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					                                     professional expertise distilled
               P U B L I S H I N G




IBM WebSphere Application
Server v7.0 Security




Omar Siliceo




                Chapter No.1
"A Threefold View of WebSphere Application
              Server Security"
In this package, you will find:
A Biography of the author of the book
A preview chapter from the book, Chapter NO.1 "A Threefold View of WebSphere
Application Server Security"
A synopsis of the book’s content
Information on where to buy this book




About the Author
Omar Siliceo, a professional Systems Engineer with a Master of Science degree in
Electrical Engineering, started his IT career in the year 1991 as a Research Specialist,
performing the roles of systems specialist, Internet and Unix systems administrator, and
Internet systems consultant, when he was invited to join the Computer Center group at
Vanderbilt University. In 1994, he joined the information technology team as a
consultant, performing systems integration at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and
Research Centre in Saudi Arabia. After returning to the United States of America in
1997, he launched his IT consulting practice, creating partnerships with companies such
as CTG and Ajilon. During the period from 1997-2004 he spent most of it (19972002)
working with IBM in finding e-commerce solutions for customers such as Macy's, the
NBA Store and Blair, and event Cybercast Infrastructure Administration for customers
such as The Wimbledon Championships and The Masters Golf Tournament. It was
during this period that he became exposed to early WebSphere technologies, including
but not limited to WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere Commerce Suite,
WebSphere Portal, and WebSphere Everyplace Suite.
In his last year with IBM, he focused on providing design, programming consultation,
and problem solving to Fortune 500 software vendors and software integrators who were



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IBM's business partners. Between 2002 and 2004, he served as a consultant to The World
Bank Group and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida. His role was the administration of
WebSphere environments including some special projects such as the rollout of the latest
version of their WebSphere environments. In 2004, he interrupted his consulting practice
when he was invited to join the IT engineering team at Cummins, Inc. He served as
Senior Web Technologies Engineer and later on as the Web Deployment team manager.
As Senior Engineer, he architected the infrastructure environment for WebSphere 5.1,
defining standards for platform creation, WAS deployment, and integration with existing
enterprise technologies and services. In 2008, he resumed his consulting practice,
supporting WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere Portal, and WebSphere Edge
Components efforts and initiatives with Bank of America (2008), Blue Cross Blue Shield
of Florida (2008 2009), and The World Bank Group, where he is currently Senior
WebSphere Suite consultant.
        First and foremost, I would like to thank the Lord for providing this
        unique, challenging, and rewarding opportunity as well as the resources
        to complete this fun project. Secondly, I would also like to thank my
        wife, Melissa, for her love, support, and encouragement throughout this
        undertaking. In addition, I wish to extend my gratitude to my sons, Tano
        and Chago, for allowing me to give up time that otherwise I would have
        spent with them.
        Furthermore, I would like to express my appreciation to Packt for having
        reached out to me to propose this project. In particular, I thank my
        editorial team and their management for all the support provided in order
        to make this project a reality. I also would like to thank the technical
        team of experts who painstakingly reviewed each of the chapters for their
        corrections, observations, and most welcomed suggestions to improve
        the quality of this work.
        Finally, I want to thank the folks at The World Bank Group, in particular
        Srini, Balaji, Suresh, and Ajay, for their encouragement during this
        project. I think they promised to buy a copy each.




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IBM WebSphere Application Server
v7.0 Security
IBM WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment is IBM's fl agship J2EE
application server platform. It implements the J2EE technology stack. This stack enables
the WebSphere Application Server platform to execute the user's Java enterprise
applications that perform business functions. There are several roles who use this
platform such as architects, developers, and administrators, to mention a few. Within the
administrator role, in turn, there are several functions such as installation, performance,
security, and so on.
This book starts with an in-depth analysis of the global and administrative security
features of WebSphere Application Server v7.0, followed by comprehensive coverage of
user registries for user authentication and authorization information. Moving on you will
build on the concepts introduced and get hands-on with a mini project. In the next
chapter, you work with the different front-end architectures of WAS along with the
Secure Socket Layer protocol, which offer transport layer security through
data encryption.
You can learn user authentication and data encryption, which demonstrate how a clear
text channel can be made safer, by using SSL transport to encrypt its data. This book will
show you how to enable an enterprise application hosted in a WebSphere Application
Server environment to interact with other applications, resources, and services available
in a corporate infrastructure. Platform hardening, tuning parameters for tightening
security, and troubleshooting are some of the aspects of WebSphere Application Server
v7.0 security that are explored in the book. Every chapter builds strong security
foundations, by demonstrating concepts and practicing them through the use of dynamic,
web-based mini projects.


