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UWB Consultancy Report _19 Feb 2009_

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					Report on Consultancy Study in relation to Electromagnetic
Compatibility of Ultra-wideband Radiocommunications Devices




                                 Report on

 Consultancy Study in relation to Electromagnetic
               Compatibility of Ultra-wideband
                Radiocommunications Devices




Prepared by:
Dr Duncan L C Fung and Dr Brian K H Chan
EMC Consulting Group,
CityU Professional Services Limited


Reviewed by:
Dr Peter S W Leung
Wireless Communications Research Centre,
City University of Hong Kong




19 February 2009
Report on Consultancy Study in relation to Electromagnetic
Compatibility of Ultra-wideband Radiocommunications Devices




                                        Contents



            Executive Summary                                                            3

       1.   Introduction                                                                14

       2.   Review of UWB’s EMC-related technical document of the study                 15

             2.1. Introduction to UWB                                                   15

             2.2. Review of UWB definitions and emission masks adopted in different
                 countries and international regulatory bodies                          19

             2.3. Summary of Observations                                               25

       3.   Identifying the radiocommunications services and the
            corresponding key aspects in the local environment of Hong Kong
            for this study                                                              32

             3.1. Frequency Allocation Table in Hong Kong                               32

             3.2. UWB deployment scenario in Hong Kong                                  32

       4.   Developing the “local UWB interference model” - Assessment of
            the interference from UWB devices on other radiocommunications
            service systems                                                             36

             4.1. Methodology                                                           36
                 4.1.1.   Interference Scenarios                                        36
                 4.1.2.   Victim receiver categories                                    41

             4.2. Fixed satellite services (FSS)                                        41
                 4.2.1.   Fixed satellite service – downlink                            42
                 4.2.2.   Fixed satellite service – uplink                              49

             4.3. Amateur/Amateur Satellite                                             51

             4.4. Earth Exploration Satellite Service (EESS)                            54

             4.5. Radio LANs (RLANs)                                                    57

             4.6. Fixed Service (FS)                                                    61

             4.7. Radar                                                                 69

             4.8. Particular scenario of C-band domestic satellite receiver in Hong Kong 74

             4.9. Summary table of emission limits                                      82

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       5.   Assessing the immunity status of a typical local C-band satellite
            receiving station due to the operation of a UWB device                      91

             5.1. Test Objectives                                                       91

             5.2. Measurement Date                                                      91

             5.3. Satellite Receiver and UWB under test                                 91

             5.4. Test Equipment                                                        91

             5.5. Measurements of Key Parameters                                        92

             5.6. Test Results                                                          95
                 5.6.1.   Single UWB interference test                                  95
                 5.6.2.   Aggregate UWB interference test                              108
                 5.6.3.   Assessment of modelling result of C-band receiving station   113

             5.7. Summary                                                              118

       6.   Conclusions and Recommendations                                            119

       7.   Referenced Documents                                                       129

       Appendix A. Summary of frequency allocation at frequency band of
                      3.1-10.6 GHz in Hong Kong                                        131

       Appendix B.    Measured maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of UWB devices            133

       Appendix C. Summary of emission masks of mean UWB e.i.r.p. density
                      (dBm/MHz) of overseas countries and Hong Kong after
                      December 2010                                                    134




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Executive Summary



          The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Consulting Group of CityU
          Professional Services Ltd. was commissioned by the Office of the
          Telecommunications Authority (OFTA) to provide a consultancy study on the
          electromagnetic       compatibility   (EMC)   of     Ultra-wideband    (UWB)
          radiocommunications devices operating in the 3.1 - 10.6GHz band in Hong
          Kong. The consultancy study includes:

          1) Reviewing technical documents on UWB related to EMC;

          2) Identifying the local environment in Hong Kong;

          3) Developing a “local UWB interference model” - assessing multiple UWB
             devices and their respective interferences to other radiocommunications
             systems;

          4) Assessing the immunity status of a typical local C-band satellite receiving
             station due to the operation of a UWB device and

          5) Recommending local UWB emission mask in Hong Kong.

          The outcomes of the study are summarised in this Executive Summary in the
          following sections:



          1. Reviewing technical documents on UWB related to EMC

          UWB devices are for short range radiocommunciations and operate at 3.1 -
          10.6 GHz by spreading their radio signals across a very large frequency band
          (typical bandwidth is wider than 500MHz or wider than 50MHz as defined in
          the European Union (EU) directive). Emission masks for UWB operations have
          been established in the United States since 2002. A maximum permissible
          mean Effective Isotropically Radiated Power (e.i.r.p.) density of -41.3dBm/MHz
          has been suggested by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in
          general. For other countries, such as those in the EU, Singapore, Japan and
                        s
          Korea, the FCC’ emission limit is generally adopted, except there are some
          reductions on the emission levels of UWB devices, at certain specific
          frequency bands, in order to provide sufficient protection for any existing

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          radiocommunications services. Countries in the EU, Singapore, Korea, Japan
          and New Zealand have assigned two separate frequency bands within the 3.1
          - 10.6GHz range, which are below 5 GHz and above 6 GHz for the operation
          of the present and the second generation UWB devices in an unlicensed
          scheme, respectively. UWB devices are commonly allowed to operate at -
          41.3dBm/MHz within these two specific frequency bands, between 3.1 -
          10.6GHz. The UWB device should mainly be operated in an indoor
          environment; if outdoor, it cannot be attached to any fixed antenna.

          It is expected that the second generation of UWB devices will be operated
          exclusively in the higher frequency band in the future; any frequency above
          6GHz is designated as the higher frequency band for UWB devices. For the
          present UWB devices in the lower frequency band, below 5GHz, appropriate
          mitigation techniques are necessary in order to relax the UWB power density
          from -70dBm/MHz to -41.3dBm/MHz for providing sufficient protection for
          victim receivers, such as Broadband Wireless Access (BWA). A 24 to 29dB
          reduction of the emission limits has also been applied to protect the
          radiocommunications services such as Radio Local Area Network (RLAN),
          radiolocation and radionavigation.     A summary of the emission masks as
          adopted in the EU, Singapore, Korea, Japan and New Zealand before and
          after 2010 is shown in Figures E.1(a), (b) and (c).



          2. Identifying the local environment in Hong Kong

          In our local interference model, some specific local scenarios of operating
          UWB devices in Hong Kong have been identified and their impacts on the
          different radiocommunications have been considered. This is in consideration
          of the UWB impacts on radiocommunications services shown in the frequency
          allocation table in Hong Kong, and the EMC studies conducted by the
          International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as well as that conducted by the
          Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) of the Conference of Postal and
          Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT).

          The radiocommunications systems in Hong Kong, including amateur/amateur
          satellite, earth-exploration satellite, RLANs, fixed services and radars have
          been evaluated.

          UWB densities of 10000/km 2, 1000/km 2 and 100/km 2, which have been used

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          by ECC for the deployment scenarios in dense urban, suburban and rural
          environments, are also adopted in Hong Kong interference model.

          Additional deployment scenarios have also been considered on particular
          radiocommunications systems as according to the ECC. A deployment
          scenario with a coverage area around 200Mkm 2 on the earth, and assuming a
          total of 2 x 109 UWB devices; the UWB density is 10/km 2 has been considered
          for Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) – uplink. Other deployment scenarios for the
          aggregate effect from indoor UWB devices’ located in homes or offices within
          buildings have also been considered for the Fixed Service (FS) ,with the
          indoor percentage of 100%, the UWB density of 1 UWB device/10m 2 and the
          activity factor of 20%. In general, the deployment scenarios in Hong Kong are
          similar to those adopted by the ITU and ECC.

          Aggregate interference in the UWB interference for different types of victim
          receivers has also been considered.      Parameters, including UWB density,
          activity factor, active UWB density, indoor/outdoor ratio of UWB devices and
          the observed zone, have been considered in the UWB interference model in
          order to ascertain the aggregate effects from multiple UWB devices in different
          deployment scenarios. The values of these parameters are aligned with those
          adopted by other studies.

          As highlighted by the industry members in an industry meeting, a C-band
          satellite receiving station could be installed on a rooftop of a lower building,
          and facing the nearby higher building, from which the UWB devices are to be
          operated. This scenario has been considered, and studied, as a particular
          case of the UWB interference model analysis for the C-band satellite downlink
          frequency band.



          3. Local UWB interference model

          The local emission mask for generic UWB devices for this study has been
          developed based on the link budget calculation. Interference case caused by a
          single interferer and the aggregate effect due to multiple UWB devices with
          respect to different types of victim receivers, such as fixed services, fixed
          satellite service, RLANs, fixed wireless access, radar, amateur receivers, etc.
          in Hong Kong have been analyzed. The general principle of defining the local


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          emission masks for UWB is that the masks are to be initially defined in
          accordance with the FCC indoor and outdoor recommendations, of a
          maximum mean e.i.r.p -41.3dBm/MHz, and then with considerations of further
          protection in different victim receivers. The calculated emission limits amongst
          various radiocommunications services are shown in Figure E.2.

          The calculated maximum mean e.i.r.p. values from our local UWB model
          across 3.1 - 10.6GHz are more stringent, by 5 to 30 dB, as compared to those
          defined by the FCC, but similar to those defined in the EU, Singapore, Korea
          and Japan, such that two different frequency bands could be assigned in Hong
          Kong for the present and the second generation UWB device.



          4. Immunity assessment of a typical local C-band satellite receiving
              station under the operation of UWB devices

          Field test measurements were conducted on 10 June 2008 and 24 June 2008
                                                                         s
          with the C-band satellite receiving station located at the OFTA’ Radio
          Monitoring Unit in Kwun Tong. The field test has demonstrated that, with the
          UWB device operating at -41.37dBm/MHz, and at 12m away from the victim
          C-band satellite receiver station, no degradation in the C-band satellite
          receiver was found, and the corresponding C/I ratio is 16.8dB. For a C/I ratio
          of 16.8dB, a corresponding I/N ratio is estimated to be -3.4dB, indicating that
          the I/N protection criteria adopted in our local interference model could provide
          adequate protection for the C-band receivers. The results also observed that
          the interference power received by the C-band satellite antenna were at
          similar levels when the UWB device was located at the side or along the
                 s
          antenna’ main beam directions, and while the feed horn and the UWB device
          is in the line-of-sight. An example of an aggregate UWB interference case
          indicated that there were no significant effects on the interference power or the
          performance of the C-band satellite receiving station when two devices were
          used in the test. The permissible mean e.i.r.p. density of -68.3dBm/MHz,
          calculated based on our local interference model for single UWB interferer
          located at 10m away from the C-band receiving station, was also verified in
          the assessment and indicated no performance degradation of the C-band
          satellite receiving station.



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          5. Recommending local UWB emission mask in Hong Kong

          The local UWB emission mask is derived mainly from the results of the local
          UWB interference model, having regard to the need to facilitate the
          deployment of UWB technology in Hong Kong by aligning the emission limits
          with those commonly adopted worldwide as far as possible. UWB devices in
          Hong Kong should mainly be used for indoor radiocommunications
          applications with an unlicensed scheme, and for outdoor application, UWB
          device should not be attached to any fixed antenna. Similar to other countries,
          the operation of UWB devices is prohibited in aircrafts and ships; UWB device
          shall only transmit when sending information to an associated receiver and the
          transmit-handshaking signal shall cease within 10 seconds, unless an
          acknowledgement from the associated receiver is received.            The UWB
          emission masks for the maximum mean and the peak e.i.r.p. density are then
          recommended, and are shown in Figures E.3(a) and (b), respectively.



          The following should be noted when considering the recommended UWB
          masks:

          -   In general, the 3.1 – 3.4GHz frequency band is assigned for the radar
              service. After consolidating the theoretical results from our local
              interference model, the permissible mean e.i.r.p. density of -70dBm/MHz,
              aligned with other countries, is recommended.

          -   In general, the 3.4 - 4.2GHz frequency band is assigned for the C-band
              downlink service. After consolidating the theoretical results from our local
              interference model, the particular scenario in Hong Kong and the findings
              from the complementary technical study of ECC, the permissible mean
              e.i.r.p. density of -70dBm/MHz, aligned with some countries, is
              recommended.

          -   For the operation of the present UWB products in other countries, the
              maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -41.3dBm/MHz is permitted to use in the
              4.2 - 4.8GHz frequency band. This limit shall be reduced to -70dBm/MHz
              after a cut-off date at 31 December 2010. However, in view of the fact that
              the window of opening to -41.3dBm/MHz in Hong Kong is narrow with the
              cut-off date at 31 December 2010; the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of
              -70dBm/MHz is therefore recommended unless appropriate mitigation

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              techniques are applied that the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density could be up
              to -41.3 dBm/MHz.

          -   For the 4.8 - 6GHz frequency band, a maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of
              -70dBm/MHz is recommended in consideration of the needs to align the
              emission limits with the EU and Singapore, and also provide sufficient
              protection to RLAN and radar services in Hong Kong.

          -   A maximum mean e.i.r.p. density at -41.3dBm/MHz is recommended for 6
              - 8.5GHz frequency band, for the second generation of UWB products.

          -   For the 8.5 - 10.6GHz frequency band, a maximum mean e.i.r.p. density,
              based on the calculated results from our local interference model, is
              -66.7dBm/MHz with a minimum separation distance of 20m for
              radiolocation service. In view of the fact that radiolocation systems are
              commonly installed in the remote area in Hong Kong, the minimum
              separation distance of 25m is also considered to be reasonable in the local
              environment. Hence, a maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -65dBm/MHz
              aligning with the limits of other countries is recommended.

          -   The out of 3.1 – 10.6GHz band emission mask has been defined in
              different countries to limit spurious emissions from UWB devices.       In
              general, the EU, Singapore and Japan have defined a very similar out-of-
              band emission mask to protect the out-of-band services; it is
              recommended that Hong Kong align its local out-of band emission mask
              with these countries. This is shown in Figure E.3.

          -   A maximum peak e.i.r.p. density limits are to be defined to reach a
              sufficient protection from UWB devices, especially for pulsed UWB
              applications. In general, the maximum peak e.i.r.p. density limits are 40dB
              above the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limits, with e.i.r.p. unit changing
              to dBm/50MHz. The emission mask for the maximum peak e.i.r.p. density
              is also summarised in Figure E.3(b).

          In summary, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. densities of the recommended mask
          are similar to those adopted in the EU, Singapore, Korea, Japan and New
          Zealand but more stringent by 24 to 34 dB outside the 6-8.5 GHz band as
          compared to those defined by the US.



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          Alternative recommendation for the local UWB emission mask in the frequency
          band of 3.4-4.2 GHz

          A limit of -70 dBm/MHz has been proposed in the band 3.4-4.2 GHz, which is
          commonly used by the present UWB products. To facilitate the operation of
          these products, an alternative recommendation of -41.3dBm/MHz may be
          extended to 3.4-4.2 GHz band for UWB devices deploying mitigation
          techniques including Low Duty Cycle (LDC) and Detect and Avoid (DAA) to
          offer equivalent protection to services in this band in the light of the following
          considerations:

             1) It has been summarised in a complementary studies by the CEPT, as
             discussed in Section 4.2.1 of this report, and referenced by Working
             document RSCOM05-73 of Radio Spectrum Committee, that some level of
             confidence in using a limits of maximum mean e.i.r.p. density level of
             -41.3dBm/MHz in the protection of outdoor stations from the FSS in dense
             urban, sub-urban and rural areas.

             2) A limits of -70dBm/MHz is an outcome in considering some particularly
             rare and uncommon scenarios in Hong Kong for FSS downlink, as
             discussed in Section 4.8.




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                                                                                         0                                      EU
                                                                                                                                Singapore
                                                                                                                                Korea
                                                                                       - 20                                     Japan
                                                                                                                                New Zealand
                                                                                       - 40
                 Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                                                       - 60


                                                                                       - 80


                                                                         - 100


                                                                         - 120

                                                                                              0   2   4            6        8         10         12
                                                                                                          Frequency (GHz)


          (a) present emission mask in the absence of appropriate mitigation technique
                                                 Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                                                          0                                     EU
                                                                                                                                Singapore
                                                                                                                                Korea
                                                                                        -20                                     Japan
                                                                                                                                New Zealand
                                                                                        -40

                                                                                        -60

                                                                                        -80

                                                                                       -100

                                                                                       -120

                                                                                              0   2   4          6        8         10         12
                                                                                                          Frequency (GHz)

             (b) emission mask in the absence of appropriate mitigation technique after 2010




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                                                            0                                     EU
                                                                                                  Singapore
                                                                                                  Korea
                                                         -20                                      Japan

                  Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)
                                                                                                  New Zealand
                                                         -40


                                                         -60


                                                         -80


                                                        - 100


                                                        - 120

                                                                0   2   4            6        8        10        12
                                                                            Frequency (GHz)


          (c) emission mask in the presence of appropriate mitigation technique after 2010

            Figure E.1 Summary of the emission masks adopted in the EU, Singapore,
                                   Korea, Japan and New Zealand




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                                    Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)
                                                                             0


                                                                           -20


                                                                           -40


                                                                           -60


                                                                           -80

                                                                                          FSS (Downlink)                            FSS (Uplink)
                                                                          -100            Amateur/Amateur Satellite                 EESS
                                                                                          RLAN                                      FS
                                                                                          Radar
                                                                          -120
                                                                                  3          4         5           6            7       8       9           10     11
                                                                                                                  Freqeuncy (GHz)



                                                                             Figure E.2 Emission masks defined based on the local UWB
                                                                                                 interference model
              Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                                            0                                                           without mitigation technique
                                                                                                                                        with mitigation technique
                                                                           -20

                                                                           -40                             4.2    4.8   6                       8.5



                                                                           -60

                                                                           -80

                                                                          -100

                                                                          -120
                                                                                 1       2       3         4       5        6       7       8         9     10   11

                                                                                                                 Freqeuncy (GHz)
                                                                                 Note: A mean e.i.r.p. of -41.3 dBm/MHz is allowed in the band 4.2-4.8 provided that
                                                                                        mitigation technique is applied.

                                                                                                                 (a) Mean




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                                                                                      4.2   4.8     6                         8.5
                                                        0



             Maximum peak EIRP density (dBm/50MHz)    -20


                                                      -40


                                                      -60


                                                      -80


                                                                                                                   without mitigation technique
                                                     -100
                                                                                                                   with mitigation technique


                                                     -120

                                                            1       2        3       4        5         6      7          8         9      10     11

                                                                                            Freqeuncy (GHz)

                                                                Note: A peak e.i.r.p. of 0 dBm/50MHz is allowed in the band 4.2-4.8 GHz provided that
                                                                       mitigation technique is applied.

                                                                                            (b) Peak
          Figure E.3 Recommended local emission masks for UWB device in maximum
                              (a) mean and (b) peak e.i.r.p. density




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1.     Introduction



          The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Consulting Group of CityU
          Professional Services Ltd. was commissioned by the Office of the
          Telecommunications Authority (OFTA) to provide a consultancy study on the
          electromagnetic        compatibility    (EMC)     of     Ultra-wideband      (UWB)
          radiocommunications devices in Hong Kong.              The aim of this report, in
          accordance with the Consultancy Brief (CB) [1], is to provide independent,
          professional advice and to give support to the OFTA in its study of EMC
          aspects between UWB devices and systems of radiocommunications services
          operating in the 3.1 – 10.6 GHz band in Hong Kong.



          The reported tasks described here, follow mainly Sections 8 through 17 of the
          CB [1], and include:

          1)    Reviewing of technical documents on UWB related to EMC ;

          2)    Identifying the local environment in Hong Kong;

          3)    Developing a “local UWB interference model” - assessing multiple UWB
                devices     and      their   respective   interferences   to   other   radio-
                communications systems;

          4)    Assessing the immunity status of a typical local C-band satellite
                receiving station due to the operation of a UWB device and

          5)    Recommending local UWB emission masks in Hong Kong.




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2.                   s
        Review of UWB’ EMC-related technical document of the study

          In this section, a summary of the definition of UWB technology, the emission
          masks adopted in different countries and international regulatory bodies,
          based on the review of various technical documents [2-14], is provided.




2.1.    Introduction to UWB

          In general, UWB technology operates at 3.1 -10.6 GHz by spreading its radio
          signals across a very large frequency band (typical bandwidth is larger than
          500 MHz). UWB transmissions have a low-power transmission for short-range
          communication purposes. The UWB devices normally operate in the frequency
          bands already allocated to other radiocommunications, such as fixed satellite
          services, fixed services and radionavigation services. As discussed in the
          Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) Report 64 [2], the application of
          UWB technology shall mostly be covered by radiocommunications services
          within 3.1 -10.6 GHz for those consumer and business data communication
          applications, for example, home entertainment and networking, cellular
          phones’multimedia interfaces, Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) and
          Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).



       2.1.1 Characteristics of UWB Technology

          UWB technology is used for short-range radiocummunicaitons involving the
          intentional generation and transmission of radio-frequency energy that
          spreads over a wide frequency range with may overlap several frequency
          bands allocated to radiocommunications services. In 2002, the IEEE
          802.15.3a task group (TG3a) was formed to develop high data rate UWB
          standards. However, on January 19, 2006, IEEE 802.15.3a task group (TG3a)
          members voted to withdraw the project authorization request (PAR) because
          the process of developing an official UWB standard from two different UWB
          technologies, as suggested by industry alliances including WiMedia Alliance
          and UWB Forum, was in a total deadlock. In view of this, the specifications of
          UWB PHY are consolidated by the IEEE 802.15.3a task group (TG3a) into two
          main proposals using Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

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          (MB-OFDM) UWB, supported by the WiMedia Alliance, and Direct Sequence -
          UWB (DS-UWB), supported by the UWB Forum.                                                  These two different UWB
          technologies may coordinate their activity to coexist in a pico-net environment
          through a Common Signalling Mode (CSM).                                       The background of MB-OFDM
          and DS-UWB is described as below:



          MB-OFDM

          MB-OFDM structures the spectrum into 14 sub-bands. The data is transmitted
          across the bands using a time frequency code (TFC). Within each sub-band
          an OFDM modulation scheme is used to convey information. In order to meet
          the “500MHz bandwidth” requirement of UWB, the OFDM approach uses 128
          carriers that are modulated with a QPSK constellation. The composite signal
          occupies a 528MHz wide channel.                                   The OFDM carriers are efficiently
          generated using digital Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) techniques.                                                        The
          mitigation characteristic of this technology consists of channels turned on and
          off to dynamically comply with regulations. The system supports at least three
          data rates: 110, 200 and 400 Mbps. The different data rates are supported by
          different combinations of error-correction coding rates, the number of tones
          carrying data and the spreading rate on each tone. An example of the band
          occupancy of a frequency hopping OFDM UWB system in the US, with no
          protection requirement, as summarised by WiMedia Alliance, is shown below:



                                                                                    Band Gp 6


                        3.1GHz                                                                                          10.6GHz
                            Band Gp 1           Band Gp 2           Band Gp 3            Band Gp 4         Band Gp 5




                Band    1      2        3   4      5        6   7       8       9      10       11    12    13    14




                       3432 3960    4488 5016 5544 6072 6600 7128           7656      8184 8712 9240 9768 10296

                                                        Center Frequency (MHz)




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          DS-UWB

          DS-UWB, which occupies a much wider span of spectrum but switches on and
          off while in operation, uses high-duty cycle, polarity-coded sequences of
          pulses to encode data at rates in the order of hundreds of megabits to beyond
          a gigabit per second or more. The bandwidth of DS-UWB is a function of the
          sub-nano second pulse duration of each chip. The UWB signal is noise-like
          with a low probability of detection and a low probability of interception. The
          design of a good spreading code for DS-UWB is critical for good performance
          in a multipath environment. In general, the DS approach designed to occupy
          at least 1.5GHz bandwidth the DS-UWB is divided into two bands: 3.1 -
          5.15GHz and 5.825 - 10.6GHz. The DS-UWB could possibly support different
          data rates by different combinations of modulation and constellation at 112,
          224 and 448 Mbps.



