CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers

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					CMPF112 – Computing Skills for
         Engineers

   Topic 1: Introduction to
         Computers
              Learning Outcomes
At the end of this lecture you should be able to:
•   Explain the term computer literacy
•   Identify the components of a computer system
•   Explain the information process cycle
•   Explain networking
•   Discuss different types of computer software
•   Explain information system



                               CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
    What is Computer Literacy?
– Knowledge and understanding of computers and
  the usage.
– Computer is everyway.
  • Discussion – is there any computer system around
    you?




                              CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
          What is a Computer?
• A collection of electronic devices that links
  together for data processing.
• A computer is a programmable machine that
  receives input, stores and manipulates data,
  and provides output in a useful format.
• A machine that computes




                           CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
                   Input – Process - Output


                                    PROCESS
        INPUT                                                        OUTPUT
                              Data are organized into             Display/present the
Data – Raw facts, figures,   meaningful, useful format.           outcomes of process
        symbols                  Process data into              (INFORMATION) to user
                                   Information




                               PROCEDURES &
                               STORES RESULTS



                                                CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
       Information processing cycle
•   Input
•   Process
                    Input          Process         Output
•   Output
•   Storage
•   Communication                  Storage




                            CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
          Components of a computer
• Input device
• Output device
• System Unit
• Storage device
• Communication device




                         CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
          Components of a Computer

• Input      Devices      –
  Hardware devices used
  for entering data and
  instructions into the
  computer.
• Examples - Keyboard,
  Microphone,       Mouse,
  Scanner,        trackball,
  joystick, touch screen,
  paddle, motion sensing ,
  light    pen,   webcam,
  scanner, bar code reader,
  laser rangefinder etc…


                               CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
        Components of a Computer
• Output device is any piece
  of computer hardware
  equipment       used     to
  communicate the results of
  data processing carried out
  by       an     information
  processing system (such as
  a computer) to the outside
  world
• Examples                  –
  Screen(Monitor), Speaker,
  Headphones,       projector,
  printer, etc…

                                 CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
         Components of a Computer
• System unit, also known as
  a base unit, is the main
  body      of    a     desktop
  computer,            typically
  consisting of a plastic
  enclosure containing the
  motherboard,            power
  supply, cooling fans, internal
  disk drives, and the memory
  modules and expansion
  cards that are plugged into
  the motherboard, such as
  video and network cards.

                                   CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
            Components of a Computer
• Inside the system unit
    Power supply                        Drive bays

                                                      Processor

                                                     Memory
    Ports




                                                     Sound card




                      Modem card              Video card
    Network card

                                   CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
      Components of a Computer

• Motherboard : Small piece of semi-conducting
  material on which integrated circuits are
  etched. Integrated circuits contain many
  microscopic pathways capable of carrying
  electrical current
• Two main components on motherboard
  – Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  – Memory


                                    CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
        Components of a Computer


Central Processing Unit (CPU)   Memory

• Also known as Processor       • Consists      of     electronic
                                  components       that     store
• Electronics components          instructions waiting to be
  that interprets and carries     executed and data needed by
                                  those instructions.
  out the
                                • Random Access         Memory
  instructions(programs)          (RAM)
  that operates the computer.      – Also known as Main Memory
                                     or Primary Storage
• Is the primary element that      – Example:     SDRAM,    DRAM
  carry out computer                 (homework : find out what are
                                     these)
  functions.
                                   CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
       Components of a Computer
Computer Data Storage
• Often called storage or memory,
• Recording media that retain digital data used for
  computing.
• Information retention.
• Note:
  – Memory usually refers to random-access memory(RAM) and
    sometimes other forms of fast but temporary storage.
  – Storage commonly refers to mass storage — optical discs, hard
    disk drives, and other types slower than RAM, but of a more
    permanent nature.


                                    CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
        Components of a Computer

Main Memory                   Storage
• Primary Storage, Internal   • Secondary Storage, External
  Memory                         Memory
• Volatile                    • Non-volatile
• RAM, SDRAM                  • Hard disk drive, CD, DVD,
                                 flash memory (e.g. USB
                                 flash drives), floppy disks,
                                 magnetic tape, paper tape,
                                 punched cards, and Iomega
                                 Zip drives.


                                 CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
           Components of a Computer
• Communication Media
  – Hardware component that
    enables a computer to send
    and receive data, instruction
    and information.
  – Occurs over cables, telephone
    lines, cellular phone, satellite
    and other transmission
    media.
  – (your assignment)



                                       CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
 Advantages and Disadvantages of using
              Computer
• Advantages                 • Disadvantages
  –   Speed                    – Violation of Privacy
  –   Faster data transfer     – Impact on labor force
  –   Reliability                   • Use of robotics technology
                                      in factory, mines
  –   Consistency
                               – Health Risk
  –   Storage
                                    • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  –   Communication                 • Other repetititive strain
                                      disorders
                                    • Eye strain
                               – Impact on Society
                                    • anti-social behavior and
                                      depression.