What This Book Covers
Chapter 1, A Threefold View of WebSphere Application Server Security, uses a novel
approach to compare ways in which WebSphere security elements are perceived, usually
according to the role of the individual working with the technology. These ways or views
help you understand the foundations of WebSphere security, providing multiple angles
from where to analyze this set of technologies and communicate in their language with
different functional teams within your organization.
Chapter 2, Securing the Administrative Interface, walks you through the necessary steps
to secure access to the WebSphere graphical interface, known as the ISC (Integrated
Solutions Console). As a prerequisite to securing the ISC, you must first enable the
WebSphere Application Server platform security, known as global security. During these



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processes, the chapter succinctly describes relevant security topics (for example, user
registries) and highlights what parameters are required in order to perform each step.
Chapter 3, Configuring User Authentication and Access, provides concise technical
background on the security topics related to setting up user authentication (validation of
presented user credentials) and user access—determining if an authenticated user has
rights to access to the requests made. The chapter describes some important concepts
such as WebSphere Security Domains (a new feature in version 7 of WAS), user
registries (reviewed in more depth), as well as a review of popular user registries
available to be used in a WebSphere environment. The chapter ends by binding all these
concepts using a mini project that walks you through protecting application servers.
Chapter 4, Front-End Communication Security, describes and compares popular
infrastructure architectures used to design front-end of a WebSphere environment. The
chapter goes on explaining a major security used to secure communication channels,
SSL, and describes several related aspects such as SSL certificates and CA (certificate
authority). At the end, the chapter walks you through the process, in the way of a mini
project, used to secure the front-end of a WebSphere environment from the HTTP server
(IHS) to the actual Application Server.
Chapter 5, Securing Web Applications, briefly introduces concepts related to securing
Java Web Applications (or more succinctly Web Applications). The chapter then uses an
in-depth mini project where you will be walked through in the various stages to design,
code, package, deploy, and configure a simple Web Application that offers access to
employees of a fictional corporation. Each type of employee will have access only to
sections of the Web Application. Therefore, you will configure WebSphere in order to
implement this secure functionality.
Chapter 6, Securing Enterprise Java Beans Applications, introduces concepts related to
Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) technologies such as declarative and programmatic
security. The chapter then uses the mini-project approach to walk you through the stages
needed to design, code, package, deploy, and configure a simple EJB application. The
mini-project in this chapter reuses modules from the previous chapter to implement a
very simple portal application that will offer a better user experience to the employees of
our fictional corporation.
Chapter 7, Securing Back-end Communication, focuses on two major concepts:
authentication and data encryption. Authentication is reviewed from the point of view of
trust between two infrastructure components, for example, WebSphere and a back-end
database. The chapter expands on the major topics by providing in detail two examples of
their use. It explores how encryption is used in the communication between WebSphere
and a popular type of user registry, LDAP. The chapter also examines the use of
authentication during the exchanges between WebSphere and databases using the JDBC
protocol.