      2.1.2 Mitigation Techniques

          Mitigation techniques have been proposed for different countries such as the
          EU, Japan and Korea at the frequency band of 3.1 - 4.8GHz in order to protect
                                    F
          the Fixed Wireless Access ( WA), future 4G and fixed satellite services.
          Currently, there are two major mitigation techniques, Low Duty Cycle (LDC)
          and Detect and Avoid (DAA), adopted in these countries:



          Low Duty Cycle (LDC)

          LDC technique, based on limitations on burst duration and burst intervals,
          allows the limits of e.i.r.p. to be relaxed. ECC Report 94 [3] has concluded on
          the technical requirements for UWB LDC devices to ensure the protection of
          FWA Note 1 system. The results has been considered by ECC/DEC/(06)12 ECC
          decisions of 1 December 2006 [4] on the harmonised conditions for devices
          using UWB technology in the frequency band of 3.4 - 4.8GHz. The conditions
          for devices using UWB technology with LDC in the frequency band of 3.4 -
          4.8GHz is mentioned in the Annex of European Commission (EC) Decision of
          21 February 2007 [5] showing that a maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of
          -41.3dBm/MHz is allowed in the 3.4 - 4.8GHz bands, provided that a low duty
          cycle restriction is applied, in which the sum of all transmitted signals is less

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          than 5% of the time each second and less than 0.5% of the time each hour,
          and provided that each transmitted signal does not exceed 5 milliseconds.



          Detect and Avoid (DAA)

          The general principle of Detect and Avoid (DAA) is that UWB devices should
          detect the presence of signals from other operating radio systems and reduce
          their transmitted power down to a level where it does not cause interference to
          these systems.         The use of this technique can protect the existing
          radiocommunications systems when a UWB device operated at its maximum
          mean e.i.r.p. up to -41.3dBm/MHz. Recently, the ECC presented an ECC
          report 120 [6] on technical requirements for UWB DAA devices, which was a
          follow-up of the existing report (i.e. ECC report 64 [2]). The report stated the
          compatibility issues for UWB devices. The DAA technique aims to protect
          BWA Note 1 application in the band of 3.4 - 4.2GHz and radiolocation services
          operating in the bands 3.1 - 3.4GHz and 8.5 - 9GHz. The ECC report 120 [6]
          does not address protection of outdoor services in the band 3.4 - 4.2GHz,
                                                                 FSS) earth station
          such as Fixed Service (FS) and Fixed Satellite Service (
          since the DAA techniques are not designed to mitigate interference into such
          services.    In addition to ECC report 64, further technical studies concluded
          that some level of confidence regarding the protection of the outdoor FS and
          FSS with a UWB maximum mean e.i.r.p. density level of -41.3dBm/MHz can
          be provided (using different propagation models and assuming that 100% of
          UWB devices are operating indoors, with an average 1% activity factor). The
          decision regarding UWB devices using DAA technique are finalized as stated
          in the amended ECC Decision (06)/12 on 31 October 2008 [7].




             Note 1:

             Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) is a variant of wireless broadband, where a radio link is used
             for voice and data transmission. The use of LDC technique can be applied for both FWA
             and BWA in the band 3.1 – 4.8GHz [7].

             Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) is a technology aimed at providing high-speed wireless
             access over a wide area from devices such as personal computers to data networks. The
             use of DAA technique can be applied for both FWA and BWA in the band 3.1 – 4.8GHz [7].




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2.2.   Review of UWB definitions and emission masks adopted in different
       countries and international regulatory bodies

          In general, UWB emission masks have been established in the United States
          since 2002. The emission masks for UWBs are derived from the existing
          averaged emission limit for above 1GHz, as stated in FCC Part 15, which is
          500µV/m, as measured at three meters.          This is hence equivalent to an
          Effective Isotropically Radiated Power (e.i.r.p.) of -41.3 dBm/MHz. For other
          countries such as those in the EU, Singapore, Japan and Korea, the FCC’s
          emission masks are generally adopted as is, except there are sometimes
          further reductions in the emission levels of UWB devices, or mitigation
          techniques are required at certain specific frequency bands. In New Zealand,
          the Ministry of Economic Development also released a discussion paper of
          spectrum allocations for UWB communication devices in April 2008 [8]. In this
          section, the corresponding UWB definitions and emission masks discussed by
          the international and national regulatory bodies, and implemented countries,
          are summarised. In general, both maximum mean and peak e.i.r.p. density
          limits are defined for the UWB device in considering the need of giving
          sufficient protection from UWB devices with a possible high peak-to-average
          ratio, especially for pulsed UWB em issions. The mean e.i.r.p. density limit, in
          dBm/MHz, is defined mainly based on theoretical analysis and measurement
          campaign, while the peak e.i.r.p. density limit in dBm/50MHz is set at 40dB
          above the mean e.i.r.p. density limit in different countries. The maximum peak
          e.i.r.p. density is obtained by converting the mean e.i.r.p. density with a 0.5%
          of the activated transmission time at a 50MHz resolution bandwidth.

          Peak e.i.r.p., in dBm/50MHz = Mean e.i.r.p., in dBm/MHz + 10log (50 MHz) –

                                          10log (0.5%)

          Peak e.i.r.p., in dBm/50MHz = Mean e.i.r.p., in dBm/MHz + 40dB



          International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

          In 2002, ITU set up a Task Group 1/8 (TG1/8) and four Working Groups (WGs)
          in TG1/8 to start the UWB radio system studies. The recommendation and the
          report regarding the effects of UWB on systems operating within
          radiocommunications have been published in ITU-R SM.1757 [9] and ITU-R

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                   1
          SM. 2057 [ 0]. These documents offer a summary of studies related to the
          impact of UWB devices on radiocommunications services and may be used as
          guide for administrations when developing their national UWB rules.

             UWB definition: technology for short-range radiocommunications, involving
             the intentional generation and transmission of radio-frequency energy that
             spreads over a very large frequency range, which may overlap several
             frequency bands allocated to radiocommunications services. Devices using
             UWB technology typically have intentional radiation from the antenna with
                                        f
             either a -10 dB bandwidth o at least 500 MHz or a -10 dB fractional
             bandwidth greater than 0.21.

             Emission masks: The emission limit of the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density
             summaries from the ITU studies [9,10] on UWB Devices, is shown in Figure
             2.1.
             1
                 The -10 dB bandwidth B-10 and -10 dB fractional bandwidth µ -10 are calculated as
                 follows:
                               B-10= f H - fL
                               µ -10 = B-10 / fC
                 where:
                       fH: highest frequency at which the power spectral density of the UWB
                       transmission is -10dB relative to fM (i.e. frequency of maximum UWB
                       transmission).
                       fL: lowest frequency at which the power spectral density of the UWB
                       transmission is -10dB relative to fM .
                       fC =( fH - fL) / 2 : centre frequency of the -10 dB bandwidth.



          In general, the ITU has completed its work on the UWB framework which
          should be used as guide by administrations when considering the introduction
          of devices using UWB technology. While the recommended framework aims
          to protect the existing radiocommunications services from interference, it is not
          intended to hinder the development of devices using UWB development.                     In
          view of this, the administrations in different countries have considered their
          emissions masks and policy on UWB based on their own situations.




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          European Union

          For the UWB devices used in the European Union (EU) countries, the EC
          Decision of 21 February 2007 shall be followed [5].

             UWB definition: equipment incorporating, as an integral part or as an
             accessory, technology for short-range radiocommunications, involving the
             intentional generation and transmission of radio-frequency energy that
             spreads over a frequency range wider than 50MHz, which overlaps several
             frequency bands allocated to radiocommunications services

             Emission masks: The limit of the maximum mean and peak e.i.r.p. density,
             as stated in the EC Decision, is shown in Figure 2.2. In general, a
             maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -41.3dBm/MHz is allowed in the 3.4 -
             4.8GHz band, that FWA systems would operate, provided that a low duty
             cycle restriction is applied. For out of 3.1 – 10.6GHz band emission, the
             maximum mean e.i.r.p. density is set at -85dBm/MHz for frequencies below
             3.4GHz and above 10.6GHz.

             Types of UWB usage: Non-licensed. For indoor use only. If outdoor, not
             attached to a fixed antenna.     Transmission shall be ceased within 10
             seconds unless it receives an acknowledgement from an associated
             receiver.   UWB shall not be operated in aircraft and safety of life
             applications in ships.

             Mitigation Techniques:

             • Low Duty Cycle (LDC) or appropriate mitigation techniques other than
               LDC can be applied with the result that the equipment achieves at least
               an equivalent level of protection to that provided by the limits set out in
               2007/131/EC.

             • Mitigation is not required for FSS operating in 3.4 – 4.2 GHz band
               according to the complementary studies addressed in ECC/DEC/06(04)
               amended 6 July 2007.




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          United States of America (US)

          In the US, the document, FCC 02-48 - Revision of Part 15 of the
                    s
          Commission’ Rules Regarding UWB Transmission systems [11], defines the
          application of the UWB Device, the emission mask and some EMI studies, and
          the measurement procedures of the UWB device are addressed.               The
          document was published in 2002.

             UWB definition: UWB devices shall have a low power and operate within
             the existing spectrum without causing significant interference. There are
             three main types of UWB devices, including imaging systems (including
             ground penetrating radars), vehicular radar systems and communications
             systems.

             Emission masks: The emission masks of the maximum mean and peak
             e.i.r.p. density for indoor and outdoor UWB devices are defined in FCC.
             The maximum peak e.i.r.p. density is 0 dBm/50MHz and the maximum
             mean e.i.r.p. density is -41.3dBm/MHz (as shown in Figure 2.3).

             Types of UWB usage: Non-licensed. For indoor use only. If outdoor, not
             attached to a fixed antenna. Only transmit when sending information to
             associated receiver and transmission shall be ceased within 10 seconds
             unless it receives an acknowledgement from the associated receiver.
             UWB shall not be operated in aircraft and in ships.

             Mitigation Techniques: Not Specified.



          Singapore

          In Singapore, the UWB device shall follow the Technical Specification (TS) for
          UWB Devices published in 2007 [12].

             UWB definition: UWB devices should have radiation with either a -10dB
             bandwidth of at least 500 MHz or a -10dB fractional bandwidth greater than
             0.2.

             Emission masks: The emission limit of the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density
             as stated in the TS for UWB Devices [12] is shown in Figure 2.4.         In
             general, the maximum peak e.i.r.p. density in dBm/50MHz is also defined
             in Singapore for UWB device.       A maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -

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             41.3dBm/MHz is allowed in the 3.4 - 4.8GHz band provided that mitigation
             technique is applied. For UWB devices which operate in the 4.2 - 4.8 GHz
             band without appropriate mitigation techniques, it shall be replaced by
             more restrictive conditions beyond 31 December 2010. For out of 3.1 –
             10.6GHz band emission, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density is set at -
             70dBm/MHz to -90dBm/MHz for frequency at 3.4GHz to below 1.6GHz,
             and at -85dBm/MHz for frequencies above 10.6GHz.

             Types of UWB usage: Non-licensed; for indoor use only. If outdoor, not
             attached to a fixed antenna. Only transmit when sending information to
             associated receiver and transmission shall be ceased within 10 seconds
             unless it receives an acknowledgement from the associated receiver.

             Mitigation Techniques:    Power restrictions to -70dBm/MHz for devices
             operating in the 3.4 - 4.2GHz and 4.8GHz to 6GHz unless with appropriate
             mitigation techniques such as Detect and Avoid (DAA).



          Japan

               s
          Japan’ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) proposed the
          draft emission mask UWB device usage in September 2005 [13, 14].

             UWB definition: A UWB radio system mus t be a system that has a band
             with of 500 MHz or more or whose bandwidth ratio is 0.2 or higher, derived
             by dividing its bandwidth by the centre frequency

             Emission masks: The emission mask of the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density
             is shown in Figure 2.5. Similar to other countries, the maximum peak
             e.i.r.p. density in dBm/50MHz is also defined for UWB device. The UWB
             devices operating in the 3.4 - 4.2GHz band should use mitigation
             techniques from subsequent compatibility studies.     The UWB device is
             allowed to operate in the 4.2 - 4.8GHz band without the appropriate
             mitigation techniques until the end of December 2008.          Similar to
             Singapore, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density is set at -70dBm/MHz to -
             90dBm/MHz for frequency at 3.4GHz to <1.6GHz and at -85dBm/MHz for
             frequencies above 10.6GHz for out-of-band emission.

             Types of UWB usage: Non-licensed; for indoor use only.


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             Mitigation Techniques: DAA technology between 3.4 and 4.2GHz currently
             and between 4.2 and 4.8GHz from 2008.



          Korea

                         s
          In Korea, Korea’ SK Telecom and Staccato Communication announced their
          plans to introduce mobile handsets with UWB to enable better content delivery
          services in December 2006.

             UWB definition: In Korea, the UWB emission mask, starting from 3.1 -
             10.6GHz, will have its spectrum environment accommodated beginning in
             December 2006.

             Emission masks: The emission mask of the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density
             is shown in Figure 2.6. In general, the emission mask is similar to that in
             Japan. Since April 2007, Korea has required the use of Detect and Avoid
             (DAA) technology for the UWB devices operating in the 3.1 - 4.2GHz band,
             and also for those UWB devices operating in the 4.2 - 4.8GHz band from
             July 2010. For out of 3.1 – 10.6GHz band emission,, the maximum mean
             e.i.r.p. density is set at -70dBm/MHz for frequencies below 3.1GHz and
             above 10.6GHz.

             Types of UWB usage: Non-licensed; for indoor use only.

             Mitigation Techniques: DAA technology between 3.1 and 4.2GHz from
             2007 and 4.2 and 4.8GHz from 2010.



          New Zealand

                              s
          In 2008, New Zealand’ Ministry of Economic Development published a
          discussion paper and report regarding the proposed emission mask of UWB
          device usage in April 2008 and June 2008, respectively [8,21].

             UWB definition: In New Zealand, the European UWB harmonised
             framework for the UWB communications devices is adopted with the
             considerations   of   documents    such   as   EU   commission     decision
             2007/131/EC and amended ECC/DEC/(06)04.

             Emission masks: The emission mask is harmonized with the EU framework.

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              New Zealand has required the use of low duty cycle technology for the
              UWB devices operating in the 3.4 - 4.8GHz band. For out of 2.7 – 10.6GHz
              band emission, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density is set at below
              -85dBm/MHz for frequencies below 2.7GHz and above 10.6GHz. For road
              and rail vehicles application, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limit is -
              41.3dBm/MHz in 3.8 - 4.2GHz and 6 - 8.5GHz if transmit power control is
              implemented, otherwise the limit is reduced by 12dB.

              Types of UWB usage: General user license. For indoor use only. If outdoor,
              not attached to a fixed antenna.

              Mitigation Techniques: LDC technology between 3.4 and 4.8GHz.




2.3.   Summary of Observations

          In summary, a table of the UWB emission masks and the respective
          deployment policy adopted in different countries have been provided in
          Appendix C.

          -   The lowest and the highest mean e.i.r.p. density limits of the operation of
              UWB device are -85dBm/MHz and -41.3dBm/MHz, respectively, from 3.1 -
              10.6GHz.

          -   Non-licensed scheme are applied in all these countries.

          -   The operational condition of UWB device is for indoor use only; if outdoor,
              it cannot be attached to any fixed location. In general, the UWB device is
              prohibited to operate in aircraft and ships.     UWB devices shall only
              transmit when sending information to associated receiver and the transmit-
              handshaking signal shall be ceased within 10 seconds unless the
              acknowledgement from the associated receiver is received.

          -   In these countries, the present UWB devices are expected to be operated
              at a frequency range of 3.1 - 4.8GHz, with the maximum mean e.i.r.p.
              density of UWB device of -41.3dBm/MHz.           However,    the following
              conditions shall be met:




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               n    Appropriate mitigation technique, such as LDC or DAA, is required
                    to apply at 3.4 - 4.2GHz for UWB devices operating at -
                    41.3dBm/MHz, otherwise the UWB device shall be operated at -
                    70dBm/MHz.

               n    4.2 - 4.8GHz bands are opened for UWB devices operating at -
                    41.3dBm/MHz until the cut-off date at mid- to late-2010. After the
                    cut-off date, UWB devices shall be operated at -70dBm/MHz, in view
                    that the second generation of UWB devices is expected to operate
                    exclusively above 6GHz, in the long term.

          -   Considering the operation of second generation UWB devices, the
              frequency band at 6 - 8.5GHz is allocated with the maximum mean e.i.r.p.
              density of -41.3dBm/MHz in the EU and Singapore, while Korea and Japan
              have allocated the frequency band at 7.2 - 10.2GHz.

          -   In the EU, Singapore and New Zealand, the maximum mean e.i.r.p.
              density limit is reduced to below -65dBm/MHz at 4.8 - 6GHz and 8.5 -
              10.6GHz for protecting the radiocommunications systems such as RLAN,
              radiolocation, and radionavigation that are being allocated in this band in
              the EU countries. In Japan and Korea, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density
              limit is also reduced to below -70dBm/MHz, at 4.8 - 7.2GHz, for the
              protection the existing services at this band.




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      Figure 2.1: UWB emission mask summarised from ITU studies [9,10]




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                          Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)
                                                                   0

                                                                 -20

                                                                 -40

                                                                 -60

                                                                 -80

                                                                -100                                         until end of 2010
                                                                                                             beyond end of 2010
                                                                -120
                                                                       0          2        4        6       8      10      12
                                                                                               Frequency (GHz)
       A maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of – 41.3dBm/MHz is allowed in the 3.4 - 4.8GHz bands provided that a low
                                                                                                     f
       duty cycle restriction is applied in which the sum of all transmitted signals is less than 5% o the time each
       second and less than 0.5% of the time each hour, and provided that each transmitted signal does not exceed 5
       milliseconds.

            (a) Maximum mean e.i.r.p. density without mitigation techniques
         Maximum peak EIRP density (dBm/50MHz)




                                                                  0

                                                                -20

                                                                -40

                                                                -60

                                                                -80

                                                                -100
                                                                                                             until end of 2010
                                                                                                             beyond end of 2010
                                                                -120
                                                                       0          2       4         6       8       10      12
                                                                                               Frequency (GHz)

                    (b) Maximum peak e.i.r.p. density without mitigation techniques

                                                                           Figure 2.2: UWB emission masks in Europe[5]


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         Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)
                                                                      0

                                                                    -20

                                                                    -40

                                                                    -60

                                                                    -80

                                                             -100                                                    FCC (Indoor)
                                                                                                                     FCC (Outdoor)
                                                             -120
                                                                           0        2        4         6       8          10           12
                                                                                                  Frequency (GHz)

                                                                               Figure 2.3: UWB emission mask in US [11]
                              Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                                      0

                                                                    -20

                                                                    -40


                                                                    -60

                                                                    -80

                                                                    -100
                                                                                                                     until end of 2010
                                                                                                                     beyond end of 2010
                                                                    -120
                                                                           0         2                   6       8
                                                                                                 4 Frequency (GHz)             10           12

      The 4.2 - 4.8 GHz band for equipment using UWB technology without appropriate mitigation techniques should be
      time-limited and be replaced by more restrictive conditions beyond 31 December 2010 (ECC/DEC/(06)04
      Amended 6 July 2007). A maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -41.3dBm/MHz is allowed in the 3.4 - 4.2GHz band
      with mitigation technique.

 Figure 2.4: UWB emission mask in Singapore without mitigation technique [12]

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                                                    0

                                                                                          until end of 2008
                                                 - 20                                     beyond end of 2008
          Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                 - 40



                                                 - 60



                                                 - 80



                                                - 100



                                                - 120

                                                        0   2   4           6         8          10           12
                                                                    Frequency (GHz)


      For devices not equipped with any interference mitigation techniques, the mean e.i.r.p density shall be -
      70dBm/MHz and the peak e.i.r.p density shall be -64dBm/MHz in the 3.4 - 4.8GHz Band. However, devices are
      allowed to be used without any interference mitigation techniques in the 4.2 - 4.8GHz band until the end of
      December 2008.

   Figure 2.5: UWB emission mask in Japan without mitigation technique [13]




      The 3.1 - 4.2 GHz band for equipment using UWB technology required to use the mitigation techniques of DAA
      currently, and the DAA mitigation techniques is also required for equipment operated at 4.2 - 4.8 GHz band after
      2010.

      Figure 2.6: UWB emission mask in Korea without mitigation techniques [8]

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                                                 0



                                               -20
        Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                               -40



                                               -60



                                               -80



                                              -100



                                              -120

                                                     0   2   4            6        8   10    12
                                                                 Frequency (GHz)




      Figure 2.7: UWB emission mask in New Zealand without mitigation
      techniques [21]




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3.     Identifying the radiocommunications services and the corresponding
       key aspects in the local environment of Hong Kong for this study

3.1.   Frequency Allocation Table in Hong Kong

          There are various existing radiocommunications systems allocated in the 3.1-
          10.6GHz frequency band in Hong Kong. The radiocommunications systems
          include aeronautical radionavigation, amateur/amateur satellite, earth-
          exploration   satellite,   fixed,   fixed-satellite,   mobile,   radiolocation   and
          radionavigation. The frequency allocations of radiocommunications services
          are summarised in Appendix A. Details of the frequency allocation in Hong
          Kong and in ITU Region 3 can be found in the Hong Kong Table of Frequency
          Allocations published by the OFTA [15].

          In our modeling, presented in the next section, the impact of the UWB device
          on the different radiocommunications services is based on the frequency
          allocation table in Hong Kong, as well as the ITU and ECC documents [2,10].
          The radiocommunications systems including amateur/amateur satellite, earth-
          exploration satellite, radio LANs, fixed services and radar are evaluated.




