A True American Tragedy “The Indian Extermination” by hedongchenchen

VIEWS: 240 PAGES: 102

									A True American Tragedy
“The Indian Extermination”

       1860 – 1890
   Civil War and Post Civil War
“The Great American Desert”
     AKA: The Great Plains

     Oklahoma     Colorado
     Wyoming      North Dakota
     Minnesota    South Dakota
     Iowa         Montana
     Washington   Nebraska
     Oregon       Kansas
The Western Regions
       Western Migration
1. Mining (Gold & Silver)

2. Farming

3. New Life (Foreigners & Domestic)

4. Railroad Construction

5. Military Outposts

6. Absence of Law (Outlaws)

7. Entrepreneurs / Businessmen

  Migration Trails: Oregon (West), Bozeman (North West),
  and Santa Fe Trails (South West)
The Donner Party
The Donner Party
What eventually made traveling
 and migrating west easier?
Tombstone, Arizona
  “Doc” Holiday

Tombstone, Arizona
      “Wild” Bill

Deadwood, South Dakota
   Calamity Jane

Deadwood, South Dakota
    Deadwood Dick

Deadwood, South Dakota
Western Situation = “Lawlessness”
                       “The Kid”

Only known photo of him.   Close-up photo
                Butch Cassidy

Parker took the name Cassidy from the leader of the first gang
he was part of when the gang leader Mike Cassidy died. He
then took the name Butch after he attempted to go straight with
the law when he became a butcher in Wyoming.
           The Sundance Kid

When jailed as a teen in Crook County, Wyoming, he liked
the name of a member in the local government named
Sundance. He quickly adopted the name as his own.
   The Cowboys

Leader: Ike Clanton
Photo of the dead Dalton gang after a failed
attempt to rob two banks in their home town.
    Why were so many outlaws
attracted to the western part of the
Mexican-American War
      (1846 – 1848)

          The U.S. Civil War
                 (1861 – 1865)
              North v. South


The “Union” (North)            The Confederacy (South)
           Where was this war fought?
      How did this war divide the U.S. Army?
              End Date – April 9th, 1865
With malice toward none, with charity for all, ...let us strive on to finish the
work we are in, ...to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting
peace among ourselves and with all nations.

- Abraham Lincoln, March 4, 1865 (2nd Presidential Inaugural Address)
Abe Lincoln Assassination
       April 14th, 1865
Lincoln Assassination
   Missed Targets

Andrew Johnson     William Seward
 Vice President   Secretary of State
       The Other Assassins

Lewis Powell   George Atzerodt   David Herold
The Other Assassins
    Mary Surratt
Assassin’s Execution
     July 7, 1865
The Other Assassins
    John Surratt
     The United States of America
            Post Civil War
                 “A country in crisis”
                Five American Questions:

           Q: How do we re-build our country?
A: Reconstruction and the civilization of the American West.

      Q: What is the direction or focus of our country?
             A: Wealth and prosperity for all.

          Q: What does our country rally behind?
            A: Be the #1 world industrial power.

                Q: Who is the new enemy?
                   A: Native Americans

                  Q: Why this new enemy?
A: The are sitting on a pile of wealth and don’t even know it.
U.S. soldiers return to the west

          From where?
Western U.S. Soldier’s Duties
• build forts
• drive settlers from Indian reservations
• escort mail
• prevent smuggling
• protect miners, railroad crews, and politicians
• fight Indians
                     Pay: $13 a month

Why did U.S. soldiers not want to be stationed in the west?

         Hard and dangerous work for low pay.

Up to 1/3 third of western U.S. soldiers deserted.
               The Obstacle
             “The Red Savage”

    Western Indian Population = 225,000
What was the impact of horses on Native American cultures?
Famous Indian Killers / Haters
                               Andrew Jackson
                           Florida Indian Slaughter

 “Mad” Anthony Wayne
Battle of Fallen Timbers
  Treaty of Greenville
Teddy Roosevelt

    U.S. President
    1901 – 1909
Indian Removal Act (1830)
    Indian Removal Act (1830)
What: The forcible removal of 100,000 members from
five different tribes in the southern part of the U.S.
When: 1832 – 1838
    For their 100,000,000 acres of rich farm land, these
    Native Americans received 32,000,000 acres of dry
    prairie land in what is now present day Oklahoma.
               Worchester v. Georgia (1832)
U.S Supreme Court Ruling: Georgia has no night to remove
the Cherokee Indians.
President Jackson’s Response: Dared the U.S. Supreme
Court Chief Justice John Marshall to enforce his ruling.