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Chapter 8, Secure Enterprise Infrastructure Architectures, describes areas that will
enable an enterprise application hosted in a WebSphere environment interact with
possibly other applications, resources, and services available in a corporation
infrastructure. It covers central concepts such as LTPA and SSO. The chapter ends by
showing you how to fi ne-tune authorization at the HTTP Server level as well as at the
WebSphere level.
Chapter 9, WebSphere Default Installation Hardening, deals with engineering the default
WebSphere installation by changing its default parameters in order to harden the
product's security side and customizing the fi les that hold the WebSphere environment
security certificates and signers. The chapter focuses on two major aspects. While it
points out what characteristics in the OS to review and modify, on the other hand, it
discusses securing fi les related to certificates—key and trust stores—and fi les that hold
passwords.
Chapter 10, Platform Hardening, looks at aspects of the platform where WebSphere is
hosted that can be modified to increase the environment security. The chapter breaks
down the OS into areas relevant to the WebSphere platform: generic operating system
characteristics (for example, user accounts), file system features (for example, fi le
permissions), and network system configuration.
Chapter 11, Security Tuning and Troubleshooting, overviews three major areas that can
be improved by tuning key parameters as well as a couple of troubleshooting areas. The
tuning section overviews general security, CSIv2 connectivity, and user directories and
user permissions. Finally, the troubleshooting section reviews general security
configuration exceptions and run time security exceptions.




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                    A Threefold View of
                  WebSphere Application
                        Server Security
Imagine yourself at an athletic event. Hey! No, no-you are at the right place. Yes,
this is a technical book. Just bear with me for a minute. Well, now that the little
misunderstanding is out of the way let's go back to the beginning. The home
crowd is really excited about the performance of its team. However, that superb
performance has not been yet reflected on the scoreboard. When finally that
performance pays off with the long-waited score, 'it' happens! The score gets called
off. It is not at all unlikely that a controversial call would be made, or worse yet,
not made! Or so we think. There is a group of players and fans of the team that just
scored that 'see' the play as a masterpiece of athletic execution. Then there is another
group, that of players and coaches of the visiting team who clearly see a violation
to the rules just before the score. And there is a third group, the referees. Well, who
knows what they see! The fact is that for the same action, there may be several
perceptions of the same set of events. Albert Einstein and other scientists provided
a great example of multi-perception with the wave-particle duality concept. In a
similar fashion, a WebSphere based environment could be analyzed in a number
of forms. None of the forms or views is absolutely correct or incorrect. Each view,
however, helps to focus on the appropriate set of components and their relationships
for a given situation or need.




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A Threefold View of WebSphere Application Server Security

WebSphere Application Server technology is a long and complex subject. This
chapter provides three WAS ND environment views, emphasizing security, which
will help the reader connect individual security tasks to the big picture. One view
aids the WebSphere administrator to relate isolated security tasks to the overall
middleware infrastructure (for example, messaging systems, directory services,
and back-end databases to name a few). This is useful in possible interactions with
teams responsible for such technologies. On the other hand, a second view helps the
administrator to link specific security configuration tasks to a particular Enterprise
Application (for example, EJB applications, Service Integration Bus, and many
more) set of components. This view will help the administrator to relate to possible
development team needs. The chapter also includes a third view, one that focuses
on the J2EE technology stack as it relates to security. This view could help blend
the former two views. So, in a nutshell, the three major parts that make up this first
chapter are:

       The Enterprise Application Server infrastructure architecture view
       The WebSphere Application Server architecture view
       The WebSphere technology stack view



Enterprise Application-server
infrastructure architecture view
This chapter starts with the Application Server infrastructure architecture view.
The actual order of each of these major chapter sub-sections is really unimportant.
However, since it needs to be a beginning, the infrastructure architecture view is
thus selected.

A possibly more formal name for what it is desired to convey in this section would be
the Enterprise J2EE Application server infrastructure architecture. In this way, the scope of
technologies that make up the application-centric architecture is well defined as that
pertaining to J2EE applications. Nevertheless, this type of architecture is not exclusive
to a WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment environment. Well, it's not
in a way. If the architecture does not mention specific implementations of a function,
it is a generic view of the architecture. On the other hand, if the architecture view
defines or includes specific branded technologies of a function (for example, IHS for a
web server function), then it is a specialized architecture. The point is that other J2EE
application server products not related to the WebSphere umbrella may use the same
generic type of infrastructure architecture.




