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    COMMERCE 2BA3
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
                   Class 3
    Values, Attitudes & Work Behaviour



            Dr. Christa Wilkin
    Brain Teasers
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                          Last Class
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       Intelligence is very, very important, but it is not the
        only factor that will affect performance
       There are different tools available to influence
        other people’s behaviour
       Being aware of perceptual errors is important for
        recruitment and retention efforts

    THIS CLASS
     Values, Attitudes & Work Behaviour
                           Agenda
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       Different kinds of values
       A closer look at job attitudes such as satisfaction
       Behaviours such as performance and commitment
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CH 4: VALUES, ATTITUDES, AND
    WORK BEHAVIOURS
                  What Are Values?
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       A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs
        over others.
       Values have to do with what we consider good and
        bad.
       Values are motivational and very general.
              Occupational Differences in
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                       Values
       Members of different occupational groups hold
        different values.
         E.g., profs value equal opportunity more than avg person
         E.g., salespeople rank social values lower (peace, equality)

       Differences can cause conflict between organizations
        and within organizations
       A good “fit” between the values of employees and
        their supervisors and organization enhances job
        attitudes and behaviours
                        Question
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       Would you continue working if you won a large
        amount of money in a lottery?
                      Work Centrality
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       Work is valued differently across cultures.
       There are cross-national differences in the extent to
        which people perceive work as a central life
        interest.
       More central interest in work
         Work   more hours
     Values across Cultures: Hofstede’s
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                   Study
        Geert Hofstede questioned over 116,000 IBM
         employees in 40 countries about work-related values.
        Five basic dimensions along which work-related values
         differed across cultures:
          Power  distance
          Uncertainty avoidance

          Masculinity/femininity

          Individualism/collectivism

          Long-term or short-term orientation
                         Power Distance
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        The extent to which an unequal distribution of
         power is accepted by society members.
        In small power distance cultures, inequality is
         minimized, superiors are accessible, and power
         differences are downplayed.
        In large power distance cultures, inequality is
         accepted as natural, superiors are inaccessible, and
         power differences are highlighted.
          e.g.,   movie theatre versus lumber company
                Uncertainty Avoidance
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        The extent to which people are uncomfortable with
         uncertain and ambiguous situations.
        Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules
         and regulations, hard work, conformity, and security.
        Cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance are less
         concerned with rules, conformity, and security; risk
         taking is valued.
        Canada is well below average (exhibits weak
         uncertainty avoidance)
        Question: Advantages? Disadvantages?
                Masculinity/Femininity
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        Masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender
         roles, support the dominance of men, and stress
         economic performance.
        Feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress
         sexual equality, and stress quality of life.
        Canada ranked about mid-pack
            Individualism/Collectivism
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        Individualistic societies stress independence,
         individual initiative, and privacy.
        Collective cultures favour interdependence and
         loyalty to family or clan.

        Question: Any guesses where Canada falls?
     Long-term/Short-term Orientation
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        Cultures with a long-term orientation stress
         persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention
         to status differences.
        Cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal
         steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social
         niceties.
        China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea
         tend to be characterized by a long-term orientaion.
        Canada and the United States are more short-term
         oriented.
                  What Are Attitudes?
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        A fairly stable tendency to respond consistency to
         some specific object, situation, person, or category
         of people.
        They involve evaluations directed toward specific
         targets.
        They are relatively stable.
        Belief + Value = Attitude  Behaviour
              What Is Job Satisfaction?
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        A collection of attitudes that workers have about
         their jobs.
        Two aspects of satisfaction.
        Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency for an
         employee to be more or less satisfied with various
         facets of the job:
          Thework itself
          Compensation

          Career opportunities
               Overall Job Satisfaction
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        Overall satisfaction is an average or total of the
         attitudes individuals hold toward various facets of
         the job.
        My research: Comparison of job satisfaction
         between permanent and contingent workers
          Contingent  workers experience lower job satisfaction
          Certain types of workers (e.g., agency workers)
           experience more unfavorable psychological outcomes
           than other contingent workers (e.g., direct-hire workers,
           self-employed workers)
                  What Determines Job
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                     Satisfaction?
        A person’s job satisfaction is determined by a
         number of factors:
          Discrepancy