3.2.   UWB deployment scenario in Hong Kong

          After reviewing the UWB studies of ECC and ITU, different deployment
          scenarios have been classified for the analysis of aggregate interference in
          the UWB interference model of different types of victim receivers.                As
          discussed in ECC report [2], the parameters, including UWB density, activity
          factor, active UWB density, indoor/outdoor ratio of UWB devices and observed
          zone, are all varied in the UWB interference model in order to ascertain the
          aggregate effects from multiple UWB devices in different deployment
          scenarios. The values of these parameters are summarised in Tables 3.2-3.4.
                                       ,
          For the Deployment Scenario 1 the values of activity factor, active UWB
          density and indoor/outdoor ratio of UWB devices in Hong Kong shall be
          aligned with the values adopted by the other studies because these
          parameters are mainly related to global UWB technology development. The
          observed zone shall be set at 3 km, which is employed by the ITU and the
          ECC, and can reasonably cover the most dominant interference power of


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          UWB devices; hence, this observation is also used in our model. However,
          the corresponding UWB densities for rural areas (e.g. Islands), suburban
          areas (e.g. Sheung Shui, Fanling and Sha Tau Kok) and dense urban areas
          (e.g. Mong Kok, Tsim Sha Tsui and Central) in Hong Kong shall be considered
          for the local geographical situation.

          With regard to the dense urban environment, a circular area of 19.6 km 2, with
          2.5 km radius, would generally cover the dense urban areas in Kowloon such
          as Tsim Sha Tsui, Jordan, Yau Ma Tei and Mong Kok. The total, combined
          population of these areas is approximately equal to 280,548 people, according
          to data of the Census and Statistic Department of the government of Hong
          Kong SAR [16]. Assuming the penetration rate of UWB device is 64%, i.e. the
          UWB usage is concentrated in an age group of 15 – 55, the UWB density is
          hence equal to 9144/km 2. Therefore, we consider that the UWB density of
          10,000/km 2, adopted by ECC, can reasonably represent the dense urban
          environment in Hong Kong.

          The suburban environment, such as Sheung Shui, Fan Ling and Sha Tau Kok,
          has a total area of approximately 130 km 2. The population in these places is
          nearly 280,730. Based on the similar assumptions as discussed in the dense
          urban, the UWB density in this area is equal to 1382/km 2. Therefore, the UWB
          density of 1000/km 2, adopted by ECC, can reasonably represent the suburban
          environment in Hong Kong.

          Islands in Hong Kong, which are the locations with smallest population density,
          are considered rural environments. The total area of the islands in Hong Kong
          is approximately 175 km 2 with the population nearly 137,122. Based on the
          similar assumptions used in the suburban and the dense urban areas, the
          UWB density in this area is equal to 501/km 2. The UWB density of the rural
          environment in Hong Kong is 5 times larger than that of UWB density of
          100/km 2 adopted by ITU and ECC. However, the UWB density of 100/km 2,
          adopted by ITU and ECC, could also be used as a relative reference for other
          deployment scenarios.

          The Deployment Scenario 2, referenced to the ECC report [2], and is directly
          adopted for the analysis of local Hong Kong environments, as this scenario is
          particularly used for FSS (uplink) services. As discussed in the ECC report,
          the coverage area on the earth for receiving satellite in space is very large in

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          scale, typically around 200Mkm 2. Assuming that a total of 2 x 109 UWB devices
          are used in this area, the UWB density is therefore 10/km 2. In terms of the
          extremely large coverage areas, Deployment Scenario 2 is not expected to
          vary in different geographical location.

          The Deployment Scenario 3 accounts for the aggregate effect from indoor
          UWB devices located in homes or offices in buildings. Hence, the indoor
          percentage is 100%. As multiple UWB devices can be used simultaneously
          within the building, the UWB density and the activity factor are increased to 1
          UWB device/10m 2 and 20%, respectively. The indoor environment would not
          be significantly changed with different geographical locations. Therefore, these
                                                      s
          parameters are also applicable for Hong Kong’ environment in order to align
          with ITU and ECC.

          As recommended by the industry members in the first industry meeting on 27
          May 2008, the situation that a C-band satellite station receiver may be
          installed on the rooftop of a lower building and facing the nearby higher
                               s
          building in Hong Kong’ local environment is considered. The concern of UWB
          interference due from the presence of users in the higher building has been
          raised. This scenario is considered to be a unique case for the UWB
          interference model analysis for the C-band satellite downlink frequency band.
          The details of the analysis have been illustrated in section 4.8.




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          Table 3.2. Deployment Scenario 1 – Rural, suburban, dense urban [2] in Hong
          Kong.

          Deployment scenario                      1a                     1b                      1c

                                                   Rural                  Suburban                Dense urban

          UWB density (/km 2)                      100                    1000                    10000

          Activity factor                          5%                     5%                      5%

          Active UWB density (/km 2)               5                      50                      500

          Indoor percentage                        80%                    80%                     80%

          Observed zone (km)                       3                      3                       3

          Table 3.3. Deployment Scenario 2 – Global beam from the victim receiver [2]
          in Hong Kong.

          Deployment scenario                                       2

                                                                    Global beam (Note 1)

          UWB density (/km 2)                                       10

          Activity factor                                           5%

          Active UWB density (/km 2)                                0.5

          Indoor percentage                                         80%

          Note 1: This is a particular scenario for FSS (uplink) services that the coverage area could include a large

                scale area.

          Table 3.4. Deployment Scenario 3 - Home/Office environment [2] in Hong
          Kong.

          Deployment scenario                                      3

                                                                   Home/Office environment

          UWB density                                              1 per 10 m²

          Activity factor                                          20%

          Active UWB density                                       0.2 per 10 m²

          Indoor percentage                                        100%



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4.     Developing the “local UWB interference model” - Assessment of the
       interference from UWB devices on other radiocommunications
       service systems

           The local emission mask for generic UWB devices, with respect to the
           radiocommunications services in Hong Kong, from 3.1 - 10.6GHz, has been
           developed based on the link budget calculation of the developed “local
           environment model for UWB interference.” The outcome can be used as
           guidelines to define the maximum permissible mean e.i.r.p. of a generic UWB
           device at different victim receiver frequencies in Hong Kong. In section 4.1,
           the methodology, including the victim receiver categories, and the interference
           scenarios, together with their corresponding modeling methods are discussed.
           The details and analysis results of different victim receivers, such as satellite,
           amateur, Earth Exploration Satellite Service (EESS), radio LANs (RLANs),
           fixed service and radar are summarised in Sections 4.2 to 4.7.




4.1.   Methodology

           The general principle of defining the emission masks for UWB is that the
           masks    shall   be    in   accordance   to   the   FCC   indoor   and    outdoor
           recommendations, i.e. maximum mean e.i.r.p. equals to -41.3dBm/MHz, and
           with considerations of further protection in different victim receivers. Further
           protections for different victim receivers are based on different deployment
           scenarios in these theoretical studies, such as single or aggregate effects.




4.1.1. Interference Scenarios


4.1.1.1.      Single Interferer

              The assessment of interference from a single UWB emitter is mainly based
              on two methodologies,

              (a) Methodology based on I/N criteria and

              (b) Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) Methodology


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             In general, the UWB interference can be assessed by merely applying the
             I/N protection criteria. However, sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the
             victim receiver would also be taken into account in some cases. Hence,
             according to the ITU, these systems are assessed by the MCL
             methodology. The details of these two methodologies are discussed as
             follows.



             (a) Methodology based on I/N criteria

             This part is for the calculation of the maximum allowed e.i.r.p. density as a
             function of distance between the UWB device and the system receiver.
             This methodology can be used to assess interference from a single UWB
             emitter into a victim receiver.

             In general, the maximum permissible mean e.i.r.p. density of a UWB device
             (e.i.r.p.max.) can be obtained based on protection criteria (i.e I/N),

                                      e.i.r.p.max.= Imax –G(θ) +Lp + Lr

             where,

               Imax – Max permissible interference level at the receiver input, dBm
               G(θ)–Victim receiver antenna gain in the direction of UWB device, dBi
               Lp – Propagation loss between Tx and Rx antennas, dB
               Lr – Insertion loss, in any, between Rx antenna and receiver input, dB

               Imax can be obtained from the I/N ratio defined by international regulatory
               bodies (e.g. I/N =-20dB for C-band downlink and uplink), where the
                       s
               receiver’ inherent noise level (N), N = KTs BIF,

                      K – Boltzmann’ constant, 1.38 x10-2 3, W/K/Hz
                                   s
                      Ts – the system noise temperature, Kelvin
                      BIF – the receiver IF bandwidth, Hz




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             (b) Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) Methodology

             In addition, the max permissible mean e.i.r.p. density can be also evaluated
             by the MCL method based on the sensitivity and the C/I ratio of the victim
             receiver. In general, the protection distance of the “victim” receiver can also
             be estimated from the calculated Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) with an
             appropriate propagation model

                                  MCL = PUWB + 10 log (BRX ) − S RX + C / I

             where,

                      MCL – Minimum Coupling Loss (Path Loss evaluated from the
                      appropriate propagation model), dB
                      PUWB – Mean e.i.r.p. density inside the victim bandwidth, dBm/MHz
                      BRX – Victim receiver IF bandwidth, MHz
                      SRX – Victim receiver sensitivity, dBm
                      C/I – Carrier-to-Interference ratio, dB



4.1.1.2.     Aggregate Interferer

             The assessment of interference from aggregate UWB emitters is mainly
             based on three methodologies,

             (a) Integral method (Fantasma statistical method),

             (b) NTIA aggregate airborne model and

             (c) GSO satellite-specific aggregate interference model

             The details of the methodologies are discussed as below.



             (a) Integral method (Fantasma statistical method)

             This method is applicable for a terrestrial “victim device” located at the
             center of a zone defined by minimum and maximum radii using free-space
             propagation (e.g. C-band downlink). The average aggregate interference
             power I (evaluated from I/N protection criteria), W/MHz

                                           I = 2αηρπ ln ( R1 / R0 )

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             with α = e.i .r . p. ⋅ (λ / 4π ) ⋅ G
                                           2




             where,

                      e.i.r.p. – Mean e.i.r.p. density of the UWB emitters, W/MHz
                      G – Victim receiver antenna gain
                       λ – Victim operation frequency wavelength, m
                      η – Activity factor of UWB emitters, %
                      ρ – Average density of UWB emitters (emitters per sq. m)
                      R0 – Minimum distance to the nearest UWB emitter, m
                      R1 – Maximum radius of the observed zone, m




             (b) NTIA aggregate airborne model

             This model is developed for “victim” satellite and receivers on board an
             aircraft with free-space propagation. The average aggregate interference
             power I (evaluated from I/N protection criteria), W/MHz
                                                ((               ) )
                                 I = αρπRe ln 2(Re + h)H + h 2 / h 2 / ( Re + h )

             with H = Re (1− cos (R / Re )) and α = e.r.i . p. ⋅ (λ / 4π ) ⋅ G
                                                                         2




             where,

                      e.i.r.p. – Mean e.i.r.p. density of the UWB emitters, W/MHz
                      G – Victim receiver antenna gain
                      λ – Victim operation frequency wavelength, m
                      ρ – Average density of UWB emitters (emitters per sq. m)
                                s
                      Re – Earth’ radius, m
                      h – Satellite height, m
                      R – Radius of observed zone, m




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             (c) GSO satellite-specific aggregate interference model

             This model is applicable for satellites with free-space propagation (e.g. C-
             band uplink).

             The average aggregate interference power I (evaluated from I/N protection
             criteria), dBm/MHz

             I = 10 log ( N ) + P − 92.5 − 20 log (d 0 ) − 20 log ( f ) − LA + GSAT (− 3dB ) + 10 log ( BMHz )
             where,

                      N – Number of active UWB emitters within the satellite service area
                      P – Mean e.i.r.p. density of the UWB emitters, dBm/MHz
                      d0 – Distance to satellite from the location on the ground of the bore
                      sight of satellite beam, km
                      f – Satellite operation frequency, GHz
                      LA – Clear-air atmospheric attenuation, dB
                      GSAT(-3dB) – Satellite antenna gain 3dB below the peak value, dBi
                      BMHz – Satellite receiver IF bandwidth, MHz




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4.1.2. Victim receiver categories

          As discussed in the ITU and ECC reports [2,10], different types of interference
          scenarios may be identified depending on the type of “victim” receiver
          considered. Three categories of “victim” receivers have been classified as
          shown in Table 4.1, below. Depending on different types of “victim” receiver
          categories, different types of interference scenarios are dominant and applied
          for the UWB interference model study.



          Table 4.1: Categories of “victim” receivers
           Category Description         Examples of victim             Potential Dominant
                                        receivers                      Interference
                                                                       Scenarios
               A         Mobile and     - RLAN,                        - Single-entry
                         portable       - Indoor FWA                   interference
                         stations
               B         Fixed          - FS station (P-P, P-MP)       - Aggregate
                         outdoor        - Radio astronomy station      interference from
                         stations       - Earth station (FSS)          surrounding UWB,
                                        - Broadcasting fixed outdoor   and/or
                                          receiver                     Single-entry
                                        - Radar station                interference
                                        - Amateur
               C         Satellite/     - Satellite receiver (EESS,    - Aggregate
                         aeronautical   FSS)                           interference from
                         on-board       - Aircraft stations            large scale area
                         receivers



4.2.   Fixed satellite services (FSS)



          Introduction

          The fixed satellite services at C-band (4/6GHz) have been widely used for
          commercial satellite service since the 1960s. Therefore, many earth receiving
          stations have been installed and are continuously receiving and transmitting
          signals for international telephony, data transmission and TV broadcasting. In
          general, most of the domestic satellite-receiving stations are typically installed
          on the rooftops of buildings. In Hong Kong local environment, this frequency
          band is heavily used for satellite TV, telecommunication trunk traffic, VSAT
          networks, Internet traffic, satellite news gathering, turn around services, etc.

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4.2.1. Fixed satellite service – downlink

          “Victim” communication services

          “Victim” receiver category: Category B



          Frequency band : 3400–4200 MHz [as referenced on the OFTA frequency
          allocation table]. The fixed satellites operating in this downlink frequency band,
          which covers the Hong Kong local environment, are shown below.




                      Satellite                      Downlink frequency (MHz)

           Agila 2                            3791, 3824, 3871, 3875, 3880, 3907,
                                              4048, 4161, 4188
           Orbital position: 146.0 oE
           Azimuth: 121.4 o
           Elevation: 47.0 o


           AsiaSat 2                          3660, 3706, 3767, 3786, 3790, 3795,
                                              3820, 3880, 3960, 4000, 4148
           Orbital position: 100.5 oE
           Azimuth: 215.2 o
           Elevation: 59.9 o



           AsiaSat 3S                         3640, 3680, 3725, 3745, 3750, 3755,
                                              3760, 3780, 3792, 4000, 4020, 4040,
           Orbital position: 105.5 oE
           Azimuth: 204.5 o                   4091, 4102, 4111, 4112, 4140
           Elevation: 62.6 o



           Chinasat 6B                        3680, 3706, 3750, 3771, 3786, 3796,
                                              3807, 3808, 3825, 3834, 3840, 3846,
           Orbital position: 115.5 oE
           Azimuth: 176.6 o                   3854, 3861, 3871, 3880, 3885, 3892,
           Elevation: 63.8 o                  3900, 3910, 3929, 3940, 3951, 4000,
                                              4060, 4147, 4158, 4171, 4192

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           Intelsat 2                     3901, 4022

           Orbital position: 169.0 oE
           Azimuth: 105.0 o
           Elevation: 24.4 o



           Intelsat 7 / 10                3516, 3661, 3744, 3765, 3774, 3777,
                                          3783, 3808, 3864, 3913, 3920, 3924,
           Orbital position: 68.5 oE
           Azimuth: 250.8 o               4034, 4054, 4059, 4064, 4070, 4087,
           Elevation: 32.5 o              4124, 4127, 4132, 4143, 4166, 4173



           Intelsat 8                     3740, 3790, 3815, 3829, 3880, 3940,
                                          4060, 4122, 4130,
           Orbital position: 166.0 oE
           Azimuth: 106.5 o
           Elevation: 28.2 o



           Palapa C2                      3765, 3774, 3926, 3934, 4055, 4074,
                                          4080, 4184
           Orbital position: 113.0 oE
           Azimuth: 185.4 o
           Elevation: 64.7 o



           Sinosat 3                      3827, 3845, 3893, 3909, 3922, 3989,
                                          4000, 4006, 4080, 4120, 4160
           Orbital position: 125.0 oE
           Azimuth: 153.4 o
           Elevation: 61.1 o



           Telstar 10 (Apstar IIR)        3655, 3680, 3706, 3760, 3780, 3787,
                                          3840, 4030, 4034, 4049, 4056, 4089,
           Orbital position: 76.5 oE
           Azimuth: 245.3 o               4095, 4146, 4165, 4173
           Elevation: 40.1 o


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           Thaicom 1A                         3725, 3854, 3916, 4012

           Orbital position: 120.0 oE
           Azimuth: 166.6 o
           Elevation: 64.2 o



           Thaicom 2 / 5                      3431, 3432, 3440, 3475, 3505, 3521,
                                              3551, 3569, 3585, 3600, 3625, 3640,
           Orbital position: 78.5 oE
           Azimuth: 243.7 o                   3760, 3814, 3820, 3840, 3888, 3920,
           Elevation: 41.9 o                  3960, 4107, 4135




          Protection requirement    :

          Recommendation ITU-R S.1432 states that the allowable interference noise
          contribution is 1% for all sources of permanent interference below 15GHz.
          Therefore, the protection criteria for FSS downlink is I/N = -20dB.



          Typical “Victim” characteristics based on ITU-R SM.2057 and ITU-R BO.1213:

              Parameter             Symbol            Earth             Units
                                                     station

           IF bandwidth                 BIF             40              MHz

           Noise                        TS             100                K
           temperature

           Antenna                       -            62.6             Degree
           elevation angle

           Off-axis gain                GR              -5               dBi
           towards horizon




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          Interference scenario and methodology

          UWB Characteristics

             e.i.r.p. density limit                   Average power UWB emission



          Single interferer

             Methodology                      Link budget for single device
             Propagation model                Log-normal shadowing propagation model for
                                              outdoor line of sight (LoS) propagation is
                                              used to include the shadow fading effect for
                                              terrestrial propagation
                                             (ITU-R SM.2057)

             Referring to Section 4.1.1.1, the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for single
             interferer is calculated as follow.

                                e.i.r.p.max.= Imax – BWCF – G(θ) + Lp + Lr

            where,

               Imax = I/N + N + NF = I/N + kTB = -122.58 dBm for I/N = -20 dB

               Noise figure (NF) is negligible

               BWCF = 16.02 dB

               G(θ) = -5 dBi for elevation angle of 62.6o

               Lp = 20log(4pf/c) + 10nlog(d) + Xs = 65.04 dB which is the Log-normal
                     shadowing propagation model.

                     For outdoor LoS propagation (ECC Report 64)

                      n: Path loss exponent (n = 2)

                      Xs: Log-normal shadow fading (Xs = 1 dB)

               Lr = 0 dB for zero insertion loss

          Aggregate interference

             Methodology                      Integral methodology (ITU-R SM.1757)
             Propagation model                Free-space propagation

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          Reference deployment scenario

             Deployment Scenario 1                     (1a) Rural       (1b)Suburban      (1c)Dense
                                                                                              urban

             UWB density (/km 2)                           100               1000             10000
             Activity factor                               5%                5%               5%
                                               2
             Active UWB density (/km )                     5                 50               500
                                                   1
             Radius of exclusion zone (m)                  100               50               10


             Radius of observed zone (m)                   3000              3000             3000
             % Indoor                                      80%               80%              80%

             Note: 1 The exclusion zone represents the minimum separation distance between UWB and

            victim. The exclusion zone of 10m is adopted for the victim receiver located in dense urban

            area, which representing a typical separation distance between UWB devices and victim

            receiver located at outdoor or at rooftop of building with a street apart. For suburban and

            rural areas, 50m and 100m are used as the separation distances to represent the lower

            building density in these areas.




            Referring to section 4.1.1.2(a), the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for aggregate
            UWB interference with free space propagation is calculated as follows.

                                           (                        )
                                 I max = 2 e.i.r. p ⋅ (λ / 4π ) ⋅ G ηρπ ln ( R1 / R0 )
                                                                2




            where,

               For I/N = -20 dB, Imax = -122.58 dBm

               G(θ) =0 dBi for elevation angle of 62.6o , which is an average off-axis gain
               considering aggregate interference in accordance with the ITU report [10]

               η = activity factor = 5 %

               ρ = UWB density (/km 2)

               R1 = Radius of observed zone (m)

               R0 = Radius of exclusion zone (m)




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          Results of theoretical analysis

          Single interferer

                                                             Earth station

             Protection distance (m)                         101
             e.i.r.p. density limit (dBm/MHz)                -68.56
                  1
          Note:       The protection distance of 10 m for FSS earth station, which has been widely adopted
          by ITU, ECC and other countries, is used to simulate the separation distance between the
          satellite antenna and the premise.




          Aggregate interference

             Deployment Scenario 1                    (1a) Rural        (1b)Suburban       (1c)Dense
                                                                                               urban

             e.i.r.p. density limit (dBm/MHz)                -49.3            -60.1             -71.6
             Exclusion zone (m)                             100               50               10



          Results of theoretical analysis - Aggregate Interference in realistic statistic
          model in the EU.

          Regarding compatibility studies on fixed satellite services (FSS) [17], which
          has been published by ECC Report 64, investigation of the aggregate UWB
          interference with the condition of 5% activity factor, 80% indoor usage and
          UWB density of 10,000/km 2 in dense urban areas has been carried out. The
          results indicate that the maximum mean e.i.r.p density is -77dBm/MHz at the
          FSS downlink frequency band from 3.4 – 4.2 GHz. This emission limit has
          been determined based on conventional propagation model, which is 5.4 dB
          lower than the value calculated from our local interference model due to the
          difference in the elevation angle of the earth station in Hong Kong. In general,
          this calculated protection limit for FSS downlink, based on the conventional
          propagation model, is considered to be overly conservative.



          In view of this, complementary studies, which focused on defining a more
          reasonable protection limit of FSS [17], were carried out by Intel and Siemens


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          based on a realistic statistical model, including both LoS and NLoS
          propagation. LoS represents a direct path between the UWB device and the
          victim receiver whereas NLoS accounts for the multi-path shadow fading
          caused by obstacles such as walls and buildings. The outdoor and indoor-to-
          outdoor attenuation are evaluated by using the statistics of the height
          distribution of actual buildings and of the respective FSS locations in city of
          Milan, Italy, which the population density is approximately equal to 7,159/km 2.
          Based on this population density, the UWB density of 10000/km 2 representing
          a dense urban environment has been adopted in the model of complementary
          studies, which is also same as the Hong Kong situation. Hence, the results of
          these complementary studies could be considered as supplementary
          information for UWB interference to FSS in Hong Kong with a more practical
          consideration on the realistic propagation loss. From the statistical model, the
          indoor-to-outdoor attenuation is in the range of 12 – 40 dB, which is
          significantly larger than the 10dB fixed indoor-to-outdoor attenuation used in
          the conventional propagation model. Considering the aggregate interference
          from UWB devices (mean e.i.r.p density = -41.3dBm/MHz) with an activity
          factor of 1% and 100% indoor usage in a dense urban area, the results
          indicate that the I/N ratio calculated from the realistic propagation model is -
          18dB with a 99% confidence level.        In view of this, CEPT believes the
          combination of the very high confidence levels and low I/ N should ensure that
          there are no harmful interference for FSS systems.