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                                                                               Chapter 1

Therefore, this view has to do with J2EE application servers and the enterprise
infrastructure components needed to sustain such application servers in a way that
they can host a variety of enterprise applications (also known as J2EE applications).
The following diagram provides an example of a basic WebSphere Application
Server infrastructure architecture topology:




                           The use of multiple user registries is new in
                           version 7.0



Simple infrastructure architecture
characteristics
The architecture is basic since it only shows the minimum infrastructure components
needed by a WebSphere Application Server infrastructure to become functional. In
this diagram, the infrastructure elements are presented as they relate to each other
functionally. In other words, the diagram is generic enough that it only shows and
identifies the components by their main function. For instance, the infrastructure
diagram includes, among others, proxy and messaging servers. Nothing in the
diagram implies the mapping of a given functional component to a specific physical
element such as an OS server or a specialized appliance.




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A Threefold View of WebSphere Application Server Security

Branded infrastructure elements
The infrastructure architecture presented in the diagram depicts a WebSphere
clustered environment. The only technologies identified by their brand are the
IBM HTTP Server (IHS) web server component (represented by the two rectangles
(light blue) labeled IHS) and the WebSphere Application Server (WAS) nodes
(represented by the rectangles (green) labeled WAS).

These two simple components offer a variety of architectural choices, such as:

       Hosting both components in a single OS host under a WAS node
       Host each component in their own OS host in the same sub-network
         (normally an intranet)
       Host each component in different OS hosts in different sub-network
         (normally a DMZ for the IHS and intranet for the WAS)

The choice for a specific architecture will be made in terms of a variety of
requirements for your environment, including security requirements.


Generic infrastructure components
The infrastructure diagram also includes a number of components that are only
identified by their function but no information is provided as to the specific
technology/product implementing the function. For instance, there are four shapes
(light yellow) labeled DB, Messaging, Legacy Systems, and Service Providers. In
your environment, there may be choices to make in terms of the specific component.
Take for instance, the DB component. Identifying what DB server or servers will
be part of the architecture is dependent on the type of database employed by
the enterprise application being hosted. Some corporations limit the number of
database types to less than a handful. Nevertheless, the objective of the WebSphere
Administrator responsible for the environment is to identify which type of databases
will be interfacing with the WAS environment. Once that fact is determined, the
appropriate brand/product could be added to the architecture diagram.

Other technologies/components that need to be identified in a similar way are the
user registry (represented by the shape (light purple) labeled User Registry), the
security access component (represented in the diagram by the oval (yellow) labeled
Security Access). A common type of user registry used in WebSphere environments
is an LDAP server. Furthermore, a popular security access product is SiteMinder
(formerly by Netegrity, now offered by CA).




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                                                                               Chapter 1

The remaining group of elements in the architecture has the function to front-end
the IHS/WAS environment in order to provide high availability and added security.
Proxy servers may be used or not, depending on whether the IHS function can be
brought to the DMZ in its own OS host. Specialized appliances offered by companies
such as CISCO or F5 normally implement load balancers. However, some software
products can be used to implement this function. An example to the latter is the
IBM WebSphere Edge suite. In general, most corporations already own and use
firewalls and load balancers; so for the WebSphere administrator, it is just a matter of
integrating them to the WebSphere infrastructure.


Using the infrastructure architecture view
Some of the benefits of picturing your WebSphere environment using the
infrastructure architecture view come from realizing the following important points:

      Identify the technology or technology choices to be used to implement a
        specific function. For instance, what type of user registry to use.
      An immediate result of the previous point is identifying the corporate group
        the WebSphere administrator would be working with in order to integrate
        (that is, configure) said technology and WebSphere.
      Once the initial architecture has been laid out, the WebSphere administrator
        will be responsible to identify the type of security involved to secure the
        interactions between the various infrastructure architecture components. For
        instance, what type of communication will take place between the IHS and
        the Security Access component, if any. What is the best way to secure the
        communication channel? How is the IHS component authenticated to the
        Security Access component?



WebSphere architecture view
The next view to be presented is that of the WebSphere Application Server
product architecture. In a nutshell, the WebSphere Application Server product is an
implementation of the J2EE set of specifications with some added functionality only
found in this IBM product. Therefore, as opposed to the previous section, this view is
unique to WebSphere.

Consequently, this section briefly presents the salient components of the J2EE
technologies and their relation to each other from the functional and architectural
point of view. Furthermore, emphasis will be placed on aspects that affect or may be
affected by security considerations.



