Physical Geography of the United States and Canada

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					Physical Geography of the
United States and Canada
         Chapter 5
Section 1: Landforms and Resources
   Landscape Influenced Development:
    The United States & Canada is known as
    Anglo America because both countries
    were colonies of Great Britain & most
    people speak English. The two countries
    are bound together by physical geography
    & cultural heritage, but also strong
    economic & political ties.
 Vast lands:            Abundant
                          Resources: both
 Canada is                have natural
 second in size &         resources, fertile soils,
 the U.S. is third.       water, vast forests,
                          and large deposits of
 Russia is rank as        different minerals.
 the largest.            Resources attracted
                          immigrants & it has
                          enabled them to
                          become economic
                          powers.
Many and Varied Landforms
   The Eastern                 Interior Lowlands:
    Lowlands: flat               this area was flattened
    coastal plain.               by huge glaciers
   One section is called        thousands of years
    the Atlantic Coastal         ago. It includes rolling
    Plain & runs to the          hills, lakes, rivers, &
    Gulf Coastal.                most fertile soil.
   The Appalachian             Divided into 3
    Highlands: its extend        subregion: interior
    1,600 miles from             plains, Great Plains, &
    Newfoundland in              Canadian Shield.
    Canada to Alabama.
    400 million years old.
   Western Mountains:        The  Islands:
    massive rugged Rocky
    Mountains. It extend      Canada’s are
    3,000 miles, from          Ellesmere,
    Alaska to New Mexico.
    80 millions years old.     Victoria, &
   Continental Divide is      Baffin.
    the line of highest       United States:
    points in the Rockies
    that marks the             Hawaiian
    separation between         islands.
    rivers flowing
    eastward & westward.
Resources Shape Ways of Life:
   Oceans & Waterways: Canada & the U.S. have
    ample of water resources. Three oceans: Atlantic,
    Pacific, & Arctic.
   Great lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, &
    Superior.
   Rivers: Mississippi-Missouri-Ohio & the Rio
    Grande. Canada’s is the Mackenzie River.
   Land & Forests: both countries are large &
    contain some of the most fertile soils in the
    world. North America is the world’s leading food
    exporter. They also have huge forest, ½ of
    Canada is covered by woodland, the U.S. is 1/3.
    Both countries are major producers of lumber &
    forest products.
Minerals and Fossil Fuels
   The U.S. & Canada have large quantities &
    different kinds of minerals & fossils fuels.
   This resources gave them the means to
    industrialize rapidly.
   In the Canadian Shield: iron ore, nickel, copper,
    gold, & uranium.
   Western Mts: gold, silver, copper, & uranium.
   Both have substantial deposits of coal, natural
    gas, and oil, & well developed network to move
    this fossil fuels.
   The U.S. is the world’s biggest consumer of
    energy resources. It is a major importer of this
    fuels. Most of Canada’s energy exports go to the
    U.S.
Climate and Vegetation
        Section 2
Climate & vegetation: Part A
   Colder Climates:             Moderate Climates:
   1. Arctic coastlines of      4. North Central &
    Alaska and Canada;            Northeastern U.S. &
    huge, treeless plain;         much of southern
    also the Rocky Mts. &         Canada; also Pacific
    Pacific ranges.               Coast.
   2. Tundra/long, bitter       5. Humid continental
    cold winters, brief           climate with short
    summers in Arctic             summers in the upper
    areas; varying                part of the north central
    temperatures in mts.          zone; marine west coast
   3. Permafrost,                in the Pacific coast.
    permanently frozen           6. Prevailing westerlies
    ground along Arctic           affect the Pacific coast
    coastlines.                   climate.
Part B: U.S. Climate Zones
   Milder Climates: Southern states—humid
    subtropical climate with hot summers & mild,
    cool winters: central & southern coast of
    California—Mediterranean climate with dry,
    sunny, warm summers & mild winters
   Dry Climates: Great Plains and dry northern
    parts of the Great Basin—Semiarid climate with
    dry weather; southwestern states—desert
    climate.
   Tropical Climates: Hawaii—wet climates that
    support rain forests; Florida—wet & dry seasons
   Human-Environment
Interaction in Canada & The
             U.S.
      Chapter 5 Section 3
A Human Perspective
   The sun-baked American Southwest was a
    harsh environment for its early inhabitants,
    the ancestors of today’s Pueblo peoples. But
    these early settlers, made good use of
    available resources. From the land, they
    took clay and stone building materials. They
    built multi-room, apartment-like dwellings
    in cliffs. This gave protection against
    daytime heat, nighttime cold, and human
    and animal enemies. From plants and
    animals, the early settlers got food and
    clothing. They survived because they
    adapted to their environment.
Settlement & Agriculture Alter the Land
 Settlement:   First inhabitants
  nomads, probably migrated from
  Asia over Beringia
 Agriculture: Made settlements
  permanent; remains an
  important activity in both the
  United States and Canada.
Building Cities
 Montreal: is Canada’s 2nd largest city & a
  major port. It has adapted to the cold by
  building underground areas.
 Los Angeles: mild climate drew
  thousands and urban sprawl began, as
  well as problems like air pollution,
  inadequate water, and construction on
  land where earthquakes are likely to
  occur.
The Welland Canal is a strategic link between Lake Ontario and Lake
Erie. To accommodate as much traffic as possible the lock system was
divided in two at several places, as on this photo. Photo: St. Lawrence
Seaway Authority.
Overcoming Distances
   Trails & waterways: Trials for
    transportation/movement included the early
    National & Wilderness roads, & Oregon & Santa
    Fe trails. Canals included the Erie, as well as the
    U.S. and Canada’s most important deepwater
    ship route, the St. Lawrence Seaway.
   Transcontinental railroads: In both the U.S. &
    Canada, rail lines across the country permanently
    changed the landscape, promoted economic
    development, & helped create national unity.
   National highway systems: Extensive highway
    systems in both the U.S. & Canada accommodate
    & promote heavy reliance on the automobile.
Questions:
   1. Which mountain Range is oldest?
   Appalachian Mts.
   2. How do Canada and the United States rank in size
    compared with other countries?
   Second & third
   3. What large bodies of water surround the United
    states and Canada?
   Atlantic & Pacific oceans, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic Ocean
   4. What are three common resources in the United
    States?
   Petroleum, natural gas, coal
   5. What are three common resources in Canada?
   Hydroelectric power, copper, timber
   6. Which country produces more minerals?
   Neither; they are about equal
   7. Why doesn’t the United States export as
    many minerals as Canada?
   It uses up too many to export
   8. Why is Canada colder than the United
    States?
   Because it lies farther north
   9. What kinds of climates do not exist in
    Canada?
   Desert or tropical
   10. Where which climate would you most
    likely find a rain forest?
   tropical

				
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