   Why did the U.S. government want this land so bad?
                  Bad Treaties
    Settlers and soldiers would trick Indians into signing treaties.

         Most times the treaty was never signed by the chief.

    Negotiators would bother the Indians until someone signed.

         Most Indians did not know what they were signing.

            Indians would unknowingly break the treaty.

Broken treaties must be enforced by the U.S. Army      =    Indian Wars
    Treaty of Ft. Laramie – 1851
Groups involved in this Treaty:

• U.S. Government
• 9 Native American Tribes in the Wyoming Territory – Sioux, Cheyenne,
  Arapaho, Crow, Shoshone, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara

1. These tribes will not attack settlers moving west on the Oregon Trail.
2. Railroads and roads may be built in and through these tribe’s land.
3. Military forts may be built in these tribe’s land.
4. In exchange for these privileges, each tribe will be paid $50,000 a year
   for the next 50 years.

Congress later cut the amount of yearly payments from 50
years to 10 years, and none of the tribes received their
payments on a consistent regular basis.
The Indian Wars / Plains Wars
      “The 2nd Civil War”
             (1862 - 1890)
             Sioux War (1862)

       Chivington Massacre (1864)

        Fetterman Massacre (1866)

           Little Big Horn (1876)

        Apache Wars (1861 – 1886)

      Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)
               Resistant Tribes

Why did they resist? – This was an assault on the entire Native American way of life.

• They were defending their sacred homelands.
• They were defending their food source.
• They have always been a “hunter-gatherer” culture, now they are being told
   to be “agrarian”.
• They have always been a “nomadic” culture, now they are being told to be
  a “stationary” culture.
• Tribal clashes on the reservations between different tribes being forced to
  live on the reservation together as they never had before.
                 Sioux War
Date: 1862 – 1864                    Where: Minnesota
        Little Crow                      Henry H. Sibley
        Sioux Chief                 1st Governor of Minnesota


 December 26, 1862 = Largest mass execution in U.S. History (38)

      War continued until 1864 and ended in North Dakota
  Sand Creek Massacre
Date: Nov. 29, 1864     Where: Colorado

    Black Kettle         John Chivington
  Cheyenne Chief           U.S. Colonel

          Sand Creek Massacre
              “Chivington Massacre”
                              Indian’s Position:

• Tension between white settlers and Native Americans was high in the
  Wyoming Territory.
• Native Americans would be protected from attack by the U.S. Army if they
  reported to the closest U.S. fort as “non-hostiles”.
• The Cheyenne were on their way to Ft. Lyon (Colorado) and set up camp
  camp 40 miles away from Ft. Lyon.
• They flew an American flag and a white flag of peace over their camp in
  an effort to show that they were coming in peace.

               U.S. Army’s Position: The 3rd Colorado Infantry

               Commander: Colonel John Chivington
               U.S. Soldiers: 700
          Sand Creek Massacre
         “Chivington Massacre”
• 450 Cheyenne were mutilated and killed.
• 2/3 of Native Americans were women, children, and elderly.
• The men (Braves) were away hunting.
      Fetterman Massacre
This was part of Red Cloud’s War which is also known as
                   the Bozeman War.
Date: Dec. 21, 1866             Where: Wyoming
    Red Cloud                   William Fetterman
    Sioux Chief                    U.S. Captain

          Background of Conflict:
Cause: Gold was discovered in Montana in 1863.

Effect: Miners and settlers created and used what became known as the
Bozeman Trail to get to Montana, which passed through Sioux Land.

Disagreement: Red Cloud wanted the miners to use the Bridger Trail to get to
Montana, which did not pass through Sioux land.

Problem: The Bridger Trail is longer than the Bozeman Trail.

The U.S. military, ignored Red Cloud’s wishes and began building forts along
the Bozeman Trail for miners and settlers to live in and on their way to Montana.