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A Threefold View of WebSphere Application Server Security

WebSphere Application Server simplified
architecture
The following diagram depicts a simplified version of the WebSphere Application
Server architecture. It presents the application server in the context of a WebSphere
node. The application server is the implementation of a JVM. The JVM is made up
of various components and at the same time, the JVM interacts with several external
components that make up the WebSphere node. So, the diagram presents two major
components of a WebSphere environment. On the one hand, the JVM is represented
by the parallelogram (purple ) labeled Application Server. On the other hand, a
larger parallelogram (teal) labeled node represents the WebSphere node.

Keep in mind that the simplification to the architecture has been done to concentrate
on how it relates to application hosting in a secure environment.




                    The concept of local security domains is new in version 7.0.




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                                                                                 Chapter 1

WebSphere node component
The node component of this simplified architecture occupies itself with
administrative and thus security aspects between the WebSphere environment and
the infrastructure. In the previous diagram, three components can be observed. The
first component is the node agent; represented by the small parallelogram labeled
Node agent. Notice that the node agent in itself is implemented by a specialized
JVM, containing the components required to efficiently perform administrative
tasks, which will include security related tasks. The node agent will interact with
WebSphere environment administrative components externals to the node (and not
included in the diagram). The chief among those external WebSphere components is
the Deployment Manager. One of the responsibilities of the node agent as it pertains
to the node and thus, to the application server JVM, is to maintain updated and
valid copies of the node configuration repository. Such a repository may include
information dealing with security domain information, either inherited from the
WebSphere cell global security or customized for the node, represented by the
parallelogram (black) labeled Local Security Domain.


WebSphere JVM component
The second major component of this simplified architecture is the implementation
of a JVM. It is represented in the diagram by a large parallelogram (purple) labeled
Application Server. A WebSphere JVM is made of, among other components,
several containers such as the Web and EJB containers. Containers, on top of hosting
instantiations of Java classes such as servlets and beans, that is, offering the runtime
environment for those classes to execute, deal with security aspects of the execution.
For instance, a Web Container may, given the appropriate settings, oversee that
hosted resources only execute if the principal making the request has the required
proof that entitles such principal of receiving the result of said request.

In addition to containers, a WebSphere JVM may also instantiate a service integration
bus (SIB) if a hosted application makes use of the JVM messaging engine. In the
diagram, the arrow (brown) labeled SIB represents the bus. Finally, the other JVM
components included in this simplified architecture are the administrative component
and the JVM security mechanism. This mechanism will interact with the containers to
ensure that security is propagated to the classes executing in the said containers.




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A Threefold View of WebSphere Application Server Security

From this discussion, it can be extrapolated that each vendor has certain leniency as
to the actual implementation of Sun's JVM. IBM is not an exception to this practice.
If you wish to find out more about the particulars of the IBM JVM implementation
for WebSphere please refer to the Information Center article "Specifications and
API" (http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v7r0/index.
jsp?topic=/com.ibm.websphere.nd.doc/info/ae/ae/rovr_specs.html). In
that article you will find out which Java specifications and application programming
interfaces are implemented as well as the version each implements. This information is
presented in a neat table that helps you compare each specification and API version to
earlier editions of the WebSphere Application Server product (that is, 5.1, 6.0 and 6.1).


Using the WebSphere architecture view
The main benefit of analyzing your WebSphere environment using this view is that
it will provide you with the vocabulary to better understand the needs of application
developers and architects and, equally important, to communicate back to them the
special features the WebSphere environment may offer them as well as any possible
restrictions imposed by security or other infrastructure characteristics.

An additional benefit provided by this view is that it offers alternatives to
troubleshooting application related issues, as you will become more familiar with
which JVM components are being used as the runtime environment for a given
enterprise application.


WebSphere technology stack view
Finally, the third view covered in this chapter is that of the WebSphere environment
technology stack. In other words, this view presents which technologies from the
operating system to the WebSphere Application product are involved, highlighting
the aspects related to security. This view is broken down into three categories, which
are described in the following paragraphs. The stack and its categories are depicted
in the diagram shown in the next sub-section.


