Effective Teacher Induction Programs

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					  Teacher Induction Programs: A
     Strategy for Improving the
Professional Experience of Beginning
  Career and Technical Education
                 Richard M. Joerger
                    Chris Bremer
  Dept. of Work, Community, and Family Education
              University of Minnesota
  Justification for Staff Development for
   Beginning Teachers
Teacher Preparation: Processes and Forces
Sample Induction Program Components
           Teacher Induction

“…activities and processes necessary to
 successfully induct a teacher into the
 profession. An effective induction program
 should include orientation, mentoring, staff
 development specific to protégé’s needs,
 observations of experienced teachers at
 work, and peer support groups…”
                            (Sweeny, 2001)
           Teacher Induction

Usually regarded as the aggregate of
 professional events teachers experience
 from the time they sign the contract until
 they are comfortably established as a
 professional teacher.
                (Camp and Heath, 1988)
          NDCCTE Proposal

Identify, synthesize, translate, and
 disseminate research conducted by career
 and technical education researchers that was
 funded by the National Center for Research
 in Vocational Education (NCRVE)
Topic of Need in CTE
Process for Identifying the Need
Process for Translating the Research
Personal Background and
            Teacher Education
Teacher Preparation
  Staff Development
    Agricultural Education
       Middle School
    Career and Technical Education
  Induction - Forms of Assistance; Models
 Current Staff Development Efforts

Director of Minnesota Agricultural
 Education Teacher Induction Program (TIP)

Director of Minnesota Farm Business
 Management Education Professional
 Excellence Program (PEP)

Courses & Workshops: Secondary & Adult
  Rationale for Information
Concerning Teacher Induction
    The Challenge: Shortages or
 Distribution Problems of Teachers
Sources of a Cadre of Quality Teachers
  New graduates from colleges of education
  Graduates of alternative licensure programs
  Career teachers
  Re-entry teachers
  Emergency or provisionally licensed
The Challenge: High Turnover Rates
       of Novice Teachers
Opinions and research suggest 35-50
 percent of new teachers leave in the first
 five years in the profession
Teacher Preparation: Processes
         and Forces
             Typical state system of teacher development,
                     assessment, and certification.

   PRESERVICE                      INDUCTION                               CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL

   University Teacher          Initial Teaching Certificate                                                   Master Teaching
                                                                  Standard Teaching Certificate
   Education Program           Often about a 4-year limit                                                         Certificate
                                                                   No limit. Renewable, often
                                                                                                             No limit. Renewable.
                                                                  every five years on evidence
                                                                  of professional development

                             Formative perf ormance
                             assessment to support beginning
                             teacher growth standards

       Summative assessment points that are related to the Professional Teaching Standards

        NCATE                      INTASC                                                                       NBPTS
  National Council for     Interstate New Teacher                                                          National Board of
Accreditation of Teacher   Assessment & Support                                                          Professional Teaching
 Education Standards     Consortium model standards                                                      Standards certification
                           for beginning teachers

                        Connections to National Teaching Standards
               Source: Sweeny, B.W. (2001). Leading the teacher induction and mentoring program. Skylight Publishing, Inc.
Influences on Teacher Development

     Experiences                                   Testing

                    Experience         Mentoring
 Performance                                                 Teaching
  Appraisals                                                 Standards

                             Formal Pre-
                            & Continued
                                                                     Source: Quality
         State &            Development
                                                   Professional      Mentoring for
          Local                                                      Novice Teachers
                                                   Growth Plan
         Contexts                                                    Eds. Sandra J.
                                                                     Odell and Leslie
Stages of Development of Novice
  Major Stages of Development



            Fuller (1969) and Fuller & Bown (1975)
 Phases of First Year Teachers’ Attitude
    Towards Teaching (Moir, 1992)
      Anticipation                                     Anticipation

              Survival                        Reflection



Aug   Sept   Oct   Nov   Dec   Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   June   July
Teacher Career Continuum
       Teacher Development Continuum

Preservice       Induction                  In-Service                            Renewal

     Source: Quality Mentoring for Novice Teachers , Eds. Sandra J. Odell and Leslie Huling
 Other Factors that Influence the
Development of the Novice Teacher
Socialization Theory
Career Development Theory
Adult Development Theory
  Physical               Relationships
  Cognitive              Work Roles
  Family and Sex Roles   Personality Dev.
  Relationships          Life Tasks
  Work Roles
Research Findings
            Areas of Focus
• Benefits from enrollment in teacher
  induction program
• Difficulties and challenges experienced by
  beginning teachers
• Impact & desired forms of assistance
• Needs of Beginning Teachers not Prepared
  in Traditional Teacher Preparation Model
    Benefits of Enrollment in
   Teacher Induction Programs
Enhanced self confidence and classroom
 management (Conner, 1984)