A Promise To Keep: Red Cloud promised resistance to anyone on the
Bozeman Trail who was not Sioux.

Name of Conflict: Red Cloud’s War or the Bozeman War.
                 What Happened?
Fort Kearny: Military post in Rocky Mountains along the Oregon Trail,
which connected to the Bozeman Trail.

Colonel Henry Carrington – Ft. Kearney Commander

The Wood Train:
• Purpose – To get wood out to other places along the Bozeman Trail in order
  to build more forts for miners and settlers passing through.
• Problem – This was attacked by the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians on a
  daily basis.

Captain Henry Fetterman / 92 U.S. Troops:
• He bragged he could destroy the entire Sioux Empire with 80 men.
• He was ordered to protect the wood train up to Lodge Trail Ridge, because
  Carrington could not guarantee support from Ft. Kearny beyond this point.
• The wood train was attacked by a small group of Indians.
• Cpt. Fetterman pursued the Indians past Lodge Trail Ridge.
• He was ambushed by 2,000 Sioux Indians under the command of Chief
  Red Cloud
• 92 U.S. soldiers were killed in 20 minutes.
• Cpt. Fetterman took his own life to avoid being captured alive.
  “Native American Heroes”

Chief Red Cloud   Sioux Warriors
    Treaty of Ft. Laramie – 1868
Groups involved in this Treaty:

• U.S. Government
• Sioux


1. Red Cloud’s War or Bozeman War is over.
2. The Black Hills of South Dakota is given to the Sioux.
3. Parts of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota are guaranteed as
   hunting grounds for the Sioux.

This treaty was broken by the U.S. Government in 1877
after gold was discovered in the Black Hills.
Where: South Dakota
Crazy Horse Monument
   Where: Black Hills, SD
What: Economic Depression

Time Period: 1873 –1877

Result: 10,000 businesses fail


1. Bankrupt Gov. and businesses from the Civil War
2. To much money spent on railroad construction.
3. Europe was also experiencing a Depression, and American
   businesses are heavily dependent on the European market
   to buy and sell American made goods.
4. The Gold Standard.
               Little Big Horn
           “Custer’s Last Stand”
                    Date: 1876
     Where: Montana (Little Big Horn River)

               &                 V.

Sitting Bull       Krazy Horse        George Custer
Sioux Chief        Sioux Chief        U.S. General
                                       7th Cavalry
           What Happened?
Why Here: Custer was sent to investigate the presence of gold in the
Black Hills (South Dakota) which is sacred land to the Sioux Indians,
and was given to them by the Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868)

Indian Lure:

• General Custer spotted forty Indians outside of a Sioux Indian encampment
• Pursued Indians to encampment over rough terrain


• Divided 7th Cavalry into three Battalions and attacked the encampment
• Custer’s Battalion, Reno’s Battalion, and Benteen’s Battalion

Indian Surprise = Indians outnumbered 7th Cavalry 3 to 1
June 25, 1876
   Battle Results : Little Big Horn
                                    7th Cavalry Casualties

                                   Custer and his battalion
                                   were all killed. Reno
                                   and Benteen managed to
                                   escape while sustaining
                                   casualties to their own

Sitting Bull (1890) and Krazy Horse (1877) were captured and killed in
the future.
              The Apache Wars
                     Date: 1861 – 1886
           Where: Arizona, New Mexico, & Mexico

    Cochise (1815 – 1874)         Geronimo (1834 – 1909)
1st Apache War (1861 – 1874)   2nd Apache War (1874 – 1886)
Brigadier Gen. George Crook

      Apache Name: Nantan Lupan
    English Translation: Grey Wolf Chief
General Nelson Miles
      Lt. Charles Gatewood

                       Lt. Gatewood with U.S. Army
                       Apache scouts.

Lt. Charles Gatewood
      “The Apache Warrior”
                  Geronimo’s Tribe: Chiricahua Apache

                 He had deep hatred towards any people
                 who were not Apache, because his wife
                 and children were killed by Mexicans.

                 Geronimo and an Apache war party raided
                 and killed Mexicans and white settlers in
                 Mexico, New Mexico, and Arizona.