                               CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
         Basic human network
The concept of sender, recipient, medium, info




               Now translate this to computer
                                 CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
          Networks and Internet
• A computer network, often simply referred to as
  a network, is a collection of computers and
  devices connected by communications channels
  that facilitates communications among users and
  allows users to share resources with other users.
• Share Resources
  – Hardware devices
                                             To save time and
  – Software (programs, application)              money
  – Data, Information

                                CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
             Networks and Internet
• Server
  – Manage the resources on
    the network.
  – Client      access     the
    recourses from the server.
  – A computer system that
    provides          essential
    services across a network.
  – E.g. Mail Server, File
    Server, Application Server,
    Development Server

                                  CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
             Networks and Internet
• Internet
  – Worldwide collections of
    networks that connects
    millions of businesses,
    government        agencies,
    educations institutions
    and individuals.
  – Inter-operability is the
    ability to communicate
    with a computer even if
    it is of a different brand
    or model


                                  CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
            Networks and Internet
• Why do people use the Internet?
  –   Shopping
  –   Education
  –   Communication
  –   Instant Messaging
  –   E-mail
  –   Banking
  –   Investment
  –   Entertainment
  –   Data Transfer

                           CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
            Networks and Internet
• Web Site
  – A Web site is a collection
    of related Web documents
    that are made available to
    the public
  – The index page, or home
    page, is the first page of a
    Web site. Web pages are
    individual Web documents
  – Web page contains text,
    graphics, sound, video and
    links (hyperlink) to other
    web pages.


                                   CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
                Computer Software
•All the programs that give the computer its instructions.

 •Two categories of software:
System Software                   Application Software
  • Programs that control and     • Programs that perform
    maintain the operations of      specific tasks for users.
    the computer and its
    devices.




                                      CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
                     Computer Software
System Software                              2. Utility Program
1. Operating System                          • Allow the user to perform
                                               maintenance-type         task
• Is a set of programs that
                                               usually related to managing
  coordinates all activities
                                               a computer, its devices or its
  among computer hardware
                                               programs. (E.g. backup
  devices and allows users to
                                               utility, uninstaller,     file
  run application software.
                                               manager)

                             Sending
     Receiving data
                           information
    from input device
                         to output device
                        Transferring items
      Processing
                         between storage
      instructions
                           and memory        CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
                 Computer Software

• How do we interact with them
  today ? Graphical User Interface
  (GUI)
   – Allow users to interact with the
     software using graphics and icons.
   – Controls how user enter data and
     how      the     screen      displays
     information.
   – A GUI offers graphical icons, and
     visual indicators, as opposed to
     text-based     interfaces,      typed
     command labels or text navigation
     to fully represent the information
     and actions available to a user.
   – Easier to use compared to text
     based commands

                                             CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
               Computer Software
• Program
  – A sequence of instructions
    written to perform a
    specified task for a
    computer.
• Programmer
  – Someone      who     writes
    computer software.
                                    #include <stdio.h>
  – Also refer to a specialist in   int main(void)
    one area of computer            {
    programming or to a
    generalist who writes code      puts("Hello world!");
    for many kinds of software.     return 0;

                                    }
                                    CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
          Categories of Computers
• Personal Computers
  – Deskstop (IBM)
  – iMac (Macintosh)
• Mobile devices
  (computer)
  – Notebook(Laptop)
  – Tablet PC
  – Personal Digital Assistant
    (PDA)



                                 CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
             Categories of Computers

• Midrange server (Minicomputer)
   – Powerful, large computer that
     support up to few thousands
     computers.
   – handle the computing for small
     corporations
• Mainframe
   – Very powerful, supports thousands
     of computers.
• Supercomputer
   – Fastest, most powerful, most
     expensive,
   – Used for applications requiring
     complex mathematical calculation.
     (NASA)
   – Embedded Computer



                                         CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
    Elements of an Information System
• System
                                      • Elements
   – System is a set of interacting
      or interdependent entities         –   Hardware
      forming an integrated whole.       –   Software
• Information System
                                         –   Data/Information
   – Frequently used to refer to
      the interaction between            –   People
      people, processes, data and        –   Procedures
      technology (hardware and
      software)
   – Organization, people interact            • Supporting business
      with this technology in                   process (e.g. add drop
      support       of     business             activities)
      processes.
   – MIS, DSS, EIS
                                       CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
      Examples of Computer usage
• Computers can work with
  all types of data
• Purchase CDs from an
  online store
• Organize            music
  collections
• Research music reviews
• Send e-mail to friends
  and family
• Use a word-processor to
  create a term paper

                              CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
       Examples of Computer usage
• Facilitate collaboration
• Facilitate learning with
  computer-based      study
  guides
• Internet research
• Manufacturing
• Education
• Military
• Entertainment


                              CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
     Computer Application in Society
•   Education
•   Finance
•   Government
•   Health care
•   Science
•   Publishing
•   Travel
•   Industry


                       CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
              Can you now …
• Explain the term computer literacy
• Identify the components of a computer
  system
• Explain the information process cycle
• Explain networking
• Discuss different types of computer software
• Explain information system


                           CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers
               Assignment 1
• Produce a report : Compare and contrast the
  different types of guided and un-guided data
  transmission media. (refer to the format
  required in metalab)
• Due date 26th July 2010, 3pm.




                          CMPF112 – Computing Skills for Engineers

				
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