OS platform security
At the bottom of the stack there are the primitive technologies. The term primitive in
this context does not carry the meaning of backward, but rather that of foundation
technologies. In the following diagram, the rectangular (bright green) area located at
the bottom of the stack represents the OS platform layer.




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                                                                                Chapter 1

In this layer, the presence of the underlying operating system can be observed. In
the end, it is the responsibility of the OS to provide the low-level resources needed
by the WebSphere environment. Furthermore, it is also its responsibility to enforce
any security policies required on such resources. Two of the more prominent OS
components as they relate to a WebSphere environment are the file system and the
networking infrastructure. Both the file systems and the networking infrastructure
are handlers of special resources.




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A Threefold View of WebSphere Application Server Security

Java technology security
The next layer in this architecture is that of the Java technology. This layer
comprehends the core Java technologies and APIs used within the WebSphere
environment. In the previous diagram, the layer is represented by the rectangle (teal)
in the middle of the stack.

The layer is further broken down into three distinct groups among the Java stack.
At the bottom sit the foundational bricks. The Java Virtual Machine and the Java
Language Specification. The JVM is the enabler whereas the Language Specification
lays down basic and general rules that must obeyed by the entities that will populate
the JVM.

The middle brick of this layer is that of Java 2 Security. It includes more
sophisticated rules that will enable entities in the JVM to achieve more complex
behaviors in harmony with the rest of the inhabitants.

Finally, at the top of this layer there is the J2EE Security brick. It brings additional
enablers to the JVM and rules that must be followed by the entities that populate
these remote areas of the Java galaxy.


WebSphere security
At the top of the technology stack, sits the WebSphere security layer. It builds up
on the previous layers and brings on board open and proprietary security bricks to
supplement the Java foundation.

In other words, the WebSphere high-level security layer offers conduits using
a number of technologies such as LTPA, Kerberos, and so on, that make the
WebSphere environment more robust. This layer is represented in the previous
diagram by the rectangle (maroon) located at the top.

In general, the number of technologies supported by this layer as well as the
implementation version of such technologies is one of the aspects that make up each
new WebSphere release.




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                                                                               Chapter 1

Using the technology stack view
One of the main benefits of the technology stack view is that it helps WebSphere
practitioners involved in various roles to map the various technologies included
in this stack to the functional blocks that make up the other two views. Some
practitioners will benefit by selecting the most appropriate subset among the classes
offered by the WebSphere environment to implement a required functionality. Other
practitioners will benefit by integrating into the WebSphere environment the best
infrastructure component that will help to enable a piece of functionality required by
a hosted application.



Summary
This chapter presents an introduction to WebSphere security by taking the reader to
a tour that helps him observe the environment from three different angles. Each of
the views presented in a way supplements the other two. Aspects related to security
are at the center of each of the views described. In this chapter and in the remaining
part of the book experienced users will get acquainted with new security aspects
offered by the IBM WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment version
7.0. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, the material covered in this chapter
and the rest of the book is presented so no prior knowledge of WebSphere security
(as in earlier versions of WebSphere) is required. This fact makes it easier for new
WebSphere administrators to learn the security aspects of WebSphere version 7.0.
Throughout the rest of the book, the terms WebSphere Application Server Network
Deployment version 7 and WAS ND7 will be used interchangeably. Let's get started!




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Where to buy this book
You can buy IBM WebSphere Application Server v7.0 Security from the Packt
Publishing website: https://www.packtpub.com/ibm-websphere-
application-server-v70-security/book.
Free shipping to the US, UK, Europe and selected Asian countries. For more information, please
read our shipping policy.
Alternatively, you can buy the book from Amazon, BN.com, Computer Manuals and
most internet book retailers.




                                             professional expertise distilled
                  P U B L I S H I N G
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Description: WebSphere is IBM's software platform. It includes the preparation, operation and monitoring of weather on demand for industrial-strength Web applications and cross-platform, cross-product solutions needed to the middleware infrastructure, such as servers, services and tools. WebSphere provides reliable, flexible and robust software.