          Fairness

          Disposition

          Mood   and emotion
                  Discrepancy Theory
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        A theory that job satisfaction stems from the
         discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and
         the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained.
        There is strong evidence that satisfaction with one’s
         pay is high when there is a small gap between the
         pay received and the perception of how much pay
         should be received.
                               Fairness
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        There are three basic kinds of fairness:
          Distributivefairness (the outcomes we receive)
          Procedural fairness (the process that led to those
           outcomes)
          Interactional fairness (how these matters were
           communicated to us)
        Some people think that interactional fairness is
         really comprised of two types of fairness
          Interpersonal   and Informational
                 Distributive Fairness
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        Fairness that occurs when people receive what they
         think they deserve from their jobs.
        It involves the distribution of work rewards and
         resources.
        Individuals want “what’s fair.”
        Equity theory provides a way of understanding how
         people determine what is fair.
                       Equity Theory
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        A theory that job satisfaction stems from a
         comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the
         outcomes one receives in comparison to the inputs
         and outcomes of another person or group.

                  My outcomes = Other’s outcomes
                      My inputs      Other’s inputs


        Question: You and I do the same job but I get paid
         $10 more an hour than you. Is this fair?
                  Procedural Fairness
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        Fairness that occurs when the process used to
         determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable.
        It is concerned with how outcomes are decided and
         allocated.
        It is particularly relevant to outcomes such as
         performance evaluations, pay raises, promotions,
         layoffs, and work assignments.
                     Procedural Fairness
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        In allocating outcomes, the following factors
         contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness. The
         allocator:
          Follows   consistent procedures over time and across
           people.
          Uses accurate information and appears unbiased.

          Allows two-way communication during the allocation
           process.
          Welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation.
                 Interactional Fairness
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        Fairness that occurs when people feel that they
         have received respectful and informative
         communication about an outcome.
        Interactional fairness is important because it is
         possible for absolutely fair outcomes or procedures
         to be perceived as unfair when they are
         inadequately or uncaringly explained.
                   Individual Exercise
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        Read case incident “How much do you get paid?”
        Answer the following two questions:
          According  to equity theory, how will these incidents
           influence Joan’s job satisfaction and behaviour?
          What should Joan do in response to her situation? What
           should her organization do?
        Be prepared to report back to the class
                        Disposition
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        Could your personality contribute to your feelings
         of job satisfaction?
        People who are extraverted and conscientious tend
         to be more satisfied with their jobs.
        Those high in neuroticism are less satisfied.
        People who are high in self-esteem and internal
         locus of control are more satisfied.
        People who are optimistic and proactive report
         higher job satisfaction.
                   Mood and Emotion
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        Emotions are intense, often short-lived feelings
         caused by a particular event such as a bad
         performance appraisal.
          E.g.,I’m so mad at my boss for giving me a lousy
           annual performance review because I made that big
           mistake last week. (Question: What type of perceptual
           error is this?)
        Moods are less intense, longer-lived, and more
         diffuse feelings.
               I woke up on the wrong side of the bed this
          E.g.,
           morning.
               Affective Events Theory
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        How do emotions and moods affect job satisfaction?
        Organizational events and happenings can provoke
         emotions and influence moods depending on how
         they are appraised.
        Emotions and moods can in turn influence job
         satisfaction.


           Work Event         Emotions           Job
         e.g., promotion     and Moods       Satisfaction
                             e.g., happy
                    Emotional Contagion
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        Mood and emotion can also influence job
         satisfaction through emotional contagion.
        Emotional contagion is the tendency for moods and
         emotions to spread between people or throughout a
         group.
          E.g.,   Debbie Downer clip from SNL
                   Emotional Regulation
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        Mood and emotion can also influence job
         satisfaction through emotional regulation.
        Emotional regulation is the requirement for people
         to conform to certain “display rules”
        This is often referred to as “emotional labour.”
               in customer service jobs may need to smile and be
          E.g.,
           pleasant despite customers’ behaviour
                Emotional Regulation
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        In some jobs, employees must exaggerate positive
         emotions while in others they must suppress negative
         emotions.
        The frequent need to suppress negative emotions
         can lower job satisfaction and increase stress.
        Some research suggests that the need to express
         positive emotions improves job satisfaction.
     Consequences of Job Satisfaction
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        Job satisfaction has a number of consequences:
          Absence    from work
          Turnover