          Summary

          Considering the FSS downlink station, the results of the theoretical analysis
          indicate that the maximum permissible mean e.i.r.p. density of a UWB device
          for the dense urban case, with an exclusion zone of 10m, is -71.6 dBm/MHz.
          As discussed in the complementary technical studies as supported by ECC,
          with consideration to a real building height distribution, the indoor-to-outdoor
          attenuation shall be in the range of 12 – 40 dB, which is higher than the fixed
          attenuation value of 10dB. In view of this, the ECC concluded that the studies
          have provided some level of confidence regarding the protection of outdoor
          stations from the Fixed Satellite Service with a maximum mean e.i.r.p. spectral
          density of -41.3 dBm/MHz.


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4.2.2. Fixed satellite service – uplink

          “Victim” communication services

          “Victim” receiver category: Category C



          Frequency band : 5850–6425 MHz [as referred to OFTA frequency allocation
          table]



          Protection requirement:

          Recommendation ITU-R S.1432 states that the allowable interference noise
          contribution is 1% for all sources of permanent interference below 15GHz.
          Therefore, the protection criteria for FSS uplink is I/N = -20dB.



          “Victim” characteristics based on ITU-R SM.2057:

                      Parameter                  Symbol         Satellite           Units
                                                                receiver

           IF bandwidth                            BIF             150              MHz

           Noise temperature                        TS             501               K

           Receiver antenna gain                   Gsat            17               dBi

           Distance from the ground to              d0           39220               km
           bore sight of satellite beam

           Clear     air         atmospheric        -              0.1               dB
           attenuation




          Interference scenario and methodology

          UWB Characteristics

             e.i.r.p. density limit         FCC limit (-41.3dBm/MHz)




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          Aggregate interference

             Methodology                          GSO satellite-specific aggregate interference
                                                  model (ITU-R SM.1757)
             Propagation model                    Free space propagation



          Reference deployment scenario

             Deployment Scenario 2                Global beam – Maximum density of UWB
                                                  transmitters over a large scale area can be
                                                  covered
                                            2
             Active UWB density (/km )            0.5
             Activity factor                      5%
             % Indoor                             80%
                        2 1
             Area (km )                           217000000

             Note: 1This area of coverage is typical for the global beam of satellite, as referenced to ITU-
             R SM. 2057.




          Referring to Section 4.1.1.2 part (c), the maximum number of tolerable active
          UWB device (N) for the FCC limit = -41.3 dBm/MHz is calculated as follow.

          I max = 10 log ( N ) + P − 92.5 − 20 log (d 0 ) − 20 log ( f ) − LA + GSAT (− 3dB ) + 10 log (BMHz )

          where,

            Imax = I/N + N + NF = I/N + kTB = -109.84 dBm for I/N = -20 dB

            Noise figure (NF) is negligible

             P = mean e.i.r.p. density of UWB devices

             d0 = distance from the ground to the boresight of satellite beam = 39220 km,
                   which is the typical distance between the boresight of satellite and the
                   ground, as referenced to ITU-R SM. 2057)

             LA = Clear air atmospheric attenuation = 0.1 dB

             GSAT (-3dB) = 17 dBi

             BMHz = 150


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          Results of theoretical analysis

          Taking mean UWB e.i.r.p. density = -41.3dBm/MHz and activity factor of 5%:
          The maximum tolerable active UWB density (/km 2):         724.39



          Taking Deployment Scenario 2, that the active UWB density is 0.5 (/km 2):
          The e.i.r.p. density limit (dBm/MHz):                     -22.7



          Summary

          The results of the theoretical analysis indicate that the satellite is not likely to
          be interfered with, even if the aggregate interference from UWB devices with -
          41.3 dBm/MHz is applied.



4.3.   Amateur/Amateur Satellite



          Introduction

          The frequency allocation of amateur and amateur-satellite services have
          overlapped with the channels on which a UWB device might operate. The
          characteristic s of the Amateur/Amateur Satellite earth stations are not well
          defined in the current literature. This is due to the fact that the amateur
          service is designated for experimental purposes only. In general, SSB-
          Telephony or Morse Telegraphy, which is adapted by ITU and CEPT, is
          considered as the signal model for amateur service. Similar to the ECC
          consideration, we consider the single interferer is the dominant interference
          mechanism in Hong Kong, since amateur receivers are mostly located in the
          indoor environment.



          “Victim” communication services

          “Victim” receiver category:       Category B – single interferer



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          Frequency band : 5650–5670 MHz, 10450–10500 MHz
                              [as referred to OFTA frequency allocation table]



          Protection requirement        :

          The “victim” receiver noise level cannot be increased by more than 1dB due to
          UWB interference at a protection distance of 10 m.



          UWB interference can increase the receiver noise floor Nreceiver, which
          degrades the performance of existing systems. The link budget degradation is
          measured by a factor that equals to the interference ratio with and without
          UWB interference IUWB.

                                            I U W B + N receiver   I
                                                                 = UWB + 1
                                                  N receiver      N receiver

                                            I U W B + N receiver
          For the 1 dB degradation,                              = 1 dB
                                                  N receiver
          => IUWB=( Nreceiver – 6 dB)



          “Victim” characteristics based on ITU-R SM.2057:

                      Parameter                         Symbol            Amateur          Units

           IF bandwidth                                    BIF                 2.7         kHz

           Signal-to-noise ratio                         SNR                   6            dB

           Noise figure                                     F                  1            dB

           Antenna line loss                                -                  3            dB




          Interference scenario and methodology

          UWB Characteristics

             e.i.r.p. density limit               Average power UWB emission

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          Single interferer

             Methodology                      Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL)
             Propagation model                Free-space propagation
             Activity factor                  100%



            Referring to section 4.1.1.1 part (b), the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for single
            interferer is calculated as follow.

                                  MCL = PUWB + 10 log (BRX ) − S RX + C / I

            where,

               MCL = free space propagation loss = 32.5 +20log(f) +20log(d) = 67.54dB

               PUWB = mean e.i.r.p density limit

               SRX = sensitivity of the victim receiver (i.e. system noise floor)

               BRX = IF bandwidth of the victim receiver

               Imax = Nreceiver – 6 dB

               C = C/ Nreceiver + Nreceiver = SNR + Nreceiver



          Results of theoretical analysis

             Single interferer                       5.65 – 5.67GHz           10.45–10.5GHz
             Protection distance (m)                 10                       10
             e.i.r.p. density limit (dBm/MHz)        -51.46                   -46.12



          Summary

          The impact of UWB interference from a single interferer in vicinity to an
          amateur station in the 5.65 GHz and 10.56 GHz frequency ranges were
          studied. The protection criteria of amateur services are that the system noise
          levels cannot be increased by more than 1dB with a protection distance of
          10m. From the theoretical analysis, the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for 5.65 GHz

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          and 10.45 GHz are -51.46 dBm/MHz and -46.12 dBm/MHz, respectively.

4.4.   Earth Exploration Satellite Service (EESS)

          Introduction

          The frequency band 8025–8400 MHz is assigned for Earth Exploration
          Satellite Services (space-to-Earth), where signals are transmitted from a
          satellite to an Earth station. In Hong Kong, the EESS is used as a mobile link.
          The maximum permissible interference power is -134dBW/100MHz with a
          typical earth station antenna gain of 55dBi.



          “Victim” communication services

          “Victim” receiver category: Category C



          Frequency band : 8025–8400 MHz [as referred to OFTA frequency allocation
          table]



          Protection requirement      :

          Recommendation ITU-R SA.1027-3 states that the maximum permissible
          interference noise level is -134 dBW/100MHz (-124 dBm/MHz), for which an
          antenna gain of 55dBi is already included in this protection criteria.



          “Victim” characteristics based on ITU-R SM.2057:

                      Parameter                  Symbol         Amateur             Units

           Maximum permissible                     Imax           -124             dBm/MHz

           Interference noise level



          Interference scenario and methodology

          UWB Characteristics

             e.i.r.p. density limit         -41.3dBm/MHz

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          Aggregate interference

             Methodology                       Integral methodology (ITU-R SM.1757)
             Propagation model                 Free space propagation



          Reference deployment scenario

             Deployment Scenario 1               (1a) Rural         (1b)Suburban        (1c)Dense
                                                                                            urban

             UWB density (/km 2)                        100                1000             10000
             Activity factor                            5%                  5%              5%
                                         2
             Active UWB density (/km )                  5                   50              500
             % Indoor                                   80%                 80%             80%



            Referring to Section 4.1.1.2 part (a), the minimum separation distance R0 of
            the mean e.i.r.p. density for aggregate UWB interference is calculated as
            follows:

                                        (                       )
                               I max = 2 e.i.r. p ⋅ (λ / 4π ) ⋅ G ηρπ ln ( R1 / R0 )
                                                            2




            where,

               Imax = I/N + N = I/N + kTB = -122.58 dBm for I/N = -20 dB

               Mean e.i.r.p. density = -41.3 or -51.3 dBm/MHz

               G(θ) = -5 dBi for elevation angle of 62.6o

               η = activity factor = 5 %

               ρ = UWB density (/km 2) corresponding to different deployment scenarios

               R1 = Radius of observed zone (m) = 3,000 m

               R0 = Radius of exclusion zone (Minimum separation distance) (m)




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          Results of theoretical analysis

          Protection distance for mean e.i.r.p. density = -41.3 dBm/MHz

             Rural                                              <10 m
             Suburban                                           10 m
             Dense urban                                        5 km

          Protection distance for mean e.i.r.p. density = -51.3 dBm/MHz

             Rural                                              <10 m
             Suburban                                           <10 m
             Dense urban                                        10m



          Summary

          The impact of the aggregate UWB interference on Earth Exploration Satellite
          Services in 8.025 GHz has been studied. Considering that the EESS mobile
          link is mainly used in suburban and rural areas, the maximum mean e.i.r.p.
          density limit of -41.3 dBm/MHz is appropriated.




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4.5.   Radio LANs (RLANs)

          Introduction

          HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11 are two different standards for RLAN systems
          that operate in the 5 GHz band. This report discusses 5 GHz RLANs and the
          impact of UWB interference on these RLANs. The 802.11 standard includes
          several extensions. Extension 11b is for the PHY related to the 2.4 GHz ISM
          band. Extension 11a is for a high data rate Orthogonal Frequency Division
          Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation, with the PHY standard providing data rates
          in the range of 6 to 54 Mbit/s in the 5 GHz bandwidth. HIPERLAN/2 uses the
          same OFDM modulation as 802.11a and data rates in the range 6–54 Mbit/s;
          however, HIPERLAN/2 uses a slightly different set: 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36 and 54
          Mbit/s, where 802.11a has 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 54 Mbit/s. In Hong
          Kong, RLAN services are considered mainly operated in indoor environments
          as mobile and portable stations similar to the case as discussed in other
          studies.




          “Victim” communication services

          “Victim” receiver category: Category A



          Frequency band: 5150-5350 and 5470-5725MHz (centre frequency of
          measurement is 5250MHz) [as refer to OFTA frequency allocation table]



          Protection requirement   :

          The tolerable C/I levels for RLANs “victims” and UWB devices are determined
          based on the measurement conducted by ECC [2] on the standard of IEEE
          802.11a with respect to a frame error rate of 10%.



          “Victim” characteristic based on ITU-R SM.2057:

          Station description: IEEE 802.11a: laptop with adapter

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          Receiver Bandwidth: 16.5 MHz

          Receiver antenna type: Integrated Antenna



           Data rate           Receiver        Modulation       Theoretical     Measured
            (Mbit/s)           sensitivity     and coding        SNR (dB)      C/I resulting
                              according to        rate                           in about
                                802.11a                                        10% frame
                            standard (dBm)                                     errors (dB)

                6                -82            BPSK, 1/2            5               6

                9                -81            BPSK, 3/4            6               9

                12               -79            QPSK, 1/2            8               9

                18               -77            QPSK, 3/4            10             10

                24               -74           16-QAM, 1/2           13             13

                36               -70           16-QAM, 3/4           17             24

                48               -66           64-QAM, 2/3           21              -

                54               -65           64-QAM, 3/4           22             26




          Interference scenario and methodology

          UWB Characteristics

          e.i.r.p. limit                     -41.3 dBm/MHz (FCC limit)
          Activity factor                    Single closest interferer: 100 % (Category A)



          Single interferer

             Methodology                     Methodology Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL)
             Propagation model               Free space and ITU-R Rec. P.1238 (indoor)
             (No mitigation techniques)




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            Referring to Section 4.1.1.1 part (b), the equation of MCL is:

                                   MCL = PUWB + 10 log (BRX ) − S RX + C / I



            For free space propagation model,

             MCL = 20 log 10 ( f ) + 20 log 10 ( d ) + 32.4 dB

            where

                f: centre frequency in MHz

                d: distance between the UWB device and the victim in km




            As according to ITU-R Rec. P.1238 (indoor) model,

             MCL = 20 log 10 ( f ) + N log 10 ( d ) + L f (n ) − 28dB

            where

                f: centre frequency in MHz

                N: distance power loss coefficient ( N=31 is used for the calculation )

                d: distance between the UWB device and the victim in km

                Lf (n): floor penetration loss for n floor (Lf (n)=0 is used for the calculation )



          Results of theoretical analysis

          Single interferer

             Protection distance (cm)                    36 (referred to the ECC report ,
                                                         similar to protection distance for IMT-
                                                         2000 MS)

             e.i.r.p. limit (dBm/MHz)                    -68.2




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          Separation distance with UWB limit of -41.3dBm/MHz

           Data rate      Separation distance (m)          Separation distance (m)
            (Mbit/s)         using Free space             using ITU-R Rec. P.1238
                            propagation model           (indoor) propagation model

                6                     4                            2.5

               18                     3.6                          2.4

               36                     8                             4

               54                     5.7                          3.2




          Summary

          For a reference distance of 36 cm between the UWB device and the RLAN
          terminal under free-space propagation, the permissible mean UWB e.i.r.p.
          density is -68.2 dBm/MHz.




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4.6.   Fixed Service (FS)

          Introduction

          Deriving the e.i.r.p. limits for the co-existence of UWB applications, with FS
          operating below about 11GHz, is based on only a few representative cases
          with the appropriate, available mitigation factors taken into account. In Hong
          Kong, most of the fixed services are point-to-point (P-P). The transmission is
          usually between two hilltop sites or between a hilltop site and a roof-top site.
          Some common hilltop sites are Tai Mo Shan, Victoria Peak, Kowloon Peak,
          Castle Peak and Golden Hill etc. For roof-top sites, they may situate in urban
          areas such as Mong Kok and Tsim Sha Tsui. For the cases of hilltops, “hot
          spot” UWB interference aggregation from home/office within a building has
          been addressed by the ECC in compatibility studies of FS. Owing to the
          similarity of the FS locations within Hong Kong in these studies, Deployment
          Scenario 3, which has been adopted by ECC, is considered in the analysis of
          the local environment.    Regarding the FS at rooftop, similar to the fixed
          satellite service, Deployment Scenario 1c has been considered for analyzing
          the aggregate effect since the corresponding stations in Hong Kong are also
          located in the dense urban areas.      In addition, point-to-multipoint (P-MP)
          applications are also considered in this section with similar geographical
          considerations.



          “Victim” communication services

          “Victim” receiver category: Category A or B



          Frequency band: 4400–4990MHz, 6425–8500MHz, and 10150–10680 MHz
          [as refer to OFTA frequency allocation table]



          Protection requirement:

          The protection criterion for FS are I/N = -20dB (outdoor) and I/N = -6dB
          (indoor), according to recommendation ITU-R F.1094 and WP9A LS.



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      “Victim” characteristics based on ITU-R SM.2057:
       Application         Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) • Public fixed access and
                                                       mobile networks’
                                                       infrastructure (medium to
                                                       high capacity for trunk,
                                                       regional, local
                                                       connections)
                                                                • Private utilities networks
                                                                (low to medium capacity
                                                                connections)
                                                                • Military (National/NATO)
                                                                networks
   System                          Point-to-multipoint                    Point-to-point
   description
   Frequency        band            5.9                  5.9      4-7          7-8           10.5
   (GHz)
                               CS and TS               TS
                              (Category B           (Category
   Receiver station             outdoor)                A                  Category B
                                                     indoor)
   Receiver                        < 50               < 50        < 50        < 50           < 50
   bandwidth (MHz)
                                                                   5+3
   Receiver      noise              5.5                  5      (feeder         6             7
   figure (dB)                                                    loss)
   Receiver antenna                 90°
                           Omni              Dir.    Omni               Directional (dish)
   Type                             Sect
   Receiver antenna          8       16      16          0        41           41            40
   Gain (dBi)
                                                                φ=3.7m       φ=3m          φ=1.2m
   Model                     ITU-R F. 1336                       ITU-R       ITU-R          ITU-R
                                                                 F. 699      F. 699        F. 699
   Protection require-           I/N=-20dB          I/N=-6dB               I/N=-20dB
   ment
   System Noise                    -109               -107        -110        -108           -107
   (dBm/MHz)
   Objective Imax                  -129               -113        -130        -128           -127
   (dBm/MHz)




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          Interference scenario and methodology

          UWB Characteristics

             e.i.r.p. limit               -41.3 dBm/MHz (FCC limit)
             Activity factor              Single entry: 100%

                                          Aggregate: 5% for Scenario 1, 20% for
                                          Scenario 3



          Single interferer

             Methodology                   Minimum distance requirement
                                           (Indoor FWA terminals)
                                           Worst case interference level
                                           (Outdoor FS stations)

             Propagation model            Siwiak 2-slope (indoor); Free space (outdoor)
             (No mitigation techniques)



          Aggregate interference

             Methodology                  Power Integration; ECC report 64 – Annex 1
             Propagation model            Free space propagation for Scenario 1
                                          P.1238 + wall + free space (outdoor) for
                                          Scenario 3
             Attenuation                  Indoor-to-outdoor: 10dB (P.1238 + outer
                                          walls), 16dB/floor (Roofs)
             Mitigation techniques        -5dB for 1/3 non-LoS UWB devices
                                          -3 dB for UWB polarization uncorrelated at
                                          victim antenna
             Enhancement for              +5dB
             multi-scenario
             aggregation




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             Reference deployment scenario

             Deployment Scenario 1           (1a) Rural        (1b)Suburban    (1c)Dense
                                                                                   urban

             UWB density (/km 2)                   100             1000            10000
             Activity factor                       5%               5%             5%
                                       2
             Active UWB density (/km )             5                50             500
             % Indoor                              80%              80%            80%



             By considering the local environment, a particular part Deployment
             Scenario, as discussed in the ECC, is also used in our analysis as a “hot
             spot” interference case. It is assumed that a medium-large commercial
             centre building is deployed with big company offices. It might be likely that
             the same building is selected by a service provider as a location for an
             FWA Central Station (CS), and that a number of Terminal Stations (TS) is
             pointing to it. It is also possible that a P-P connection passes nearby, still
             maintaining the necessary clearance for Line-of-Sight propagation (i.e. >~2
             times the radius of first Fresnel zone). The clearance zone of the P-P
             connection is 50m, 35m and 20m for frequency bands at 4-7GHz, 7-8GHz
             and 10.5GHz, respectively. The deployment scenario for the medium-large
             commercial centre is as follows:

             Deployment Scenario 3                 Home/Office

             UWB density (per floor)               1 / 10m 2
             Activity factor                       20%
             Active UWB density                    0.2 / 10m 2
             % Indoor                              100%




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          Results of theoretical analysis - Single interferer

            In calculating the mean e.i.r.p. of single UWB interference to indoor FWA,
            Siwiak 2-slope model has been applied and the equation is:

                                                                −
                                                                    Dγ
                                                                         
             I max = EIRP − 32.5 −  20 log D( m ) − 10 log 1 − e D      − 20 log F(GHz)
                                                                        
                                   
                                                                       

                    is
            where D£^ the transition break point between exponent 2 and exponent 3.




            In calculating the mean e.i.r.p. of single UWB interference to outdoor
            receiver, free space model has been applied and the equation is:

                                         e.i.r.p.max.= Imax – G(θ) + Lp + Lr

            where

               Imax =I/N + N + NF

               Lp= 20 log 10(f)+20 log (d) +32.4 dB ; f in MHz & d in km

               Lr=3 for service in the frequency range of 4-7GHz, otherwise Lr=0



          (a) To find out the mean e.i.r.p. limit for a given protection distance for indoor
          UWB to indoor Category A FWA TS (5.9GHz)

             Protection distance (m)                     1
             Required e.i.r.p. limit (dBm/MHz)           -66.4



          (b) To find out the mean e.i.r.p. limit to ensure the given I/N protection criteria
          for outdoor UWB to outdoor Category B station

             Freq. Range outdoor FS (GHz)                4-7                 7-8              10.5
             Required e.i.r.p. limit (dBm/MHz)           -57                 -52              -49




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          Results of theoretical analysis - Aggregate Interference

          With a reference mean e.i.r.p density of -41dBm/MHz per UWB device, the
          worst case asymptotic value of aggregate interference power with different
          aggregate effects such as UWB density, indoor/outdoor ratio, activity factor,
          etc. can be calculated by:

          P-MP at 5.9GHz (FWA)

          (i)         For Scenarios 1a, 1b and 1c, the aggregate interference is

                   I max = −92 − K B + 10 log(UWB (/ km2 ) / 1000 ) − K LOS − K pol − K %


          (ii)        For Scenario 3, the aggregate interference is

                   I max = −87 − K B − K LOS − K pol − K%


          P-P at 4GHz

          (i)         For Scenarios 1a, 1b and 1c, the aggregate interference is

                   I max = −90 − K B + 10 log(UWB ( / km 2 ) /1000 ) − K LOS − K pol − K %


          (iii)       For Scenario 3, the aggregate interference is

                   I max = −87 − K B − K LOS − K pol − K%


          where

                KB: Building attenuation experienced by indoor UWB devices (10 is used
                for the calculation)

                KLOS: Correction factor for non LOS UWB devices (5 is used for the
                calculation )

                Kpol: Correction factor for polarisation (3 is used for the calculation)

                K%: Correction factor for activity factor (13 for 5% activity factor)



          Subtracting the calculated Imax value to the objective I ax value as shown in
                                                                 m

          “Victim Characteristics” table, the maximum permissible mean e.i.r.p. density
          limit of UWB shall be:

                UWB e.i.r.p. density limit (in dBm/MHz) = -41 – (I max, calculated - Imax, objective)

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          Aggregate interference for the worse case scenario at frequency 4.4 GHz.

    Density of UWB transmitters (/km2)              Active UWB            UWB e.i.r.p.
                                                 transmitters (/km2)    limit (dBm/MHz)

    100 (Scenario 1a)                                      5                  -46.7

    1000 (Scenario 1b)                                    50                  -56.7

    10000 (Scenario 1c)                                  500                  -66.7

    1/10m2 (Scenario 3 Indoor “hot spots”)             0.2/10m2               -62.3



          With reference to the ITU [10], the aggregate cases of bands above 4.4 GHz
          are not evaluated; however, it is assumed that results are at least 6 dB more
          favourable.