                 In the 1880’s the U.S. Army launched the
                 “Geronimo Campaign” in an effort to
                 capture Geronimo and his band of outlaw
                 Chiricahua Apaches.
(1834 - 1909)
    Ft. Marion
St. Augustine, FL
  Geronimo’s Imprisonment
             When: 1886 – 1909
      Where: Ft. Marion, FL and Ft. Sill, OK

On way to Ft. Marion, FL           P.O.W. Geronimo
                The Ghost Dance
Creator - Wovoka (Indian Shaman)
• Called himself the “Messiah”
• Indians traveled to hear his teachings

Year Created - 1890

                                      Rationale - Praying for a return to the “Glory Days”
                                      • Prophesized that the dead would soon join the
                                      living in a world in which the Indians could live
                                      in the old way surrounded by a plentiful game.
                                      • A tidal wave of new soil would cover the earth,
                                      bury the whites, and restore the prairie.
         Sitting Bull’s Death
               Date: Dec. 15, 1890

Little Big Horn victory. (1876)

Escape to Canada. (1877)

Surrender at Ft. Buford, ND
and to the Native American
reservation. (1881)

Arrest and shooting. (1890)
     Wounded Knee Massacre
Date: Dec. 29, 1890      Where: South Dakota
                  Sitting Bull had recently been killed while
                  being arrested. Big Foot was next on the
                  U.S. Army to be captured and placed on
                  trial. The U.S. Army 7th Cavalry was
                  stationed above the Sioux camp at
                  Wounded Knee awaiting orders to go in
                  and capture Big Foot.

                  While mourning of the death of Sitting Bull
                  and the change in the Sioux lifestyle, the
                  Sioux began performing the ceremonial
                  Ghost Dance. The observing U.S. Army
                  officers of the 7th Cavalry felt that the
                  dance was an uprising and moved in
     Big Foot     to search the encampment and disarm the
   Sioux Chief    inhabitants of the camp.
    Tragedy at Wounded Knee
                              The Search

• The 7th Cavalry searched the encampment and found many guns.
• A scuffle occurred when an Army Officer tried to take a gun from a
  deaf Indian.
• From an elevated position a Hotchkiss machine gun opened fire on the
  Sioux (Lakota) encampment.

• 200 unarmed Sioux (Lakota) Indians were killed
• 25 U.S. troops were killed by friendly fire


   • This conflict ended the Ghost Dance
     Movement and the Indian Wars.
December 29, 1890
    The Buffalo Slaughter
Great Plains Buffalo Population:

1865 = 15,000,000

1890 = 1,000


    1. Food    2. Hunting Game     3. Fur
                  William Cody
                  “Buffalo Bill”
                                   Slaughtered buffaloes
                                   and sold the meat to
                                   railroad construction
                                   workers and the U.S
                                   Responsible for killing
                                   over 4,200 buffalo.

Nickname: Engaged in a buffalo killing contest with William Comstock.
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill
           Impact on Indians
  Buffalo = vital component of Native American lifestyle
                Native American uses of the buffalo:

                     Bones = Arrow Heads
                         Meat = Food
                   Fur = Clothing and Shelter
                      Buffalo Chips = Fuel
                      Tails = Fly Swatter
                      Gal Stones = Paint
                   Buffalo Fetus = Delicacy
                   Smoked Fur = Moccasins
    Buffalo were seen as biblical in the eyes of Native Americans.

    “Kill a buffalo and you kill an Indian”
Buffalo Population Decline = contributed to the “Indian Extinction”
                         Chief Seattle
                                Letter to President Franklin Pierce (14th Pres.
                                of the United States) – 1854:

                                “Your destiny is a mystery to us. What will
                                happen when the buffalo are all slaughtered?
                                The wild horses all tamed? What will happen
                                when the secret corners of the forest are heavy
                                with the scent of many men and the view of ripe
                                hills are blotted with talking wires? Where will
                                the thicket be? GONE! Where will the eagle
                                be? GONE! Where will the buffalo be? GONE!
                                And what is to say of the swift pony and then
                                the hunt? The end of living and the beginning
                                of survival.”