Improvement in lesson planning & discipline
 (Eisner, 1984)

Reviewing techniques improved; better eye
 contact, and voice inflection improved
 (Huling-Austin & Murphy,1987)
     Benefits of Enrollment in
    Teacher Induction Programs
More positive attitudes toward teaching;
 and plan to continue in profession longer
  (Henry, 1988; Odell & Ferraro, 1992; Varah, Theune, &
  Parker, 1986)
Achievement scores of students of highly
 skilled and satisfied teachers are higher
  (Darling-Hammond, 2000)
    Challenges and Difficulties of
          Novice Teachers
Student management
Student motivation
Locating teaching materials
Room and lesson organization
Understanding complex school systems
Meeting needs of individual students
 (Griffen, 1985; Odell, 1986; Veenman, 1984)
    Challenges and Difficulties of
     Novice Teachers (cont’d)
Insufficient time for preparation
Relationships with parents
Selecting and using alternative teaching
  (Veenman, 1984)
Findings from CTE Research
   Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-
Casmus, Talbert, and Barber (1992)
In order, the student, system, and
 program were sources of greatest
 proportion of significant events in
 professional lives of 12 beginning CTE
              Mundt (1991)
Challenges facing beginning teachers
  Conditions of facilities
  Classroom management issues
  Organizational issues
  Greater desire for supervision from principal
  Determining curriculum, scope, sequence &
  Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-Casmus,
       Talbert, and Barber (1992)
Desired forms of assistance:
   having an adequate supply of materials, textbooks
   and workbooks
   availability of planning time before the start of
  helpful feedback and evaluation from the principal
  orientation to school policies
  information on how to secure supplies and
  extra planning period; parental support
 Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-Casmus,
      Talbert, and Barber (1992)

Concluded that the nature and impact of many
of the events experienced by beginning CTE
teachers reflect common experiences of
individuals progressing through early stages
of vocational development.
 Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-Casmus,
      Talbert, and Barber (1992)
Needs of Beginning Teachers not
 Prepared in Traditional Teacher
 Preparation Model:
  A mentor in the same or related instructional
  A support group
  A curriculum
  Sources of resources
   Record of helpful tips
Instructional materials from the previous
An orientation to the career and technical
 student organization
Orientation to system workings, policies, and
 More preparation time before the beginning of
 Access to a variety of workshops when needed
 A help hot line for new and beginning teachers
     Nichols & Mundt (1996)
Most important competencies for

  Classroom Management

  Safety Competencies
           Mullenex (1996)
Most helpful induction practices:

  Peer support group
  Handbooks for beginning teachers
  Release time above normal assignment
  Specialized orientations
  Classroom observation
    Kirby & Lebude (1998)
Retention strategies of major importance
 found to have the greatest impact were:

  adequate supply of materials, textbooks and
  adequate facilities
  provisions for reimbursement for continuing
   education exist
  a positive work environment
  effective student discipline policies that were
   endorsed and upheld by school administrators
    Mundt & Connors (1999)
Concerns and challenges included:

  managing the overall activities of the local FFA
  building support within the school system
  balancing professional and personal
  recruiting and motivating students in agricultural
   using proper classroom management strategies
   time management
  building support from parents, organizations and
   adult groups within the community.
   Edwards & Briers, 2000
Concluded in-service education should
 be offered to assist entry-phase teachers
 in the areas of:
   facilitating change in curriculum and
  facilitating balance in personal and
   professional roles,
  facilitating public image, and
  facilitating student leadership growth
     Joerger & Boettcher, 2000
Forms of assistance provided by local
 school district personnel with greatest
 impact upon their professional
  Parental support
  Availability of materials and textbooks
  Extra planning time
  Curriculum guides for the program
  Feedback from the principal
Teacher Induction Programs:
 One Part of the Solution to
    Retaining Teachers
  Components of Successful
Teacher Induction Programs for
        CTE Teachers
Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-
 Casmus, Talbert, & Barber
       Professional Development
      Program - Teacher Induction
Beginning Teacher        Structured Mentoring
 Handbook                  Program
On-going In-service      Detailed Orientation
 Workshops                Administrative Support
Peer Group Support       Professional
Professional              Development
 Development Plan          Coordinator
Coaching in Reflection   Professional
Certification Courses     Development Center
  Suggestions for Policymakers
      and Administrators
Place high priority upon induction programs

Involvement in establishment, support,
 promotion and implementation of programs

Address system issues
    Research Recommendations
Determine current nature and use of various
 teacher induction models in CTE
Investigate ways that existing teacher induction
 models used impact CTE teachers
Determine best ways and types of induction
 programs to meet teacher needs
Impact of variables within categories of the
 Teacher Proximity Continuum upon teacher
 performance and retention, and student
         Thank You!

  My special thanks goes to Chris
Bremer who planned and carried out
a memorable journey in completing
            this effort!

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