          Aggregate interference for scenarios at frequency 5.9 GHz.

    Density of UWB transmitters (/km2)              Active UWB             UWB e.i.r.p.
                                                 transmitters (/km2)    limit (dBm/MHz)

    100 (Scenario 1a)                                     5                   -46.8

    1000 (Scenario 1b)                                    50                  -56.8

    10000 (Scenario 1c)                                  500                  -66.8

    1/10m2 (Scenario 3 Indoor “hot spots”)            0.2/10m2                -62.3



          Results of theoretical analysis - Aggregate Interference in realistic statistic
          model in the EU.

          Regarding compatibility studies on fixed service (FS) [17], which has been
          published by ECC Report 64, analysis of aggregate interference with a
          condition of 5% activity factor, 20% indoor in dense urban with UWB density of
          10,000/km 2 has been carried out. The result indicates that the maximum mean
          emission limits is -71.5dBm/MHz at 3.4 – 5 GHz and 6 – 8.5 GHz frequency
          bands. This emission limit has been determined based on a conventional
          propagation model, which is similar to the results calculated with the local
          interference model.   In general, this calculated protection limit for an FS

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          downlink, based on the conventional propagation model, is considered to be
          too conservative in the EU.

          In view of this, complementary studies targeted on defining more realistic
          protection limits of FS [17] were carried out by Intel and Siemens, based on a
          realistic statistical model including both LoS and NLoS propagation. The
          outdoor and indoor-to-outdoor propagation are evaluated by the statistics of a
          real building height distribution and of FS locations in city of Milan, Italy which
          represents a typical geographical situation in dense urban environment. As
          the   FS    is   basically    point-to-point   or   point-to-multipoint   terrestrial
          communication, the characteristic of FS transmitter/receiver to UWB
          interference would not be significantly altered as compared to that of Hong
          Kong. In these complementary studies, assuming that UWB devices are
          mainly indoors, for 3.4 – 5 GHz, the e.i.r.p. density limit can be released by
          30.7dB with a confidence level of 99% (i.e. -40.8dBm/MHz), with respect to
          1% activity factor, I/N protection criteria of -20dB, and 80% indoor UWB usage.
          For 6 – 8.5 GHz, the e.i.r.p. density limit can be released by 33 dB with a
          confidence level of 99% (i.e. -38 dBm/MHz), provided that an average activity
          factor is less than 5%, I/N protection criteria of -20 dB and 100% indoor UWB
          usage.

          After considering the similar applications of FS stations, the findings of the
          complementary study are considered to be reasonable in Hong Kong. By
          applying the proposed margin from the relevant complementary studies to the
          results obtained based on the local interference model used in this study, the
          maximum mean e.i.r.p. density can be relaxed to -36dBm/MHz and -
          35dBm/MHz for 3.4-5GHz band and 6 – 8.5 GHz band, respectively.



          Summary

          For the UWB deployment scenarios studied, the e.i.r.p. limits for coexistence
          with FS systems based on a conventional propagation model (fixed 10dB
          indoor-to-outdoor    attenuation     is   considered)    are   -66.7dBm/MHz,        -
          60.7dBm/MHz and -60.7dBm/MHz for the frequency bands of 4400–4990MHz,
          6425–8500MHz and 10150–10680 MHz, respectively. For 5.9GHz, the e.i.r.p.
          limits for coexistence with FWA systems are -66.8dBm/MHz. However, after
          considering the findings from the complementary studies based on a more

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          realistic propagation model, maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -41.3 dBm/MHz
          is considered to be appropriated for FS at the 3.4-5GHz band and the 6 – 8.5
          GHz band for FS. In addition, it should be noted that outdoor UWB application
          on fixed location or a connection to fixed outdoor antenna is prohibited while
          applying this e.i.r.p. emission limit.

4.7.   Radar



          Introduction

          In Hong Kong, the frequency allocations of radar services mainly used for
          maritime and aeronautical services have overlapped with the channels in
          which a UWB device might operate. Radars operating in the 2700-3400 MHz
          band are generally used for the provision of airport approach coverage.
          Radars operating in the 9000-10680 MHz band are generally used for the
          provision of coverage of the aerodrome surface.



          “Victim” communication services

          “Victim” receiver category: Category B



          Frequency band: 2900–3400 MHz, 5030-5150 MHz and 9000–10680 MHz [as
          referred to OFTA frequency allocation table]



          Protection requirement     :

          Interference-to-noise ratio, plus aeronautical safety factor and multiple
          interference source factor.




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           “Victim” characteristics based on ITU-R SM.2057       :


    Radar       Aeronautical      Aeronautical        Maritime       Aeronautical
   service        primary       radionavigation    radionavigation    precision
                surveillance                                          approach
                   radar                                                radar

Frequency          2.9-3.4         5.03-5.15           9.2-9.3         9-10.68
band (GHz)

Receiver           Ground          Airborne             Sea            Ground
location

Receiver           -111.1            -105               -109            -102
noise level
N (in the
receiver
bandwidth)
(dBm)

Protection       I/N=-10dB         S/I=25dB          I/N=-10dB        I/N=-6dB
criteria

Multiple              6                6                     6            6
interference
factor (dB)

Aviation              6                6                     0            6
safety
margin (dB)

Antenna             34.3               0                 1.5             38
gain (dBi)




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          Interference scenario and methodology

          UWB Characteristics

             e.i.r.p. limit                 -41.3 dBm/MHz (FCC limit)
             Activity factor                100%



          Single interferer

             Methodology                    Link budget for single device
             Propagation model              Free space propagation
             (No mitigation techniques)



          Aggregate interference

             Methodology                    NTIA model
             Propagation model              Free-space basic transmission loss
             (No mitigation techniques)



          Reference deployment scenario

             Deployment Scenario 1            (1a) Rural       (1b)Suburban    (1c)Dense
                                                                                   urban

             UWB density (/km 2)                    100              1000          10000
             Activity factor                        5%                5%           5%
                                       2
             Active UWB density (/km )              5                 50           500
             % Indoor                               80%               80%          80%



          Referring to Section 4.1.1.1 part (a), the equation based on I/N criteria is:

                                    e.i.r.p.max.= Imax – G(θ) + Lp + Lr

          where

            Imax =I/N + N

            Lp= 20 log 10(f)+20 log (d) +32.4 dB ; f in MHz & d in km


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              Lr=0 in this service



          Referring to Section 4.1.1.2 part (b), the equation NTIA aggregate airborne
          model is:

                                              ((                  ) )
                               I = αρπRe ln 2(Re + h)H + h 2 / h 2 / ( Re + h )

          where

              a = eirp *(λ/4π)2 *Gr - constant valid in the case of omni-directional
              emissions and free space propagation;

              e.i.r.p. - Mean e.i.r.p. density of the transmitting device in W per unit
              bandwidth;

              Gr - victim receiver antenna gain;

              λ - wavelength (m);

              ρ - average density of active emitters (emitters per m 2);

              Re -Effective earth radius;

              h - height =30m;

              R - radius of the observed zone (m) = 3km;

              H = Re (1- cos( R / R e))



          Results of theoretical analysis – Single interferer

          Frequency bands               2.9–3.4GHz 1 9.2–9.3GHz 2 9–10.68GHz 1
          Separation distance (m) 170                     300/ 10           20
          e.i.r.p. limit (dBm/MHz) -78.4                  -25.1 / -54.7     -76.7

          Remarks:

          1
          For the radiolocation services at 2.9-3.4GHz and 9.3-10.68GHz, the separation distances are
          aligned with the proposed minimum separation distances according to different types of radar
          systems as mentioned in the ITU/ECC reports.

          2
          For maritime radionavigation at 9.2-9.3GHz, the effect of UWB interference was assessed at
          two distances – 10 m for the case of UWB devices on board the ship and 300 m for the case of



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          UWB devices on shore.




          Results of theoretical analysis – Aggregate Interference

          Aeronautical radionavigation at the frequency band of 5030-5150MHz

             Density       of    UWB            Active UWB            UWB e.i.r.p. limit
                              2
             transmitters (/km )            transmitters (/km2)        (dBm/MHz)

             100 (Scenario 1a)                        5                      -33.5

             1000 (Scenario 1b)                      50                      -43.5

             10000 (Scenario 1c)                    500                      -53.5



          Summary

          The impact of UWB interference for a single interferer in the vicinity of a radar
          service and the aggregate effects of UWB devices to an airborne radar were
          studied.   For the ground- and sea-based radar services, the maximum
          permissible mean e.i.r.p. density limits are -78.4dBm/MHz, -54.7dBm/MHz and
          -76.7dBm/MHz at 2.9–3.4GHz, 9.2–9.3GHz and 9–10.68GHz, respectively.
          As mentioned in the amended ECC/DEC/(06)04 [18], a 7dB main antenna
          beam attenuation and a 3dB multiple system/technology allowance factor are
          used for 2.9–3.4GHz aeronautical radar service. This is also considered to be
          reasonable to adopt the above factors in our local analysis due to the similar
          application of the radar services in this band. In this regard, a 10dB relaxation
          on the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for this service can be achieved, i.e. -
          68.4dBm/MHz. Taking the above conditions into the frequency band of 9–
          10.68GHz, the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for this service can be relaxed to -
          66.7dBm/MHz. For the airborne-based radar service at 5.03-5.15GHz, the
          maximum permissible mean e.i.r.p. density limit is -53.5dBm/MHz.




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4.8.   Particular scenario of C-band domestic satellite rece iver in Hong Kong

          The impact of the UWBs used in the higher building to the C-band satellite
          station receiver installed at the rooftop of a lower building is studied by
          modelling. This scenario could occur in the central area of Hong Kong Island
          such as Central District and Sai Ying Pun District. In the modelling, the height
          of the higher and the lower buildings are 50m and 20m, respectively, as
          shown in Figures 4.1 and 4.2.



          As shown in Figure 4.1, the typical elevation angle of the C-band receiving
          antenna is set to be 62.6º for the Hong Kong environment [19]. According to
          the ITU-R BO.1213, the satellite receiver antenna gain G(α) is calculated by
          the following equation:



          G(α) = 29 – 25log(α) dBi         when 1o = α < 22.9o

          G(α) = -5 dBi                    when 22.9o = α = 70o

          where

          α = cos -1{cos(θ2 –θ1) cos(ϕ 2 –ϕ 1)} (Degree) , which θ and ϕ are the angles in
          elevation plane and azimuth plane, respectively. (θ2 –θ1) and (ϕ 2 –ϕ 1) are the
          difference in angles between UWB interference and earth station elevation.



          Case 1: Single UWB interference

          Considering a practical scenario, as shown in Figure 4.2, the C-band receiver
          is rotated horizontally by a minimum of 31.37o to ensure no obstruction within
          the First Fresnel Zone. (F1)

          As shown in Figure 4.2,

                            λd 1 d 2
          Radius of F1 =             = 0.94 m
                            d1 + d 2


          where d1 =   10 2 + 5 2 = 11.18 m and d2 = 39220 km


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          Diameter of the F1 = 2 x 0.94 m =1.88 m

          Degree of rotation for the clearance of First Fresnel Zone (F1)

          = tan-1(5/10) + tan-1(0.94/11.18) = 31.37 o

          As, θ1 = θ2 = 62.6o

                     => a= |ϕ 2 –ϕ 1| = 31.37o

                     => G = -5 dBi

          For Outdoor LoS + 10dB indoor attenuation with a protection criteria of I/N =
          -20dB, the mean e.i.r.p. density limit is -51.82dBm/MHz




                                                            Satellite
         10 m



                                                         10 m
                                     UWB


                                                         21.73 m               θ 1 = 62.6 o
                                  19.29 m

                                                        θ 2 = 62.6 o

      50 m            41.29 m                                                  2m
                                                                  5m

                                                                          5m
                                                                                              20 m




                                                                                        10 m
                                             5m

                        10 m                     5m                    10 m

             Figure 4.1: Three-dimensional view of the modelling
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                                                                             Satellite




      10 m


                                    5m
                       UWB
                                                    1.88 m

       5m                ϕ 2 – ϕ 1 = 31.37o
                                           d1   d1 = 11.18 m
                      10 m

                                                     9.61o > 3dB beamwidth
                                                     of the C-band receiver
      10 m
                               C-band Receiver

                               3dB beamwidth = 1.29 o




             Figure 4.2: Two -dimensional top view of the modelling




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          Case 2: Single UWB interference closer to the antenna main beam

          Further considering that the single UWB device is now moved to one of the
          edges of the building, as shown in Figure 4.3, to simulate a more severe case,
          the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for given protection criteria I/N = -20 dB has
          been calculated as follows.



          According to the ITU-R BO.1213, the satellite receiver antenna gain G(α ) is
          calculated by the following equation:

          G(α) = 29 – 25log(α) dBi            when 1o = α < 22.9o

          G(α) = -5 dBi                       when 22.9o = α = 70o

          where

          α = cos -1{cos(θ2 –θ1) cos(ϕ 2 –ϕ 1)} (Degree), which θ and ϕ are the angles in
          elevation plane and azimuth plane, respectively. (θ2 –θ1) and (ϕ 2 –ϕ 1) are the
          difference in angles between UWB interference and earth station elevation.



          In this case, θ1 = 62.6 o and θ2 = 59.9 o, the C-band receiver has been rotated
          by 31.37 o, horizontally to ensure there no obstruction within the First Fresnel
          Zone, as shown in Figure 4.4.



          As shown in this figure, |ϕ 2 –ϕ 1| = 4.81 o

          => α = cos -1{cos(θ2 –θ1) cos(ϕ 2 –ϕ 1)} = 5.51 o

          => G(α) = 29 – 25log(α) = 10.46 dBi



          For Outdoor LoS + 10dB indoor attenuation with a protection criteria of I/N = -
          20dB, the mean e.i.r.p. density limit is -67.06dBm/MHz.




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             Figure 4.3 Three-dimensional view of the specific scenario




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              Figure 4.4 Two-dimensional view of the specific scenario




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          Case 3: Aggregate UWB interference from multiple devices

          Finally, considering the aggregate effects of 10 UWB devices that are located
          along the edge of the building with a vertical separation of 2m, as shown in
          Figure 4.5, the mean e.i.r.p. density limit for a given protection criteria I/N = -
          20 dB has been calculated as follows:



          Using the FCC limit, the mean e.i.r.p. density of each UWB device is -41.3
          dBm/MHz and the activity factor is 20%. The antenna gains of the C-band
          receiver for each UWB device at particular positions are calculated by

          G(α) = 29 – 25log(α) dBi          when 1o = α < 22.9o

          G(α) = -5 dBi                     when 22.9o = α = 70o

          where

          α = cos -1{cos(θ2 –θ1) cos(ϕ 2 –ϕ 1)} (Degree), which θ and ϕ are the angles in
          elevation plane and azimuth plane, respectively. (θ2 –θ1) and (ϕ 2 –ϕ 1) are the
          difference in angles between UWB interference and earth station elevation.



          For Outdoor LoS + 10dB indoor attenuation with a protection criterion of I/N =
          -20dB, the total aggregate interference power received by the receiver is -
          96.66dBm.



          Considering Imax = -122.58 dBm with an I/N of -20dB, the mean e.i.r.p. density
          limit is -67.22 dBm/MHz.




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             Figure 4.5 Three-dimensional view of the specific scenario for
             aggregate interference




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 4.9.   Summary table of emission limits
The modelling of the impact of UWBs on different existing radiocommunication system services, including fixed satellite service,
amateur/amateur satellite, earth exploration satellite service, radio LANs, fixed service and radar have been studied in this section.
Victim Service    Frequency     Victim Service          Victim Service   Possible Interference Scenario           Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                  Bands         Characteristics         Protection                                                e.i.r.p. density   any:
                  (MHz)                                 Criteria
                                                                                                                  (dBm/MHz)

FSS-Downlink      3400 – 4200   Earth station antenna   I/N = -20dB      Single interferer methodology:           -68.6
                                off-axis Gain           (ITU-R S.1432)   Separation distance = 10m, Log-
                                = -5dBi                                  normal shadowing propagation model
                                System noise
                                temperature                              Aggregate methodology:                   -49.3
                                = 100K                                   Integral methodology, Free space path    (Rural)
                                Satellite receiver IF                    loss, Uniform distribution of UWB        -60.1
                                bandwidth                                devices, 80% of UWB emitters are         (Suburban)
                                = 40MHz                                  indoors,                                 -71.6
                                                                         5 active emitters/km2 (Rural),           (Dense urban)
                                                                         50 active emitters/km2 (Suburban),
                                                                         500 active emitters/km2 (Dense urban),
                                                                         Exclusion zone= 100m (Rural), 50m
                                                                         (Suburban) and 10m (Dense urban)
                                                                         Radius of observed zone = 3km            -67.2
                                                                                                                  (Particular
                                                                                                                  scenario)

FSS-Uplink        5850 - 6425   Satellite antenna       I/N = -20dB      Aggregate methodology:                   -41.3
                                Gain                    (ITU-R S.1432)   GSO satellite-specific aggregate
                                = 17dBi                                  interference model, Free space path
                                System noise                             loss, 35 active UWB emitters/km2, 80%
                                temperature                              of UWB emitters are indoors
                                = 501K
                                Satellite receiver IF
                                bandwidth
                                = 150MHz




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Victim Service       Frequency     Victim Service         Victim Service   Possible Interference Scenario        Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                     Bands         Characteristics        Protection                                             e.i.r.p. density   any:
                     (MHz)                                Criteria
                                                                                                                 (dBm/MHz)

Amateur              5650 – 5670   Receiver antenna       1 dB receiver    Single interferer methodology:        -51.46
/Amateur-satellite   10450-10500   Gain                   degradation      Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL)           -46.12
                                   = 30dBi (boresight)    SNR = 2 dB for   Method, Free space path loss,
                                   Antenna cable loss =   Morse            separation distance = 10m, activity
                                   3dB                    SNR = 6 dB       factor of 100%
                                   Noise figure = 1dB     for SSB voice
                                   Receiver IF
                                   bandwidth
                                   = 500Hz for Morse,
                                   2700Hz for SSB
                                   voice




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Victim Service    Frequency     Victim Service          Victim Service   Possible Interference Scenario          Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                  Bands         Characteristics         Protection                                               e.i.r.p. density   any:
                  (MHz)                                 Criteria
                                                                                                                 (dBm/MHz)

EESS (space-to-   8025 – 8400   Earth station antenna   -124dBm/MHz      Aggregate methodology:                  -41.3
earth)                          gain included in the    (ITU-R           Integral methodology, Free space path
                                protection criteria     SA.1026-3)       loss, 500 active UWB emitters/km2,
                                Maximum antenna                          100% of UWB emitters are indoors,
                                gain                                     Minimum separation distance = 10m,
                                = 55dBi                                  Indoor/Outdoor attenuation = 17dB,
                                                                         Radius of observed zone = 10km




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 Victim Service       Frequency       Victim Service          Victim Service       Possible Interference Scenario       Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                      Bands           Characteristics         Protection                                                e.i.r.p. density   any:
                      (MHz)                                   Criteria
                                                                                                                        (dBm/MHz)

 RLAN                 5150-5350       Receiver sensitivity    10 % frame error     Single interferer,                   -68.2              Tests to
                                                                        -5
 (802.11a)            and 5470-       ranging from -82 dBm    (BER ~ 10 )          Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL)          at d= 0.36m        measure
                      5725            to -65 dBm              corresponds to       Propagation model: Free-space path   (Case 1)           C/I then the
                                                              C/I from 6dB to      loss (Case 1), ITU -R Rec. P.1238                       minimum
                                      (Depends on different   26dB                 (Case 2)                                                separation
                                      data rate)
                                                                                                                                           distance
                                                                                                                                           is calculated
                                                                                                                        - 41.3             at the
                                                                                                                        Case 1:            minimum
                                                                                                                        At MUS+10 dB,      usable
                                                                                                                        d = 1.13 to 2.53   sensitivity
                                                                                                                        m                  (MUS)
                                                                                                                        At MUS, d =        level
                                                                                                                        3.58 to 8.01 m     (Note 2)
                                                                                                                        Case 2:
                                                                                                                        At MUS+10 dB,
                                                                                                                        d = 1.12 to 1.88
                                                                                                                        m
                                                                                                                        At MUS, d =
                                                                                                                        2.34 to 3.94 m
                                                                                                                        (Note 1)

Note 1: MUS means Maximum Usable Sensitivity, d means minimum separation distance
Note 2: The device using UWB technology transmits continuously i.e., 100% activity factor.




