benzoic                       ND        <0.5-740 none
Acid
Chloroform    DBPs            250       0.1-170   1.8 (HH)
DEHP          Plasticizer 8.4-160       5.6-183   16 (FAL)
Nonylphenol   Detergent       0.4-6     ND        1.0
                                                  (FAL)
              Antibacterial
Triclosan                     .56-5.9   ND        none
                 Parabens

Esters of parahydroxy benzoic acid
Used as preservatives in cosmetics and
pharmaceutical products- deodorants,
shampoos, moisturizers, shaving gels,
toothpaste etc.
In 215 products found in 99% of leave-on
products & 77% of rinse-off products.
High levels detected in breast tumors.
Found up to 40 ug/L in Greywater
   Greywater Quality on Shuswap
           Houseboats
Characteristic Minimum   Maximum   S. Australia
             (mg/L)      (mg/L)    Regulation
BOD          2090        4120      No Reg.
Suspended 98             1300      <50
Solids
Nitrogen  6.4            111       <10
Phosphorus   3.6         105       <1.0
E. coli      <1          100,000   <40
Oil/Grease   ND          ND        <25
      Loadings of Contaminants to
       Shuswap Lake in Summer
           (June 14-Sept. 14)
Contaminant     BOD               Nitrogen          Phosphorus
Source


Salmon          1212              6811              407
Arm
STP
Houseboats      4224              211               352
(Greywater)



Values expressed as kg/period when houseboats on water
              Conclusions-1
• Greywater is an important source of a variety of
  environmental contaminants
• Greywater can contribute contaminants at
  concentrations equal to or higher than black
  water.
• Greywater is an important source of the
  traditional water contaminants including BOD,
  phosphorus, oil & grease, pathogen indicators.
• Both trace metals & organic contaminants are
  present in greywater and may exceed
  regulations.
             Conclusions-2
• Personal Care Products from kitchen and
  bathroom activities have been identified in
  household greywater- most of them have no
  discharge regulations.
• Summer discharges of degradable organic
  matter (BOD) and phosphorus in greywater from
  houseboats in Shuswap Lake are comparable to
  Salmon Arm STP loadings & could have impacts
  in enclosed bays with poor circulation.

				
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posted:10/9/2011
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