Tribe: Suquamish and Duwamish
                                        - Chief Seattle (1854)
 Tribe Homeland: Washington
Buffalo Chips
   The White Man’s Victory

                     Winchester Rifle

                      Colt Revolver

With these weapons, Indians and buffalo were easily killed.
         Senator Henry Dawes
                            Dawes’ Importance:

                            He is responsible for the creation
                            and passage of the General
                            Allotment Act of 1887, which
                            is also known as the Dawes
                            Severalty Act, or the even
                            shorter name the Dawes Act.

                            Facts about the Dawes Act:

                            • Put into affect – 1887

                            • Amended (changed) –1891 and 1906
State: Massachusetts
Time in Office: 1875-1893   • Ended – 1934
     The Dawes Act (1887)
   “The Americanization of the Indians”

                The Law In Theory
1. All Indian tribes are abolished.

2. Established Indian Reservations - each male head of
   an Indian family could claim 160 acres of reservation
   land as a farm.

3. Indians would be taught farming techniques.

4. Cooperating Indians could become American citizens.
     The Dawes Act (1887)
            “The death of the Indians”
                  The Law in Practice
• Indians were never given farm equipment or training.

• Much of reservation land was bought by land speculators.

• Reservation Conditions: disease, malnutrition, & poor sanitation.

• School Teachers taught Indians that there way of life was full of
  “Idleness, Superstition and Barbarism.”

Nothing was done to improve the Indian’s situation until
the Indian New Deal (1934) during the Great Depression.
 Why was the Dawes Act a failure?

1. Corruption (the misuse of money) within the Bureau of
   Indian Affairs (BIA) hurt the success of the Dawes Act
   because it was not properly funded by Washington D.C.

2. Native Americans were never taught proper farming

3. Reservation land was dry and arid, making it difficult to
   successfully farm.
An Americanized Indian
Carlisle Indian School

Where: Carlisle, Pennsylvania
Carlisle Indian School Band
          1968 – Present

Slogan: “Remember Wounded Knee”
1970 – Seized the Mayflower II ship on Thanksgiving Day which was
the 350th anniversary of the Pilgrims' landing at Plymouth Rock.

1970 – Seized abandoned property at the Naval Air Station near
Minneapolis, Minnesota.

1971 – Took over the Winter Dam in Lac Courte Oreilles, Wisconsin.

1971 – Took over Mount Rushmore.

1972 – Trail of Broken Treaties which was a cross-country protest by
American Indian and First Nations organizations intended to bring
attention to American Indian issues such as treaty rights, living
standards, and inadequate housing.
1972 – Took over the Bureau of Idian Affairs Headquarters in
Washington D.C. as part of the Trail of Broken Treaties. 24 people
were arrested during this conflict.

1973 – Took over the Custer County Courthouse in Montana.

1973 – Took over the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota which
is the reservation where the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 took
place. A stand-off between AIM members and the FBI lasted for 71
days. 2 FBI agents and 1 Native American died as a result of the
“shootout” during this conflict.

These events were part of the Civil Rights Movement.
  Native American
Occupation of Alcatraz
      Where: San Francisco Bay
     What: Abandoned U.S. prison
      Existence: Abandoned 1964

      1969 - 1971
                  Where: South Dakota
Because this land is sacred to the Sioux Indians, they refused
to sell this land to the American government.

The U.S. government has tried to negotiate the sale of this land
with the Sioux numerous times, but the Sioux refused to give up
their rights to their sacred homeland.

However, this land was taken with military force by the U.S.
government and mined for gold in violation of the Treaty of
Ft. Laramie (1868) which ended Red Cloud’s War.

To this day the Sioux still claim the rights to this land and refuse
to accept any money for it.

Unclaimed Sioux Money For Land = $600,000,000
“The systematic destruction of a specific group or race.”
Making a Comparison

               The Holocaust

         • Jewish Concentration Camps

         • The German Aryan Race

         • Genocide and Pogroms of Jews

         • Gassing and Burning of Jews

         • Using Jews to police themselves in
           the Jewish ghettos
Making a Comparison
       • Indian Reservations

       • Americanized Indians

       • Massacre of Indians

       • Mass Hangings of Indians

       • Having Indians police themselves
         on the reservations

       • Using Indians to catch Indians
The End

To top