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Victim Service    Frequency    Victim Service       Victim Service   Possible Interference Scenario           Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                  Bands        Characteristics      Protection                                                e.i.r.p. density   any:
                  (MHz)                             Criteria
                                                                                                              (dBm/MHz)

Fixed service     4400-7075    NF = 5 dB            I/N = -20 dB     Single-entry to indoor FWA TS at 1 km    - 57               Wideband
Point-to-point                 P-P antenna gain =   (Rec. ITU-R      separation.                                                 peak
                               41 dBi               F.1094 and WP    NOTE – This case may override all                           protection
                                                    9A liaison       possible aggregation scenarios.                             limit in
                                                    statement)                                                                   50 MHz
                                                                                                                                 bandwidth
                                                                                                                                 was
                                                                                                                                 evaluated
                                                                                                                                 42 dB
                                                                                                                                 above
                                                                                                                                 e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                                                                                 (from actual
                                                                                                                                 tests)

                                                                     Aggregate, urban                         - 66.7 (Case 1)    Wideband
                                                                     Uniform distribution of UWB 10000                           peak
                                                                                2
                                                                     device/km                                - 62.3 (Case 2)    protection
                                                                     Case 1:                                                     limit in
                                                                     Outdoor/indoor = 20/80%, activity at                        50 MHz
                                                                     5%                                                          bandwidth
                                                                     Free-space propagation plus mitigation                      was
                                                                     factors for NLOS portion, indoorto-                         evaluated
                                                                     outdoor attenuation                                         42 dB
                                                                                                                                 above
                                                                     Case 2:
                                                                                                                                 e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                     UWB deployment: 100% indoor, 20%
                                                                                                                                 (from actual
                                                                     activity factor.
                                                                                                                                 tests)
                                                                     Free-space propagation plus mitigation
                                                                     factors for NLOS portion, indoorto-
                                                                     outdoor attenuation




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Victim Service    Frequency    Victim Service       Victim Service   Possible Interference Scenario          Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                  Bands        Characteristics      Protection                                               e.i.r.p. density   any:
                  (MHz)                             Criteria
                                                                                                             (dBm/MHz)

Fixed service     7075-8500    NF = 6 dB            I/N = -20 dB     Single-entry to indoor FWA TS at 1 km   - 52               Wideband
Point-to-point                 P-P antenna gain =   (Rec. ITU-R      separation.                                                peak
                               41 dBi               F.1094 and WP    NOTE – This case may override all                          protection
                                                    9A liaison       possible aggregation scenarios.                            limit in
                                                    statement)                                                                  50 MHz
                                                                                                                                bandwidth
                                                                                                                                was
                                                                                                                                evaluated
                                                                                                                                42 dB
                                                                                                                                above
                                                                                                                                e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                                                                                (from actual
                                                                                                                                tests)

                                                                     Only aggregate, urban (10 000           - 60.7 (Case 1)    Wideband
                                                                               2
                                                                     UWB/km ,                                                   peak
                                                                     20% outdoor, 5% activity factor). See   - 56.3 (Case 2)    protection
                                                                     details in above bands 4000-7075 MHz                       limit in
                                                                     NOTE – Case 2 not evaluated for                            50 MHz
                                                                     bands                                                      bandwidth
                                                                     above 4 GHz; however it is assumed                         was
                                                                     that results are at least 6 dB more                        evaluated
                                                                     favourable.                                                42 dB
                                                                                                                                above
                                                                                                                                e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                                                                                (from actual
                                                                                                                                tests)




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Victim Service    Frequency     Victim Service       Victim Service   Possible Interference Scenario          Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                  Bands         Characteristics      Protection                                               e.i.r.p. density   any:
                  (MHz)                              Criteria
                                                                                                              (dBm/MHz)

Fixed service     10150-10680   NF = 7 dB            I/N = -20 dB     Single-entry to indoor FWA TS at 1 km   - 49               Wideband
Point-to-point                  P-P antenna gain =   (Rec. ITU-R      separation.                                                peak
                                40 dBi               F.1094 and WP    NOTE – This case may override all                          protection
                                                     9A liaison       possible aggregation scenarios.                            limit in
                                                     statement)                                                                  50 MHz
                                                                                                                                 bandwidth
                                                                                                                                 was
                                                                                                                                 evaluated
                                                                                                                                 42 dB
                                                                                                                                 above
                                                                                                                                 e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                                                                                 (from actual
                                                                                                                                 tests)

                                                                      Same as above bands 7075-8500           - 60.7 (Case 1)    Wideband
                                                                                                                                 peak
                                                                                                              - 56.3 (Case 2)    protection
                                                                                                                                 limit in
                                                                                                                                 50 MHz
                                                                                                                                 bandwidth
                                                                                                                                 was
                                                                                                                                 evaluated
                                                                                                                                 42 dB
                                                                                                                                 above
                                                                                                                                 e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                                                                                 (from actual
                                                                                                                                 tests)




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Victim Service        Frequency   Victim Service          Victim Service      Possible Interference Scenario           Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                      Bands       Characteristics         Protection                                                   e.i.r.p. density   any:
                      (MHz)                               Criteria
                                                                                                                       (dBm/MHz)

Fixed service         5850-5950   CS antenna gain = 16    CS and outdoor      Single-entry to indoor FWA TS at 1 m     - 66.4             Wideband
Point-to-multipoint               dBi                     TS: I/N = - 20 dB   separation.                                                 peak
                                  TS antenna gain         Indoor TS:          NOTE – This case may override all                           protection
                                  (outdoor TS) = 16 dBi   I/N = -13 dB        possible aggregation scenarios.                             limit in
                                  TS antenna gain                                                                                         50 MHz
                                  (indoor omni) = 0 dBi                                                                                   bandwidth
                                  NF (outdoor) = 5 dB                                                                                     was
                                  NF (indoor) = 5.5 dB                                                                                    evaluated
                                                                                                                                          42 dB
                                                                                                                                          above
                                                                                                                                          e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                                                                                          (from actual
                                                                                                                                          tests)

                                                                              Aggregate, urban                         - 66.8 (Case 1)    Wideband
                                                                              Uniform distribution of UWB 10000                           peak
                                                                                         2
                                                                              device/km                                - 62.3 (Case 2)    protection
                                                                              Case 1:                                                     limit in
                                                                              Outdoor/indoor = 20/80%, activity at                        50 MHz
                                                                              5%                                                          bandwidth
                                                                              Free-space propagation plus mitigation                      was
                                                                              factors for NLOS portion, indoor-to-                        evaluated
                                                                              outdoor attenuation                                         42 dB
                                                                                                                                          above
                                                                              Case 2:
                                                                                                                                          e.i.r.p. limit
                                                                              UWB deployment: 100% indoor, 20%
                                                                                                                                          (from actual
                                                                              activity factor.
                                                                                                                                          tests)
                                                                              Free-space propagation plus mitigation
                                                                              factors for NLOS portion, indoor-to-
                                                                              outdoor attenuation




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Victim Service      Frequency    Victim Service         Victim Service      Possible Interference Scenario     Mean UWB           Remarks, if
                    Bands        Characteristics        Protection                                             e.i.r.p. density   any:
                    (MHz)                               Criteria
                                                                                                               (dBm/MHz)

Aeronautical        9000-10680   Rx antenna gain = 38   I/N = -6 dB +       Single interferer,                 -66.7
radionavigation                  dBi                    aeronautical        20 m separation
and radiolocation                                       safety factor = 6   Free-space path loss
                                                        dB and 6 dB
                                                        multiple
                                                        interference
                                                        source factor
Radiolocation       2900-3400    Rx antenna gain =      I/N = -10 dB +      Single interferer,                 -68.4
                                 34.3 dBi               aeronautical        170 m separation
                                                        safety factor = 6   Free-space path loss
                                                        dB and 6 dB
                                                        multiple
                                                        interference
                                                        source factor
Aeronautical        5030-5150    Rx antenna gain = 0    S/I = 25 dB +       Aggregate interferer,              -53.5
                                                                                                2
radionavigation                  dBi                    aeronautical        (50 active UWB/km )
                                                        safety factor = 6   Outdoor/indoor
                                                        dB and 6 dB         =20/80%
                                                        multiple            Uniform distribution Airborne
                                                        interference        methodology Free-space path loss
                                                        source factor




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5.     Assessing the immunity status of a typical local C-band satellite receiving
       station due to the operation of a UWB device

5.1.   Test Objectives

          The objective of the field test is to assess the performance of C-band satellite receivers in
          the presence of one or more UWB devices and to verify the local UWB interference model.



5.2.   Measurement Date

          The field test measurements were conducted on 10 June 2008 and 24 June 2008.



5.3.   Satellite Receiver and UWB under test

          The C-band satellite receiving station is located at the OFTA Radio Monitoring Unit in
          Kwun Tong (“the satellite receiver”). For the purpose of the field test, the UWB devices
          being tested covered a bandwidth greater than 500 MHz.

          The mean e.i.r.p.s of the UWB devices in the frequency band of 3.4 - 4.2GHz have been
          evaluated in a controlled environment (i.e. anechoic chamber) before the field test [20].
          The measured mean e.i.r.p. of the UWB devices is plotted in Appendix B.



5.4.   Test Equipment

          -   3-metre Diameter Mesh Antenna (Brand: Eight Limited, Model: ST-10)

          -   Digital Satellite Receiver (Pacific Satellite, Model: DSR2882S)

          -   Digital TV and SAT Level Meter (PROMAX, Model: Prolink-4C Premium)

          -   Television Set

          -   Horn antenna (EMCO 3115)

          -   EMC Analyzer, 9kHz to 26.5GHz (Brand: Agilent, Model: E7405A)

          -   Pre-amplifier, 1GHz to 26.5GHz (Brand: Agilent, Model: 8449B)

          -   Splitter, 10MHz to 2.655 GHz (Brand: Maspro, Model: 2SPFA)

          -   Function Generator, 0.1Hz to 10MHz (Brand: Instek, Model GFG-8210)


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          -     Power Supply, DC (Brand: Topward, Model 6603D)




5.5.   Measurements of Key Parameters

          UWB devices were set to operate in continuous mode during the measurement. The
          performance of the satellite receiver, due to the impact of UWB signals, has been
          evaluated by monitoring the following parameters:

          -     the field strength of UWB devices at the satellite antenna;

          -     UWB signal power at the satellite antenna IF output;

          -                                                 s
                the power level of C-band satellite receiver’ receiving signal level;

          -     bit error rate (BER) of the receiving signal level before and after correction and

          -     output picture quality delivered by the satellite receiver.



          Field Strength

          The objective of the measurement is to provide referenced field strength levels at the
          position of the satellite receiver antenna. Under different test configurations, as discussed
          above, the horn antenna are placed close to the antenna of the satellite receiver. The
          corresponding propagation loss assumed in a free-space environment was then evaluated
          for ultra-wideband (UWB) radiocommunications devices in the C-band, with respect to the
          reference field strength levels.     The test configuration for this E-field measurement is in
          Figure 5.1:

              UWB Device
                                                                       Horn Antenna
                                                                         (EMCO 3115)

                                                                                  Pre-amplifier &
                                                                                  EMC Analyzer
           H meters
         above ground

                                             Distance X
                                                       (a) Diagram




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                                                  (b) Photo
                Figure 5.1: Test Configuration of measuring the E-field from UWB Device


          Downlink Carrier signals

          To measure the downlink carrier signal, the spectrum analyzer was connected to the IF
          output of the satellite receiver and set to a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 10 kHz, a video
          bandwidth (VBW) of 30 kHz and an RMS detector to obtain a trace of the UWB signal
          PSD. The maximum readings have been observed and noted after turning on peak hold
          for a period of 10 seconds. The block diagram of test setup for measuring the downlink
          carrier signal and UWB signal is shown in Figure 5.2.

                                                                          Digital           Television
                                                                         Satellite             Set
                                                                         Receiver
             Functional
                                                       C-band
             Generator
                                   UWB                 antenna
                                                        station           Splitter
                                  Device
             DC Power                                 (Gain =61dB)
              Supply
                                                                          EMC
                                                                         Analyzer




          Figure 5.2: Block diagram of connection on UWB signal power at the satellite
          antenna IF output and UWB signal power at the satellite antenna IF output;


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          Measurement of UWB Signal

          To measure the received UWB signal, the spectrum analyzer was connected to the IF
          output of the satellite receiver and was set with a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 1 MHz, a
          video bandwidth (VBW) of 3 MHz and an RMS detector to obtain a trace of the UWB
          signal PSD. The maximum readings have been observed and noted after turning on peak
          hold for 10 seconds. The block diagram of the test setup for measuring the UWB signal is
          shown in Figure 5.2.



          Bit-Error-Rate (BER)

          The signal quality, in terms of average BER of the satellite receiver, has been measured
          by a Digital TV and SAT Level Meter (Brand: PROMAX, Model: Prolnk-4C Premium) at
          the output of the satellite receiver with a duration of one minute. Figure 5.3 illustrates the
          connection diagram of the BER measurement.




                    Functional
                    Generator                                   C-band             Digital TV
                                          UWB
                                                                antenna            and SAT
                                         Device
                    DC Power                                     station          Level Meter
                     Supply

                 Figure 5.3 Block diagram of measuring the BER of the receiving signal level
                 before and after correction


          Subjective Assessment of Reception Quality

          Any degradation of TV picture quality, including flickering or colour distortion were
          observed and recorded. The block diagram of connection on the reception quality
          assessment is shown in Figure 5.4.




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             Functional
             Generator                                    C-band            Digital
                                   UWB                                                       Television
                                                          antenna          Satellite            Set
                                  Device
             DC Power                                      station         Receiver
              Supply

                 Figure 5.4: Block diagram of connection on subjective assessment of
                 reception quality



5.6.   Test Results

5.6.1. Single UWB interference test

          In general, the setup configuration for assessing the immunity performance of a C-band
          satellite receiver due to single UWB device is shown in Figure 5.5.

          C-band satellite receiver:

          Channel:                         Received signal from the satellite of AsiaSat 3S, the
                                           weakest Satellite Channel from 3.4 - 4.2GHz is used.

          Characteristic:                  Multiple Channels per Carrier

                                           Forward Error Correction: 3/4

          Downlink carrier frequency:      4091 MHz , which is the channel frequency with the
                                           lowest downlink carrier level with

          Polarization of downlink signal: Vertical polarization

          UWB Device :

          Maximum mean e.i.r.p. :          UWB device 1: -41.37dBm/MHz in continuous mode

                                           UWB device 2: -40.4dBm/MHz in continuous mode

          Weather Conditions:

          Temperature:                     31-34.2 (ºC)

          Relative Humidity:               56-66(%)


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         UWB Device
                                                                            Digital TV and
                                                C-band antenna              SAT Level Meter

                                                    station
          H meters
        above ground                                                        Receiver and TV

            level

                                              Distance X
                                              (c) Diagram




                                                                            C-band
                                                                            antenna
                                                                             station




                              UWB
                             Device




                                               (d) Photo
       Figure 5.5 : (a) Diagram and (b) Photo of General Test Setup for Single UWB Device




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          In general, the following scenarios regarding the impact of the UWB on the C-band
          receiving satellite station have been carried out:

             (a) Without interference from UWB device,

             (b) Different heights of UWB device,

             (c) Different separation distances between UWB device and C-band satellite station
                 and

             (d) Different angles between UWB device and C-band satellite station



          (a) Without interference from UWB device

           The performance of the C-band satellite station has been assessed without the UWB
          interference. The operation of the C-band satellite station is set to operate at a downlink
          carrier frequency with the lowest received downlink carrier levels (i.e. 4091MHz). The
          corresponding intermediate frequency (IF) after LNB is 1059MHz. The recorded
          performance of the C-band satellite station is shown in Table 5.1.



          Table 5.1: Recorded performance of C-band satellite station

                                    C-band                     Observing Parameters
              Measurement
                                   Downlink         Picture             BER                BER
                 Date
                                  Carrier (C)       Quality              b/f                a/f
                                     at IF          (Visual)            cor.               cor.
                                  (dBm/MHz)

                                                                               -3                 -8
               10 June 2008          -44.8        Acceptable          1.9 x10            <1x10

                                                                               -3                 -8
               24 June 2008          -46.2        Acceptable          1.6 x10            <1x10




          Note:
          After discussing with the industry members and OFTA, the BER after correction shall below 1 x 10-8.for a
          satisfactory performance of C-band satellite station.




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          (b)Different heights of UWB device:

          The measurement for this parameter was carried out on 10 June 2008. UWB Device 1
          with the maximum mean e.i.r.p. of -41.37dBm/MHz was initially placed at 1.3 m and 1.7 m
          above ground level and located 1.5 m away from the satellite receiver, along the main
          beam of its receiving antenna. The diagram is shown in Figure 5.6.



                                                         C-band antenna
                    UWB Device                               station
                                                          Digital TV and
                                                          SAT Level Meter



                   H =1.3 or 1.7
                   meters above                           Receiver and TV

                   ground level

                                      Distance X=1.5m


                                                 (a) Diagram



                                                                               C-band antenna
                                                                                   station




     UWB Device

                                                           UWB
                                                          Device
                            C-band antenna
             Side View, H=1.3m                                   Front View, H=1.7m
                                station
                                                   (b) Photo

                   Figure 5.6: (a) Diagram, (b) Photo of different height H



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          Findings: The measured result is summarised in Table 5.2. Results have indicated that
          the UWB device located at 1.7 m in height produce a larger BER after the correction of 1.7
          x 10-3 and the C/I ratio at IF is 4.6dB. This may be due to the UWB device located at 1.7
          m height which is near to the centre of the 3-metre diameter mesh antenna of the C-band
          station. A higher interference level is induced and coupled to the LNB of the C-band
          receiver. In view of this, the height of UWB device should be set to 1.7 m for other
          assessments in order to achieve the worst-case scenario.




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Table 5.2. Summarised result of different heights of UWB Device:

           “UWB devices 1” (Number of UWB = 1)                   C-band                   Observing Parameters
Distance    Polarization   Height   Maximum     Interference   Downlink      Picture            BER               BER
(m)                        (m)      mean        power          Carrier (C)   Quality             b/f               a/f
                                    e.i.r.p.    (I) at IF      at IF         (Visual)           cor.              cor.
                                    (dBm/MHz)   (dBm/MHz)      (dBm/MHz)

                                                                             Freeze
                                                                             Screen &                  -3                -4
   1.5       Vertical        1.3      -41.37       -47.3          -43.1                       3.3x10             8.7x10
                                                                             Image
                                                                             Distortion
                                                                             Image
                                                                             Distortion                -3                -8
   1.5      Horizontal       1.3      -41.37       -56.6          -44.8                       2.1x10             4.6x10
                                                                             for few
                                                                             seconds
                                                                             Freeze
                                                                             Screen &                  -3                -3
   1.5       Vertical        1.7      -41.37       -52.2          -43.3                       3.4 x10            1.2x10
                                                                             Image
                                                                             Distortion
                                                                             Freeze
                                                                             Screen &                  -3                -3
   1.5      Horizontal       1.7      -41.37       -46.8          -42.2                       3.5 x10            1.7x10
                                                                             Image
                                                                             Distortion




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          (c)Different separation distances between UWB device and C-band satellite station:

          Two sets of measurement were carried out on 10 June 2008 and 24 June 2008. Figure
          5.7 shows the diagram and the photo of the setup. On 10 June 2008, UWB Device 1 with
          the maximum mean e.i.r.p. of -41.37dBm/MHz was checked at distances of 1.5 m, 3 m, 6
          m, 10 m and 12 m from the satellite receiver along the main beam of its receiving antenna.
          The antennas of the satellite receiver and the UWB have been aligned to simulate the
          worst-case scenario. On 24 June 2008, the test was repeated again with another UWB
          device (UWB Device 2) with a higher maximum mean e.i.r.p. of -40.4dBm/MHz. The
          measurement approach was similar to the previous one except that the UWB Device 2
          moved away from the satellite antenna, continuously, until the degradation of performance
          ceased. Results are summarised in Tables 5.3a and 5.3b, respectively.




             UWB Device                                   C-band antenna
                                                              station                    Digital TV and
                                                                                         SAT Level Meter



           H = 1.7 meters
           above ground                                                                  Receiver and TV

                level

                                                   Distance X


                                                 (a) Diagram




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                                    C-band antenna
                                        station


               UWB Device




                               Distance X = 20 m




                                                    (b) Photo

                    Figure 5.7 : (a) Diagram, (b) Photo of different distance X
          Findings: The measured results with different separation distance from 1.5 m to 20 m are
          summarised in Tables 5.3a and b. As shown in Table 5.3a, the maximum interference
          power at IF is -46.8dBm/MHz with 1.5 m separation at the horizontal polarization. The
          corresponding C/I ratio at IF is 4.8dB.     At 1.5 m separation distance, the BER after
                                           -3
          correction is increased to 1.7x 10 from the case without interference. Freeze screen and
          image distortion is also observed at this distance indicating that the UWB interference is
          significant to the C-band receiving station at this distance. Considering the results from 3
          m to 6 m at both vertical and horizontal polarisations, no particular degradation in picture
          quality is observed, but the BER after correction is larger than 1x10-8 in most cases. The
          corresponding C/I ratios at IF for these separations are ranging from 10.3dB to 13.3dB. At
          a separation distance of 12 m, it is observed that no picture quality degradation and the
          BER after corrections are below 1x10- 8 for both vertical and horizontal polarization (C/I
          ratios are 17.9dB and 12.8dB), indicating that the interference of UWB Device 1 is
          insignificant. As shown in Table 5.3b, with another UWB device at a mean e.i.r.p. density
          of -40.4dBm/MHz, there was no picture quality degradation and the BER after corrections
          are below 1x10-8 for both vertical and horizontal polarization (C/I ratios are 17.4dB and
          17.8dB) at separation distance of 20 m.    In summary, it is observed that the target value
          of <1x10-8 at BER after correction can be achieved with the C/I ratio equal or larger than
          13.3dB, with no undesired effect on picture quality with the C/I ratio equal or larger than
          10.3dB.

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Table 5.3a. Summarised result of separation distances between UWB Device 1 and C-band satellite station:

           “UWB devices 1” (Number of UWB = 1)                   C-band                    Obse rving Parameters
Distance    Polarisation   Height   Maximum     Interference   Downlink         Picture            BER              BER
(m)                        (m)      mean        power          Carrier (C)       Quality            b/f              a/f
                                    e.i.r.p.    (I) at IF      at IF            (Visual)           cor.             cor.
                                    (dBm/MHz)   (dBm/MHz)      (dBm/MHz)

                                                                             Freeze Screen &               -3              -3
  1.5         Vertical       1.7      -41.37        -52.2         -43.3      Image Distortion    3.4 x10           1.2x10

                                                                             Freeze Screen &               -3              -3
  1.5        Horizontal      1.7      -41.37        -46.8         -42.2      Image Distortion    3.5 x10           1.7x10

                                                                                                          -3            -4
   3          Vertical       1.7      -41.37        -55.7         -44.4       Acceptable          3 x10            1x10

                                                                                                           -3              -6
   3         Horizontal      1.7      -41.37        -57.8         -44.6       Acceptable         2.8 x10           4.7x10

                                                                                                           -3              -8
   6          Vertical       1.7      -41.37        -58.2         -44.9       Acceptable         1.4 x10           <1x10

                                                                                                           -3              -6
   6         Horizontal      1.7      -41.37        -54.4         -44.0       Acceptable         2.4 x10           9.2x10

                                                                                                           -3              -8
   12         Vertical       1.7      -41.37        -62.4         -44.5       Acceptable         1.5 x10           <1x10

                                                                                                          -3               -8
   12        Horizontal      1.7      -41.37        -57.4         -44.6       Acceptable          2 x10            <1x10



Table 5.3b. Summarised result of separation distances between UWB Device 2 and C-band satellite station:

           “UWB devices 2” (Number of UWB = 1)                  C-band                      Observing Parameters                                 Note:
Distance    Polarisation   Height   Maximum     Interference   Downlink        Picture             BER               BER
(m)                        (m)      mean        power          Carrier (C)     Quality              b/f               a/f
                                    e.i.r.p.    (I) at IF      at IF           (Visual)            cor.              cor.
                                    (dBm/MHz)   (dBm/MHz)      (dBm/MHz)
                                                                                                                                 BER a/f cor. are observed to be at high
                                                                                                          -3                -8
   20         Vertical       1.7      -40.4        -61.9          -44.5      Acceptable          1.7 x10           <1x10         value with the distance between the
                                                                                                                                 UWB and satellite receiving antenna
                                                                                                                                 shorter than 20m and the corresponding
                                                                                                          -3                -8   picture quality is observed to be
   20        Horizontal      1.7      -40.4        -62.7          -44.9      Acceptable          1.8 x10           <1x10
                                                                                                                                 unacceptable at certain distances.

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          (d)Different angles between UWB device and C-band satellite station:

          The two measurements of this parameter were carried out on 10 and 24 June 2008. A
          UWB device was placed at 1.7 m above the ground level, and also located at different
                      ,            .
          angles of 0º 90º and 180º The configuration is illustrated in Figure 5.8. For the case of
          the angle φ =90 degree and separation distance at 6m, it is a typical scenario of the UWB
          device directly facing the feedhorn. This scenario only occurred at certain angles φ and
          separation distances.




