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					Assimilation
      PHOENIX INDIAN SCHOOL

              "It's cheaper to educate Indians
                      than to kill them.“

               --Indian Commissioner Thomas Morgan
                   speaking at the establishment of the
                    Phoenix Indian School in 1891
                                                             BY OWEN LINDAUER




Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
     The Phoenix Indian School

• Part of the Federal government's policy of
  forced assimilation

  – Indian children were to be transformed into
    Americans along Anglo-Saxon lines.

 Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
                    Student soldiers
             Phoenix Indian School ca. 1930




Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
• Wearing school clothing and marching
  uniforms was mandatory…*




Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
• The introduction of school clothing to pupils on
  their arrival was traumatic.
      – Their traditional clothing, seen as a shell of savagery
        by the school officials, was literally cast off.
• Initially, resistance was expressed
  emotionally as sorrow and depression,
  quickly followed by distrust of school
  authority.


Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
                                    Robert Lewis

• Leaving his home for school
      – The boy is filled with sorrow, to think he can no longer
        enjoy the freedom of his home, and live with those he
        loves. He must soon be placed in the care of the pale-
        face, whom he can not fully trust. He can no longer
        listen to his father's stories and legends of the past.
        The feathers and paint, with which he loves to
        ornament himself, must be renounced.
                                                             The Native American
                                                             Phoenix Indian School newspaper
                                                             1905


Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
             Helen Sekaquaptewa
     Returns to her Hopi Mesas from school
                     1918

• I didn't feel at ease in the home of my parents
  now. My father and my mother, my sister and my
  older brother told me to take off those clothes
  and wear Hopi attire...I didn't wear them...My
  mother said she was glad I was home. If I would
  stay there, she would not urge me to change my
  ways. I could wear any kind of clothes that I
  wanted to wear if I would just stay at home with
  her.

Source:http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/phoenix/
                  Carslile Indian School student Tom Torlino

Source:http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/students/his3464y/straus/gangr.html
              "The common schools
        are the stomachs of the country
      in which all people that come to us
      are assimilated within a generation.
            When a lion eats an ox,
        the lion does not become an ox
          but the ox becomes a lion."

                      ..Henry Ward Beecher

Source:http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/students/his3464y/straus/gangr.html
"If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white
man he would have made me so in the first
place. He put in your heart certain wishes and
plans; in my heart he put other and different
desires.
Each man is good in the sight of the Great Spirit.

It is not necessary, that eagles should be crows."

..Sitting Bull (Teton Sioux)


Source:http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/students/his3464y/straus/gangr.html
Necessary evil?

				
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posted:10/9/2011
language:English
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