          Performance

          Organizational  citizenship behaviour
          Customer satisfaction and profit
                            Absenteeism
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        Less satisfied employees are more likely to be
         absent.
          E.g.,   may call in sick when not really sick
        Satisfaction with the content of the work is the best
         predictor of absenteeism.
        The absence-satisfaction connection is not very
         strong.
                           Turnover
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        Turnover refers to resignation from an organization
         and it can be very expensive.
        Research indicates a moderately strong connection
         between job satisfaction and turnover.
        Less-satisfied workers are more likely to quit.



        Question: What type of commitment could explain
         why some dissatisfied people stay in their jobs?
                         Question
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        Are happy employees productive employees?
                           Performance
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        Research has found that job satisfaction is
         associated with higher job performance.
          BUT,  satisfied workers will not be necessarily more
           productive and productive workers are not necessarily
           satisfied
        The most important facet for predicting
         performance is the content of the work itself.
        When good performance is followed by rewards,
         employees are more likely to be satisfied.
                      Job               Job
                  Satisfaction      Performance
            Organizational Citizenship
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                Behaviour (OCB)
        Voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to
         organizational effectiveness.
        Job satisfaction is strongly related to OCB.
        The different forms of OCB:
          Helping behaviour and offering assistance.
          Conscientiousness to the details of work.

          Being a good sport.

          Courtesy and cooperation.
         Customer Satisfaction and Profit
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        How does employee satisfaction translate into
         customer satisfaction?
          Reduced  absenteeism and turnover contribute to the
           seamless delivery of service (continuity of service)
          OCBs stimulate good teamwork

          Good mood among employees can be contagious for
           customers
                  Individual Exercise
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        Think about someone you know who worked at an
         organization for a very long time.
        WHY do you think they stayed for so long?
        How long did they stay?
                       Work Commitment
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        Organizational commitment is an attitude that
         reflects the strength of the linkage between an
         employee and an organization.
        There are three different types of organizational
         commitment:
          Affectivecommitment
          Continuance commitment

          Normative commitment
                Affective Commitment
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        Commitment based on a person’s identification and
         involvement with an organization.
        People with high affective commitment stay with an
         organization because they want to.
         I  feel like part of the family at this company
          Working here has a great deal of personal meaning

          I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career
           here
        Question: Advantages? Disadvantages?
                Continuance Commitment
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        Commitment based on the costs that would be
         incurred in leaving an organization.
        People with high continuance commitment stay with
         an organization because they have to.
        Pay, pensions, benefits, etc.
            would be hard for me to leave, even if I wanted to
          It
          One disadvantage of leaving this firm is the scarcity of
           available job alternatives
        Question: Advantages? Disadvantages?
                    Quiz Question
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     What factor would be most likely to boost continuance
     commitment?
       A) A generous pension fund
       B) Organizational ideology
       C) Interesting work
       D) Moving to a new community
       E) Friendly supervision
               Normative Commitment
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        Commitment based on ideology or a feeling of
         obligation to an organization.
        People with high normative commitment stay with an
         organization because they think they should do so.
         I  owe a great deal to my company
          I would feel guilty if I quit this firm

          I feel a sense of obligation to this firm

        Question: Advantages? Disadvantages?
                      Group Activity
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        Divide into groups of 5 - 6 people
        Refer back to everyone’s paragraph that was
         written.
        As a group, discuss what forms of organizational
         commitment are evident in each person’s
         paragraph.
        Pick one example to report back to the class
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QUESTIONS?
                          Summary
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        A good “fit” between the values of employees
         and their supervisors and organization enhances
         job attitudes and behaviours.
        Job Satisfaction
          Affects many behaviors that are not directly related
           to performance (e.g., absenteeism, OCBs)
        Fostering commitment is important
          Continuance  commitment lower performance, while
           affective commitment increases performance
                     For Next Class
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        Read chapters 5 and 6 on motivation
                       Form Groups
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        Let’s now form the groups for the movie assignment
        Pick your movie or TV show
        Within your groups, talk about the expectations that
         you have of each other
        Exchange contact information

				
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