                                                       Main beam direction
                                                       (i.e. φ =0º) of C-band
                                                          receiving antenna

                                         UWB Device at φ =0º



                                             6m


                                                            6m             UWB Device at
                                                                                 φ =90º
          C-band antenna station

                                                     6m



           Top View                    UWB Device at φ=180º



                                                (a) Diagram




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  C-band antenna
      station    UWB Device




                                       φ =0º

                                                      C-band antenna
              φ =90º                                      station                   UWB Device




                                                                           φ =180º




    UWB Device at φ =90º                                   UWB Device at φ =180º

                                                   (b) photo
                     Figure 5.8 : (a) Diagram, (b) Photo of different angle


          Findings: The measured result is summarised in Table 5.4. Two UWB devices, UWB
           Device 1 and UWB Device 2 have been used for the measurement. It is estimated that
           the effect of interference from the UWB Device 1 to the C-band receiver would be lower
           than that of the UWB Device 2 to the C-band receiver. Based on the measured results,
           the levels of received interference power at IF for both directions at φ = 0º and φ = 90º
           are similar indicating that there is no particular reduction on the receiving interference
           power for φ = 90º at 6 m, which is not located at the main beam of the antenna. This can
           be explained by the situation that, with separation distance of 6 m and φ = 90º, the
           feedhorn does not block the reflector of the antenna, and hence the UWB interference
           could possibly received by the feedhorn directly. It was also found that the C/I ratio at φ
           = 90º is 9.4dB, which is 1dB lower than that at φ = 0º due to the relatively high e.i.r.p
           density of UWB Device 2. Freeze screen and image distortion is recorded at φ =90º

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           indicating that the UWB interference is significant to the C-band receiving station and the
           corresponding C/I ratio at IF is 9.4dB. From the result at φ =180º, the C/I ratio at IF, with
           the UWB device oriented at vertical polarization, is 17.9 dB and showed no degradation.
           When the UWB device is oriented in horizontal polarization, it is observed that there is a
           slight degradation on the BER after correction with 1.4x10-8 and a C/I ratio at IF for this
           case is 16.1dB for the C-band receiving station. In summary, it is found that a significant
           level of interference power from the UWB device can also be picked up by the C-band
           antenna at the side of the C-band antenna (at 90 º).




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      Table 5.4. Summarised results of different angles between UWB device and C-band satellite station:


               UWB Devices 1 or 2(Number of UWB = 1)                   C-band                     Observing Parameters
    Distance     Polarisatio   Height   Maximum       Interference   Downlink          Picture          BER               BER
    (m) and      n             (m)      mean          power          Carrier (C)       Quality           b/f               a/f
    Angle                               e.i.r.p.      (I) at IF      at IF             (Visual)         cor.              cor.
                                        (dBm/MHz)     (dBm/MHz)      (dBm/MHz)

    6                                   (Device 1):                                                            -3                -8
                 Vertical      1.7                    -58.2          -44.9           Acceptable       1.4 x10            <1x10
    (φ =0º)                             -41.37
    6                                   (Device 1):                                                            -3                -6
                 Horizontal    1.7                    -54.4          -44.0           Acceptable       2.4 x10            9.2x10
    (φ =0º)                             -41.37
    6                                   (Device 2):                                                            -3                -8
                 Vertical      1.7                    -62.7          -44.5           Acceptable       1.9 x10            <1x10
    (φ =90º)                            -40.4
                                                                                     Freeze
    6                                   (Device 2):                                  Screen &                  -3                -3
                 Horizontal    1.7                    -53.7          -44.3                            3.1 x10            1.4x10
    (φ =90º)                            -40.4                                        Image
                                                                                     Distortion
    6                                   (Device 2):                                                            -3                -8
                 Vertical      1.7                    -61.0          -44.9           Acceptable       2.3 x10            1.4x10
    (φ =180º)                           -40.4
    6                                   (Device 2):                                                            -3                -8
                 Horizontal    1.7                    -63.5          -45.6           Acceptable       2.3 x10            <1x10
    (φ =180º)                           -40.4




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5.6.2. Aggregate UWB interference test



          The test configuration is similar to that for a single UWB, except that up to two UWB
          devices were placed in the positions, according to Figure 5.9:



          C-band satellite receiver:

          Channel:                         Received signal from the satellite of AsiaSat 3S, the
                                           weakest Satellite Channel from 3.4 - 4.2GHz is used.

          Downlink carrier frequency:      4091 MHz

          Polarization of downlink signal: Vertical polarization

          UWB Devices:

          Maximum mean e.i.r.p. :          UWB device 2: -40.4 dBm/MHz in continuous mode

                                           UWB device 3: -47.5dBm/MHz in continuous mode

          Weather Conditions:

          Temperature:                     31-34.2 (ºC)

          Relative Humidity:               56-66(%)


                                                                   C-band antenna
                                                                       station
 Multiple UWB
   Devices
                                                                              Digital TV and
                                                                              SAT Level Meter



  H meters
above ground                                                                  Receiver and TV




                                        Distance Y

                                          (a) Side View



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                                                                 C-band antenna
   Multiple UWB
                                                                     station
     Devices

                                                                                 Digital TV and
                                                                                 SAT Level Meter


      10cm

                                                                                 Receiver and TV



                                            Distance Y

                                           (b) Top View


                                                  UWB
                                                 Devices




                                                   10cm




                           (c) Two UWB devices with Vertical polarization

                         Figure 5.9: Test Setup for Two UWB Devices


          Since the UWB Device 1 was found to be malfunctioning after being rained on 24 June.
          2008, it was replaced with UWB Device 2.             After the measurement with different
          separation distances from 1.5 m to 20 m, as discussed in the previous section (Section
          5.6.1), it is observed the BER after correction higher than 10-8 until the separation distance
          reaching 20 m. Hence, the tests of the two UWB devices are separated by a distance of
          20 m.

          Similarly, the UWBs were set to operate in continuous mode during the measurement.
          The performance of the satellite receiver, due to the impact of UWB signals, has been
          evaluated.




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          Findings: The measured result is summarised in Tables 5.5a and b. The mean e.i.r.p.
          density of the UWB devices has a difference of 7dB; this measurement could only serve
          as an example of an aggregate UWB interference case, not a precise means of
          quantifying the interference aggregation effect. As compared to the results with only UWB
          Device 2, no significant effects on the interference power and the performance of the C-
          band satellite receiving station were observed from either of the two UWB devices. It is
          observed that, for the case of two UWB devices, the interference power at IF is slightly
          decreased by a maximum of 1.4dB, possibly due to the mean e.i.r.p. density of the UWB
          Device 3, which is 7dB less than that of the UWB Device 2 and also from the subtractive
          effect from multiple sources.



          The corresponding estimated C/I ratios at IF for vertical and horizontal polarizations are
          16.8dB and 18.3dB, respectively. Theoretically, if the mean e.i.r.p. density of UWB Device
          2 is also -40.4dBm/MHz, it is expected that, for a worst-case scenario, a maximum of 3dB
          increase of total UWB interference power could be possibly received if a constructive
          interference is obtained at the C-band satellite receiving station.




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          Table 5.5a Summarised result of only 1 UWB device:
                                UWB Device 2 only                               C-band                     Observing Parameters
         Distance    Polarisation     Height    Maximum       Interference    Downlink        Picture            BER               BER
         (m)                          (m)       mean          power           Carrier (C)     Quality             b/f               a/f
                                                e.i.r.p.      (I) at IF       at IF           (Visual)           cor.              cor.
                                                (dBm/MHz)     (dBm/MHz)       (dBm/MHz)

                                                                                                                         -3               -8
             20         Vertical        1.7        -40.4         -61.9           -44.5       Acceptable        1.7 x10            <1x10

                                                                                                                         -3               -8
             20       Horizontal        1.7        -40.4         -62.7           -44.9       Acceptable        1.8 x10            <1x10




          Table 5.5b Summarised result of with 2 UWB devices:

                           UWB Devices 2 and 3                                 C-band                     Observing Parameters
        Distance    Polarisation    Height     Maximum       Interference    Downlink        Picture            BER               BER
        (m)                         (m)        mean          power           Carrier (C)     Quality             b/f               a/f
                                               e.i.r.p.      (I) at IF       at IF           (Visual)           cor.              cor.
                                               (dBm/MHz)     (dBm/MHz)       (dBm/MHz)

                                               (Device 2):
                                                  -40.4                                                                -3                -8
           20        Vertical         1.7                       -63.0           -46.2       Acceptable        2.2 x10            <1x10
                                               (Device 3):
                                                  -47.5
                                               (Device 2):
                                                  -40.4                                                                -3                -8
           20       Horizontal        1.7                       -63.3           -45.0       Acceptable        1.8 x10            <1x10
                                               (Device 3):
                                                  -47.5




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          In summary, the estimated C/I ratios at IF, with the considerations for all the cases
          obtained in the single and aggregate UWB interference test, are summarised in Figure
          5.10. Results have illustrated that the performance of the C-band receiver is degraded
          seriously (i.e. BER >10-8 with freeze screen and image distortion) if the C/I ratio at IF is
          below 9.4. It is also observed that the performance of the C-band receiver is degraded
          BER >10-8 when the C/I ratio at IF is between 9.4 dB and 16.8 dB. When the C/I ratio at
          IF is larger than 16.8 dB, there is no degradation for the C-band satellite receiving station.
          For                       a       C/I   ratio   of   16.8dB,    a   corresponding      I/N   ratio   is   estimated to be
          -3.4 dB from the equation,

                                                                         I I IF − GLNB + Lcable
                                                                           =
                                                                         N          N

          where, IIF = -63dBm is the measured interference power at IF, GLNB=61dB is the gain of
          LNB, Lcable=2dB for a 6 m long coaxial cable loss at IF and noise N=K*Ts*B = -118.6dBm.

          This indicates that the I/N protection criteria adopted for the local interference model could
          provide adequate protection for the C-band receiver.


                                    20
                                                No degradation occur
                                    18

                                    16                                                                                            -8
                                                                                                       Degradation occur: (BER > 10 only )
                                    14
             C/I Ratio at IF (dB)




                                    12
                                                                                                                                   -8
                                    10                                                                 Degradation occur: (BER > 10 and
                                                                                                        Freeze screen & image distortion)
                                        8

                                        6
                                                                                       Degradation of C-band Recevier
                                        4                                              No Degradation of C-band Receiver
                                        2

                                        0
                                            0              (a)
                                                             1             (b) 2         (c) 3           (d) 4               5
                                                          Height         Distance        Angle         Aggregate
                                                                                                       Aggregrate
                                                                                                        UWB Test

                                                               Single UWB Test
          Figure 5.10 Summary of C/I ratio at IF (dB) from the single and aggregate UWB
          interference test related to the performance of the C-band receiving station.


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5.6.3. Assessment of modelling result of C-band receiving station
          A detailed study of the impact of single and multiple UWB devices on different deployment
          scenarios of fixed-satellite services (downlink), based on the local UWB interference
          model, has been presented in Sections 4.2.1 and 4.8. The corresponding calculated mean
          UWB e.i.r.p. limits are summarised in the table of Section 4.9. In this part, the single
          interferer case, as discussed in Section 4.2.1, with a single UWB device located 10 m
          away from the C-band receiving station, was used as a reference case, and was
          measured during the field test at the OFTA C-band receiving station in Kwun Tong. The
          propagation loss of a single UWB device located at various distances away from the C-
          band satellite is also measured for comparison. The details of the results are discussed
          as follows:



          For the C-band receiving station at the OFTA Radio Monitoring Unit, the elevation angle a
          is 62.6º.

          As discussed in Section 4.2.1, taking the victim receiver characteristics as follows:

             Receiver antenna gain G(a) = 0dBi when 70º < a = 180º

             Protection criteria of I/N = -20dB

             System noise temperature Ts = 100K

             System IF bandwidth B = 36MHz

             Noise N = K*Ts *B = -102.58dBm, where Boltzmann's constant K = 1.38*10-23W/K/Hz



          The configuration of the single UWB device and C-band receiving station is shown in
          Figure 5.11.




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                                                Satellite




                UWB                                              α=62.6 o




                                                     10m

      Figure 5.11 Configuration of the UWB device and C-band receiving station

                                 local’ UWB interference model for a single UWB device, as
          Based on the developed ‘
          discussed in Section 4.2.1, the propagation loss and the limit of maximum mean e.i.r.p. of
          a single UWB device for outdoor LoS and free space scenarios have been calculated as
          shown in the following table.


               Outdoor           Propagation loss (dB)      Max Mean e.i.r.p.(dBm/MHz)

               LoS                        65.04                       -68.56

               Free space                 64.10                       -69.51


          In order to assess the modeling results in a practical situation, the immunity performance
          of the C-band receiving station, with the maximum mean e.i.r.p. of UWB at -68.3
          dBm/MHz at 10 m separation, was performed in the field test.



          Findings:    The recorded results are summarised in Table 5.6. Results have indicated
          that no performance degradation occurred for the C-band satellite station receiver. It was
          observed that, due to a small e.i.r.p. density, the measured interference power (I) at IF
          was too low as compared to the C-band carrier signal in the measurement. Thus, the
          exact interference power (I) at IF cannot be measured directly. However, the estimated
          interference power at IF should be less than -63.3 dBm/MHz. Further, the estimated C/I
          ratio at IF was more than 18.4dB and showed no degradation in picture quality, and BER,
          after correction, was also <1X10-8.


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          Table 5.6. Summarised result of modeling verification:

                         (Number of UWB = 1)                          C-band                     Observing Parameters
      Distance   Polarisation   Height   Maximum     Interference   Downlink         Picture           BER               BER
      (m)                       (m)      mean        power          Carrier (C)      Quality            b/f               a/f
                                         e.i.r.p.    (I) at IF      at IF            (Visual)          cor.              cor.
                                         (dBm/MHz)   (dBm/MHz)      (dBm/MHz)

                                                                                                           -3                   -8
         10        Vertical      1.7        -68.3      < -63.3         -44.9       Acceptable         2 x10             <1x10

                                                                                                              -3                -8
         10       Horizontal     1.7        -68.3      < -63.3         -44.4       Acceptable        1.9 x10            <1x10




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             In the field test, the E-field of the UWB device versus the different separation distance
             between the UWB device and the receiving horn antenna (as shown in Figure 5.1)
             were also measured by using a horn antenna and is summarised in Table 5.7.



             Table 5.7 Summarised results of the measured E-field

                Distance          Polarisation of UWB Device      Measured E-field (dBµV/m)
                   (m)
                   1.5                            V                     Er vertical = -2.51
                                                  H                     Er horizontal = 7.21
                     3                            V                     Er vertical = -10.17
                                                  H                     Er horizontal = 1.94
                     6                            V                     Er vertical = -4.21
                                                  H                    Er horizontal = -10.86
                    12                            V                     Er vertical = -14.87
                                                  H                    Er horizontal = -12.18
                    20                            V                     Er vertical = -13.51
                                                  H                    Er horizontal = -14.05



             The total received E-field Er total at the horn antenna is calculated.


             Er total = Er vertrial + Er horizontal
                                   2              2




             where, Er vertical and Er horizontal the vertical and horizontal E-field received by the horn
             antenna, respectively.



             The total received power Pr total received by the horn can be calculated as follows:

             Pr total = Er total / 50
                              2




             The propagation loss Lp can is estimated

             L p = e.i.r. p. max − Pr total

             where e.i.r.p.max the maximum permissible mean e.i.r.p. of UWB Device 1.




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             The above results are plotted in Figure 5.12 to illustrate the on-site propagation
             characteristics of a UWB signal, together with the propagation losses (LoS and free-
             space) calculated in the model.           In general, the measured magnitudes of individual
             vertical and horizontal E-fields have a vigorous variation at the distance of 1.5 m and 3
             m. This may due to the near-field effect at close distance (less than 3 meters on the
             measured field). The variation between the vertical and horizontal E-field became
             smaller at 12 m and 20 m in the far-field region. Considering the total E-field magnitude,
             the propagation loss is summarised in Figure 5.12, showing that the characteristics of
             propagation loss obtained in the field test are similar to that in the model with ~8dB
             deviations. The deviations could possibly be due to subtractive multi-path effect,
             polarisation effects on the total E-field and misalignment between the UWB device and
             the horn antenna.


                                 100

                                 90

                                 80

                                 70
                Path Loss (dB)




                                 60

                                 50

                                 40

                                 30
                                                                     Modeling - Outdoor / LoS
                                 20
                                                                     Modeling - Free space
                                 10                                  Field Test
                                  0
                                       0   2   4   6    8       10         12     14   16    18     20
                                                            distance (m)



                        Figure 5.12 Estimated Path Loss from the modeling and the measurement




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5.7.   Summary

          The impact of the UWB on the C-band receiving satellite station obtained from the
          measurement is summarised below:

          -   For different heights of the UWB device, the UWB device located at 1.7 m in height
              produces a larger BER after the correction than that of the UWB device located at 1.3
              m in height.

          -   For different separation distances between the UWB device and the C-band satellite
              station, it is observed that the interference of the UWB device (e.i.r.p. density = -
              41.37dBm/MHz) was insignificant at a separation distance of 12 m, with no picture
              quality degradation and the BER after corrections was below 1x10-8.

          -   For different angles between the UWB device and the C-band satellite station, it was
              found that a similar level of interference power from UWB device could also be picked
                                                                   s
              up by C-band antenna at the side or along the antenna’ main beam directions when
              the feedhorn and the UWB device was in line-of-sight condition.

          -   For two UWB devices that served as an example of aggregate UWB interference
              cases, results indicated that no significant effects on the interference power and the
              performance of the C-band satellite receiving station were observed.

          -   The theoretical results calculated by our local interference model, for a single UWB
              device operated at mean e.i.r.p. density of -68.3dBm/MHz while locating 10 m away
              from C-band receiving station, have been verified in the assessment. Measurement
              result indicated that there was no performance degradation of C-band satellite
              receiving station.

          -   From all the measured results, when the C/I ratio at IF was larger than 16.8 dB, no
              degradation for the C-band satellite receiving station was found. For a C/I ratio of
              16.8dB, a corresponding I/N ratio is estimated to be -3.4dB, indicating that the I/N
              protection criteria adopted for the local interference model could provide adequate
              protection for the C-band receiver.




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6.     Conclusions and Recommendations

          In    this   report,   the   electromagnetic   compatibility   between   UWB     devices   and
          radiocommunic ations services, operating at 3.1 - 10.6 GHz, has been considered. The
          conclusions and recommendations in this report are primarily based on outcomes from the
          theoretical analysis as described in Section 4 of this report, of which the protection criteria,
          victim receiver characteristic and propagation models are mainly referenced, together with
          the recommendations in published reports, studies by international regulatory bodies
          [2,9,10] and comments from Hong Kong local industries. A specific field test study at the
          frequency band of the C-band satellite receiving station in Hong Kong has also been
          carried out for specifically assessing the performance of the C-band satellite receiver in
          the presence of UWB devices, in a typical environment. In general, the following key
          points:

               1) the UWB interference models analysis and the field test,

               2) the UWB emission masks adopted in other countries and

               3) recommendations of local emission masks for UWB

          are described and summarised in the following parts.



          6.1. Key points in UWB interference models analysis and field test

          The general principle of defining the emission masks for UWB is that the masks shall be in
                               s
          accordance to the FCC’ indoor and outdoor recommendations, i.e. maximum mean
          e.i.r.p. equals to -41.3dBm/MHz, and with considerations of further protection in different
          victims. Further protections for different victims are based on different deployment
          scenarios (in theoretical studies), such as single or aggregate effects.           The lowest
          emission limits amongst various deployment scenarios, based on above, are summarised
          as shown in Figure 6.1 for different radiocommunications services.

          In summary of the UWB emission masks, in general, it is noted that the required
          maximum permissible UWB PSD values, as calculated from the local UWB model, to
          protect different victims across 3.1 - 10.6GHz are more stringent by 5 to 30 dB than the
          PSD values in the FCC mask, except those frequency bands with RLAN and fixed-satellite
          services (uplink).      The emission masks at different frequency bands for various victim
          receivers are summarised in Figure 6.1.


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          In summary of the field test, it is found that, for different distances of the UWB device, no
          degradation was found for the C-band satellite station for the cases of a UWB operated at
          -41.3dBm/MHz at 12 m away, and a UWB operated at -40.4dBm/MHz at 20 m away. The
          estimated C/I level for no degradation of the C-band satellite is 16.8dB. For a C/I ratio of
          16.8dB, a corresponding I/N ratio is estimated to be -3.4dB, indicating that the I/N
          protection criteria adopted in our local interference model could provide adequate
          protection for the C-band receiver. Results have also indicated that the interference power
          received by the C-band satellite antenna are at similar levels when the UWB device was
                                                  s
          located at the side or along the antenna’ main beam directions while the feedhorn and
          the UWB device is in the line-of-sight. There is no significant effect on the C-band
          receiving stations when two UWBs operate simultaneously.



                                                            0
                    Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                           -20


                                                           -40


                                                           -60


                                                           -80

                                                                     FSS (Downlink)              FSS (Uplink)
                                                          -100       Amateur/Amateur Satellite   EESS
                                                                     RLAN                        FS
                                                                     Radar
                                                          -120
                                                                 3    4       5      6       7     8      9     10     11
                                                                                     Freqeuncy (GHz)



               Figure 6.1 Emission masks defined based on the local UWB interference model




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          6.2 Summary for the UWB emission masks in other countries

          Facilitating the development of UWB technology, different countries have considered
          relaxing the threshold in certain frequency bands in their emission masks with a time
          constraint at 2010. A summary of the emission masks as adopted in the EU, Singapore,
          Korea and Japan before and after 2010 are shown in Figures 6.2(a), (b) and (c). The
          descriptions of the UWB emission masks in different countries are also summarised below:



          EU

          -    An unlicensed scheme is used in EU countries. The operational condition for UWB
               devices is restricted to indoor only; if outdoor, not attached to any fixed locations.
               Transmission shall be ceased within 10 seconds unless it receives an
               acknowledgement from an associated receiver. UWB shall not be operated in aircraft
               and safety of life applications in ships. The maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limits within
               the range of UWB band of 3.1 - 10.6GHz is -41.3dBm/MHz. In 3.4 - 4.2GHz, the limits
               are further reduced to less than -70dBm/MHz unless mitigation techniques of Low
               Duty Cycle (LDC) is used in this band. In 4.2 - 4.8GHz, the limits of UWB device
               without mitigation techniques are required to be further reduced to -70dBm/MHz
               beyond the date of 31 December 2010, as there is an expectation that equipment of
               this type should operate exclusively above 6GHz in the longer term.

          Singapore

          -    A non-licensed scheme is used in Singapore. The operational conditions of UWB
               devices are for indoor use only. If outdoor, not attached to a fixed antenna. It is only
               allowed to transmit when sending information to an associated receiver and
               transmission   shall   be   ceased   within   10   seconds    unless   it   receives   an
               acknowledgement from the associated receiver. The maximum mean e.i.r.p. density
               limits within the range of UWB band of 3.1 - 10.6GHz is -41.3dBm/MHz. In 3.4 -
               4.2GHz, the limits are further reduced to less than -70dBm/MHz without mitigation
               techniques, such as Transmit Power Control (TPC) or Detect And Avoid (DAA)
               techniques are used in this band. In 4.2 - 4.8GHz, the limits of UWB device without
               mitigation techniques are required to be further reduced to -70dBm/MHz beyond the
               date of 31 December 2010.




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          Japan

          -   A non-licensed scheme is used in Japan. The operational conditions of UWB devices
              are indoor use only. The maximum mean e.i.r.p limits within the range of UWB band of
              3.1 - 10.6GHz is -41.3dBm/MHz. For the frequency bands of 3.4 - 4.8GHz, the limits
              are further reduced to less than -70dBm/MHz if no mitigation techniques (i.e. DAA) is
              applied.

          Korea

          -   An unlicensed scheme is used in Korea. The operational condition of UWB devices is
              indoor use only. The maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limits within the range of UWB
              band of 3.1 - 10.6GHz is -41.3dBm/MHz. From April 2007, DAA mitigation technique
              is required for UWB device operating between 3.1 and 4.2GHz. From July 2010, the
              DAA mitigation technique is also required for UWB device operating between 4.2 and
              4.8GHz.

          New Zealand

          -   A general user license scheme is used in New Zealand. The operational condition for
              UWB devices is restricted to indoor only; if outdoor, not attached to any fixed locations.
              UWB shall not be operated in aircraft. The maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limits within
              the range of UWB band is -41.3dBm/MHz. In 3.4 – 3.8 GHz and 3.8 – 4.8 GHz
              frequency band, the limits are further reduced to less than -80dBm/MHz and -
              70dBm/MHz, respectively, unless mitigation techniques of Low Duty Cycle (LDC) are
              used in these bands. For road and rail vehicles application, the maximum mean e.i.r.p.
              density limit is -41.3dBm/MHz in 3.8-4.2GHz and 6-8.5GHz if transmit power control is
              implemented, otherwise the limit is reduced by 12dB.



          In summary, the UWB deployment polices and limits of the above mentioned countries are
          as follows:

          -   The lowest and the highest mean e.i.r.p. density limits of the operation of UWB device
              are -85dBm/MHz and -41.3dBm/MHz, respectively, from 3.1 GHz to 10.6GHz.

          -   Non-licensed scheme are applied in all of these countries.

          -   The operational condition of the UWB device is for indoor use only; if outdoor, it is not
              to be attached to any fixed location.     In general, the UWB device is prohibited to
              operate in aircraft and ships. UWB device shall only transmit when sending

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              information to an associated receiver and the transmit handshaking signal shall cease
              within 10 seconds unless the acknowledgement from the associated receiver is
              received. In these countries, the present UWB device is expected to be operated at
              frequency range of 3.1 - 4.8GHz with the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of UWB
              device of -41.3dBm/MHz. However, the following conditions shall be met:

               n    Appropriate mitigation technique such as LDC or DAA is required to apply at 3.4
                    - 4.2GHz for UWB device operate at -41.3dBm/MHz otherwise UWB device
                    shall be operated at -70dBm/MHz.

               n    4.2 - 4.8GHz is opened for UWB device operated at -41.3dBm/MHz until the cut-
                    off date at mid to late 2010. After the cut-off date, any UWB device shall be
                    operated at -70dBm/MHz in view that the second generation of UWB device is
                    expected to be operated exclusively above 6GHz in the longer term.

          -   Considering the operation of second generation UWB device, the frequency band at 6
              - 8.5GHz is allocated with the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -41.3dBm/MHz in the
              EU and Singapore, while Korea and Japan have allocated the frequency band at 7.2 -
              10.2GHz.

          -   In the EU, Singapore and New Zealand, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limit is
              reduced to below -65dBm/MHz at 4.8 - 6GHz and 8.5 - 10.6GHz for protecting the
              radiocommunications systems such as RLAN, radiolocation and radionavigation that
              are being allocated in this band in the EU countries.        In Japan and Korea, the
              maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limit is also reduced to below -70dBm/MHz from
              4.8GHz to 7.2GHz for protecting the existing services at this band.




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                                                                             0                                         EU
                                                                                                                       Singapore
                                                                                                                       Korea
                                                                       - 20                                            Japan
                                                                                                                       New Zealand

                                                                       - 40
                               Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                                       - 60



                                                                       - 80



                                                                     - 100



                                                                     - 120

                                                                                     0   2   4             6       8           10        12
                                                                                                 Frequency (GHz)




                (a) present emission mask in the absence of appropriate mitigation technique



                                                                       0                                                EU
                Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)




                                                                                                                        Singapore
                                                                                                                        Korea
                                                                     -20                                                Japan
                                                                                                                        New Zealand
                                                                     -40


                                                                     -60


                                                                     -80


                                                         -100


                                                         -120

                                                                                 0       2   4          6        8             10        12
                                                                                                 Frequency (GHz)

               (b) emission mask in the absence of appropriate mitigation technique after 2010



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                                                               0                                       EU
                                                                                                       Singapore
                                                                                                       Korea
                                                            - 20                                       Japan
                                                                                                       New Zealand
                     Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)
                                                            - 40



                                                            - 60



                                                            - 80



                                                           - 100



                                                           - 120

                                                                   0   2    4              6      8            10         12
                                                                                Frequency (GHz)


                 (c) emission mask in the presence of appropriate mitigation technique after 2010
              Figure 6.2 Summary of the emission masks adopted in the EU, Singapore, Korea, Japan
                                                  and New Zealand


          6.3. Recommendations

          In consideration of the local interference model and also different regulatory options in
          various countries, the UWB device in Hong Kong should mainly be used for indoor
          radiocommunications applications with unlicensed scheme. For outdoor application, the
          UWB device shall not be attached to a fixed antenna.                                        Similar to other countries,
          operation of UWB devices is prohibited in aircraft and ships; UWB device shall only
          transmit when sending information to an associated receiver and the transmit
          handshaking signal shall cease within 10 seconds unless the acknowledgement from the
          associated receiver is received.                                 The recommended UWB emission masks for the
          maximum mean and peak e.i.r.p. density are summarised in Figures 6.3(a) and (b),
          respectively. An overall summary table of the UWB emission masks in different countries
          and in Hong Kong is attached in Appendix C for comparison.                                                 In general, the
          recommendations of emission masks for UWB operation in Hong Kong are shown below.

          -     In general, 3.1 – 3.4GHz frequency band is assigned for the radar service. After
                consolidating the theoretical results from the local interference model, the permissible
                mean e.i.r.p. density of -70dBm/MHz, aligned with other countries, is recommended.

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          -   In general, 3.4 - 4.2GHz frequency band is assigned for the C-band downlink service.
              After consolidating the theoretical results from the local interference model, the
              particular scenario in Hong Kong and the findings from the complementary technical
              study of ECC, the permissible mean e.i.r.p. density of -70dBm/MHz, aligned with other
              countries, is recommended. Mitigation technique, such as Low Duty Cycle (LDC), is
              not recommended because of the consideration of the particular scenarios discussed.
              Nevertheless, it is believed that LDC could provide an additional margin for the
              relaxation of the mean e.i.r.p. density limit due to the indisputable reduction on the
              average power emission of the UWB devices.

          -   For the operation of the present UWB products in other countries, the maximum mean
              e.i.r.p. density of -41.3dBm/MHz is permitted to use in the 4.2 - 4.8GHz frequency
              band. This limit shall be reduced to -70dBm/MHz after a cut-off date at 31 December
              2010. However, in view of the fact that the window of opening to -41.3dBm/MHz in
              Hong Kong is narrow with the cut-off date at 31 December 2010; the maximum mean
              e.i.r.p. density of -70dBm/MHz is therefore recommended unless appropriate
              mitigation techniques are applied that the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density could be up
              to -41.3 dBm/MHz.

          -   For 4.8 - 6GHz frequency band, a maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -70dBm/MHz is
              recommended in consideration of the needs to align the emission limits with the EU
              and Singapore and also provide sufficient protection to RLAN and radar services in
              Hong Kong.

          -   In general, the 6 - 8.5GHz frequency band is assigned for the second generation of
              UWB products. After considering the results from the local interference model with
              certain relaxations based on the CEPT complementary studies, the maximum mean
              e.i.r.p. density at -41.3dBm/MHz is recommended.

          -   For 8.5 - 10.6GHz frequency band, a maximum mean e.i.r.p. density based on the
              calculated results from the local interference model is -66.7dBm/MHz with a minimum
              separation distance of 20 m for radiolocation service. In view of the fact that
              radiolocation systems are commonly installed in the remote area in Hong Kong, the
              minimum separation distance of 25m is also considered to be reasonable in the local
              environment. Hence, a maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of -65dBm/MHz aligning with
              the limits of other countries is recommended.

          -   In order to protect the victim receivers allocated at the frequency bands out of the
              UWB operation frequency, out-of-band emission masks have been defined in different

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              countries to limit the spurious emission from UWB devices.         In general, the EU,
              Singapore and Japan have defined a similar out-of-band emission mask to protect the
              out-of-band services; it is recommended that the local out-of band emission mask shall
              align with these countries as shown in Figure 6.3.

          -   A maximum peak e.i.r.p. density limit shall be defined to reach a sufficient protection
              from UWB devices, especially for pulsed UWB applications, in accordance with the EU
              and other countries. In general, the maximum peak e.i.r.p. density limits shall be 40dB
              above the maximum mean e.i.r.p. density limits with the e.i.r.p. unit changed to
              dBm/50MHz. The emission mask for maximum peak e.i.r.p. density is summarised in
              Figure 6.3(b).

          In summary, the maximum mean e.i.r.p. densities of the recommended mask are similar
          to those adopted in the EU, Singapore, Korea, Japan and New Zealand but more stringent
          by 24 to 34 dB outside the 6-8.5 GHz band as compared to those defined by the US.



          Alternative recommendation for the local UWB emission mask in the frequency band of
          3.4-4.2 GHz

          A limit of -70 dBm/MHz has been proposed in the band 3.4-4.2 GHz, which is commonly
          used by the present UWB products. To facilitate the operation of these products, an
          alternative recommendation of -41.3dBm/MHz may be extended to 3.4-4.2 GHz band for
          UWB devices deploying mitigation techniques including Low Duty Cycle (LDC) and Detect
          and Avoid (DAA) to offer equivalent protection to services in this band in the light of the
          following considerations:

              1) It has been summarised in a complementary studies by the CEPT, as discussed in
              Section 4.2.1 of this report, and referenced by Working document RSCOM05-73 of
              Radio Spectrum Committee, that some level of confidence in using a limits of
              maximum mean e.i.r.p. density level of -41.3dBm/MHz in the protection of outdoor
              stations from the FSS in dense urban, sub-urban and rural areas.

              2) The limit of -70 dBm/MHz is mainly related to the particular case of FSS downlink
              discussed in Section 4.8. However, it is believed that there are only several buildings
              fall within the category of the particular case. Such case is considered to be rare and
              uncommon.




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                                                                                                    0                                                               without mitigation technique
                                                                                                                                                                    with mitigation technique

                                                                                                 -20




                                                          Maximum mean EIRP density (dBm/MHz)
                                                                                                 -40                               4.2    4.8          6                       8.5



                                                                                                 -60


                                                                                                 -80


                                                                                                -100


                                                                                                -120

                                                                                                         1        2       3        4           5           6   7          8          9    10       11

                                                                                                                                          Freqeuncy (GHz)

                                                                                                       Note: A mean e.i.r.p. of -41.3 dBm/MHz is allowed in the band 4.2-4.8 provided that
                                                                                                              mitigation technique is applied.

                                                                                                                                         (a) Mean
                  Maximum peak EIRP density (dBm/50MHz)




                                                                                                                               4.2       4.8       6                          8.5
                                                                                                0

                                                                                    -20

                                                                                    -40

                                                                                    -60

                                                                                    -80

                                                                                                                                                                   without mitigation technique
                                                          -100                                                                                                     with mitigation technique

                                                          -120
                                                                                                    1         2       3        4          5            6       7         8          9     10       11

                                                                                                                                         Freqeuncy (GHz)
                                                                                                       Note: A peak e.i.r.p. of 0 dBm/50MHz is allowed in the band 4.2-4.8 GHz provided that
                                                                                                              mitigation technique is applied.

                                                                                                                                         (b) Peak

           Figure 6.3 Recommended local emission masks for UWB device in maximum (a) mean
                                         and (b) peak e.i.r.p. density

                                                                                                                                                                              Page 128 OF 134
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Compatibility of Ultra-wideband Radiocommunications Devices



7.     Referenced Documents

          [1]   Consultancy Brief - Consultancy Study in relation to Electromagnetic Compatibility of
                Ultra-wideband Radiocommunications Devices, OFTA.

          [2]   ECC Report 64, The protection requirements of radiocommunications systems below
                10.6 GHz from generic UWB applications, Electronic Communications Committee,
                Feb 2005.

          [3]   ECC Report 94, Technical requirements for UWB LDC devices to ensure the
                protection of FWA systems, Electronic Communications Committee, Dec 2006.

          [4]   ECC/DEC/(06)12, ECC Decision of 1 December 2006 on the harmonised conditions
                for devices using UWB technology with LDC in the frequency band 3.4-4.8GHz, ECC.

          [5]   2007/131/EC, European commission decision of 21 February 2007 on allowing the
                use of the radio spectrum for equipment using ultra-wideband technology in a
                harmonised manner in the Community, Official Journal of the European Union

          [6]   ECC Report 120, Technical requirements for UWB DAA (detect and avoid) devices to
                ensure the protection of radiolocation services in the bands 3.1-3.4GHz and 8.5-
                9GHz and BWA terminals in the band 3.4-4.2GHz, Electronic Communications
                Committee, Jun 2008.

          [7]   Amended ECC/DEC/(06)12 , ECC Decision of 1 December 2006 amended Cordoba,
                31   October    2008   on    supplementary    regulatory   provisions   to   Decision
                ECC/DEC/(06)04 for UWB devices using mitigation techniques , ECC.

          [8]   Spectrum Allocations for Ultra Wide Band Communication Devices, A Discussion
                Paper, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand, April 2008.

          [9]   Recommendation ITU-R SM.1757 - Impact of devices using ultra-wideband
                technology on systems operating within radiocommunication services, ITU.

          [10] Report ITU-R SM.2057 - Studies related to the impact of devices using ultra-
                wideband technology on radiocommunication services, ITU.

                                                               s
          [11] FCC 02-48, Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’ Rules Regarding UWB
                Transmission systems, FCC.

          [12] Technical specification for UWB Devices, iDA Singapore.



                                                                           Page 129 OF 134
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          [13] Report Summary From UWB Radio Systems Committee, Ministry of Internal Affairs
              and Communications, March 27,2006

          [14] APT/AWE/REP-1, APT Report on ultra wide band (UWB), Asia Pacific Telecommunity,
              August 2007

          [15] Office of the Telecommunications Authority, Hong Kong Table of Frequency
              Allocations, April 2008.

          [16] Population by District Council District, 1996, 2001 and 2006. Census and Statistics
              Department,      Hong      Kong    SAR,      Website:     http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/
              hong_kong_statistics/statistical_tables/index.jsp?htmlTableID=141&excelID=&chartI
              D=&tableID=141&ID=&subjectID=1.

          [17] Working Document - Regarding compatibility studies on fixed satellite service (FSS)
              Final CEPT Report in response to the Second EC Mandate to CEPT to harmonise
              radio spectrum use for Ultra-wideband Systems in the European Union, radio
              spectrum committee.

          [18] ECC/DEC/(06)04, ECC Decision of 24 March 2006 amended 6 July 2007 at
              Constanta on the harmonised conditions for devices using Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
              technology in bands below 10.6GHz.

          [19] RSAC Paper 5/2006, Report of Working Group on Assessment of Potential
              Interference between Broadband Wireless Access Systems in the 3.4 – 3.6 GHz
              Band and Fixed Satellite Services in the 3.4 – 4.2 GHz Band, OFTA.

          [20] J.D. Brunett, R.M. Ringler, and V.V. Liepa, “On measurements for e.i.r.p. compliance
              of UWB devices” 2005 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility.

          [21] Spectrum Allocations for Ultra Wide Band Communication Devices Report on
              Outcomes of Industry Consultation, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand,
              June 2008.




                                                                         Page 130 OF 134
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Appendix A. Summary of frequency allocation at frequency band of 3.1-
  10.6 GHz in Hong Kong
      Frequency
                          Services                            Utilization
      Band (MHz)
      3100 - 3400          RADIOLOCATION                 Radiolocation
                           FIXED-SATELLITE
      3400 - 3700                                        Fixed-satellite
                           (space-to-Earth)
                     a)    FIXED
      3700 - 4200    b)    FIXED-SATELLITE               Fixed-satellite
                          (space-to-Earth)
                           AERONAUTICAL
      4200 - 4400                                        -
                           RADIONAVIGATION
      4400 - 4940          FIXED                         Fixed
                     a)    FIXED                     a) Fixed
      4940 - 4990
                     b)    MOBILE                    b) Mobile
      4990 - 5000    a)   RADIO ASTRONOMY                -
                     a)   AERONAUTICAL
                          RADIONAVIGATION
      5000 - 5010    b)   RADIONAVIGATION-               -
                          SATELLITE
                          (Earth-to-space)
                     a)   AERONAUTICAL
                          RADIONAVIGATION
      5010 - 5030    b)   RADIONAVIGATION-               -
                          SATELLITE
                          (space-to-Earth)
                           AERONAUTICAL
      5030 - 5150                                        -
                           RADIONAVIGATION
                     a)   AERONAUTICAL
                          RADIONAVIGATION                Telecommunications
      5150 - 5250
                     b)   MOBILE except aeronautical     Apparatus
                          mobile
                     a)   RADIOLOCATION
                                                         Telecommunications
      5250 - 5350    b)   MOBILE except aeronautical
                                                         Apparatus
                          mobile
                           AERONAUTICAL
      5350 - 5470                                        -
                           RADIONAVIGATION
                                                     a) Radiolocation
                     a)   RADIOLOCATION              b) Amateur -satellite (5650 –
      5470 - 5725    b)   MOBILE except aeronautical     5670 MHz)
                          mobile                     c) Telecommunications
                                                         Apparatus
                                                     a) ISM Equipment
                     a)   Amateur
                                                     b) Amateur
      5725 - 5850    b)   INDUSTRIAL , SCIENTIFIC
                                                     c) Telecommunications
                          AND MEDICAL (ISM)
                                                           Apparatus

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                     a) INDUSTRIAL , SCIENTIFIC a) ISM Equipment
                        AND MEDICAL (ISM)       b) Fixed (Point-to-multipoint
                     b) FIXED                       Distribution Systems)
      5850 - 5875
                     c) FIXED-SATELLITE         c) Fixed-satellite
                        (Earth-to-space)

                     a) FIXED                          a) Fixed (Point-to-multipoint
      5875 - 5950    b) FIXED-SATELLITE                    Distribution systems)
                        (Earth-to-space)               b) Fixed-satellite
                     a) FIXED
      5950 - 6425    b) FIXED-SATELLITE                       Fixed-satellite
                        (Earth-to-space)
                     a) FIXED
      6425 - 7075    b) FIXED-SATELLITE                       Fixed
                        (Earth-to-space)
                                                       a) Fixed
                     a) FIXED
      7075 - 7750                                      b) Outside Broadcast (OB)
                     b) MOBILE
                                                           Links
      7750 - 8025         FIXED                            Fixed
                     a)   EARTH EXPLORATION-
                                                       a) Earth-exploration satellite
      8025 - 8400         SATELLITE (space-to-Earth)
                                                       b) Fixed
                     b)   FIXED
      8400 - 8500         FIXED                               Fixed
      8500 - 8750         RADIOLOCATION                       Radiolocation
                          AERONAUTICAL
      8750 - 8850                                             -
                          RADIONAVIGATION
                          MARITIME
      8850 - 9000                                             -
                          RADIONAVIGATION
                          AERONAUTICAL                        Aeronautical
      9000 - 9200
                          RADIONAVIGATION                     Radionavigation
                          MARITIME
      9200 - 9300                                             -
                          RADIONAVIGATION
                     a)   RADIOLOCATION                a) Radiolocation
      9300 - 9800
                     b)   RADIONAVIGATION              b) Radionavigation
      9800 - 10150        TO BE PLANNED                    -
      10150 -
                          FIXED                               Fixed
      10300
      10300 -
                          TO BE PLANNED                       -
      10450
                     a)   Amateur
      10450 -                                          a) Amateur
                     b)   Amateur-satellite
      10500                                            b) Amateur -satellite
                     c)   RADIOLOCATION
      10500 -        a)   RADIOLOCATION                a) Radiolocation
      10600          b)   FIXED                        b) Fixed




                                                                         Page 132 OF 134
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Compatibility of Ultra-wideband Radiocommunications Devices


Appendix B. Measured maximum mean e.i.r.p. density of UWB device s


                       -20


                       -30

                       -40
 Mean EIRP (dBm/MHz)




                       -50

                       -60


                       -70


                       -80
                                                                           UWB 3
                       -90                                                 UWB 2
                                                                           UWB 1
                       -100
                          3400   3500   3600   3700   3800   3900   4000   4100    4200
                                                 Frequency (MHz)




                                                                                   Page 133 OF 134
            Report on Consultancy Study in relation to Electromagnetic
            Compatibility of Ultra-wideband Radiocommunications Devices



        Appendix C. Summary of emission masks of mean UWB e.i.r.p. density (dBm/MHz) of overseas countries and Hong Kong after
              December 2010

                                                                                        Frequency Range (GHz)
               Below 1.6            1.6 – 2.7             2.7 – 3.1     3.1 – 3.4   3.4 – 3.8     3.8 – 4.2   4.2 – 4.8     4.8 – 6      6 – 8.5        8.5 – 10.6      Above 10.6
US               -75.3     1.61 - 1.99      1.99 – 2.7      –51.3         –41.3       –41.3         –41.3       –41.3        –41.3        –41.3           –41.3           –51.3
                              –53.3           -51.3
EU                –90                               –85                               –85           –70             –70      –70         –41.3             –65             –85
                                                                                           –41.3 with mitigation
Singapore         –90                 –85                             –70             –70           –70             –70      –70         –41.3             –65             –85
                                                                                           –41.3 with mitigation
Japan             –90                 –85                             –70             –70           –70             –70     4.8 – 7.25     7.25–10.25    10.25 – 10.6      –85
                                                                                              –41.3 with DAA                   –70            –41.3          –70
Korea             –70                       –70                             –70       –70           –70             –70     4.8 – 7.2     7.2– 10.2      10.2 – 10.6
                                                                                       –41.3 with DAA                          –70           –41.3           –70           –70
New               –90                 –85                             –70             –80           –70             –70      –70         –41.3            –65              –85
Zealand                                                                                   –41.3 if LDC is applied
Hong Kong         –90                 –85                             –70             –70           –70             –70      –70         –41.3             –65             –85
(proposed)
                                                                                                               –41.3 with
                                                                                                               mitigation



        * Emission masks of peak UWB e.i.r.p. density (dBm/50MHz) for -41.3dBm/MHz is 0dBm/50MHz, while, for the others, the peak UWB e.i.r.p. density shall be
        40dB above the mean e.i.r.p. density.




                                                                                               Page 134 OF 134

				
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