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					Partnership for Social
Anti-corruption Programme
  Comparative Analysis of
   Local Self-Government
 Functioning in Croatia and
 TURKU                                                   SPLIT


Project was financed by the Embassy of the Republic of Finland in Zagreb.
    Association is supported by the National Foundation for Civil Society

                           PSD, prosinac 2006.
    Are there structural answers (in the
       area of local self-government
    functioning) to following question:

“Why is Finland holding the 1st place, and
  Croatia only the 69th according to TI
   index of perception of corruption for

                PSD, prosinac 2006.
   For this analysis’ needs we used
 the policy analysis methodology or
 public policies analysis of local self-
We used semi-structured interviews.
   We compared the data received
 from these interviews with publicly
         available documents.

               PSD, prosinac 2006.
  During analysis we observed
   the following categories:

• Legal framework
• Structure, power and processes within
  decision-making at the level of local self-
• Political context
• Finances
• Development and planning
• Publicity of work
• Civil society, media and local authorities
• Attitude towards corruption (all categories)
                   PSD, prosinac 2006.
General information about

         PSD, prosinac 2006.
                 FINLAND                      CROATIA
INHABITANTS           5,3 million                   4.4 million

GDP PER CAPITA      31.000 $ (2005)               8.677 $ (2005)

                 (across the Finnish          HERZEGOVINA,
                 Bay)                         MONTENEGRO, ITALY

LENGTH OF THE        1.250,00 km                   5.835,00 km
SURFACE             338,000,00 km                  87.609,00 km
UNEMPLOYMENT     7,2% (October 2006)           16,8 % (October 2006)

                        PSD, prosinac 2006.
                TURKU                 RIJEKA           SPLIT

Inhabitants      174.868               144.043        188.694

Surface        306,4 km                44 km         79,33 km

Budget (in    9.697.023.366,00     820.562.470,00   582.600.000,00
kuna)               2005                2005             2005

                        PSD, prosinac 2006.
General determinants for

Rijeka, Split and Turku are
coastal cities; harbours and
 ship yards are important
 factors of their economic

         PSD, prosinac 2006.
     General comparison of legal
   framework relevant for analysis

           Finland                               Croatia
The Constitution                    The Constitution

Local Government Act                Act on Local and Regional Self-

Act on the Openness of              Act on the Right of Access to
Government Activities and related   Information
decision on the openness of
government activities and good
practice in knowledge management

                           PSD, prosinac 2006.
Constitutional Provisions

         PSD, prosinac 2006.
Constitution of Finland
Constitution of Finland is a modern
constitution, last time amended in
         1999 (June 6th).

 Constitution has 13 chapters and
            131 articles.

            PSD, prosinac 2006.
    Chapters within the Constitution
              of Finland
•    Fundamental Provisions
•    Basic Rights and Liberties
•    The Parliament and the Representatives
•    Parliamentary Activity
•    The President of the Republic and the Government
•    Legislation
•    State Finances
•    International relations
•    Administration of justice
•    Supervision of legality
•    Administration and self-government
•    National defence
•    Final provisions
                     PSD, prosinac 2006.
 General Determinant of the
   Constitution of Finland
  Constitution of Finland is a
 document in which emphasis
  lies on the rule of law and
accountability of the state and
 public administration, public
 officials and civil servants in
         public bodies.
           PSD, prosinac 2006.
Constitution of Finland and its
   relation to corruption
Constitution of Finland is an act which
 directly reflects on the suppression of
 potential impropriate actions, that is,
 potential corruptive actions, and explicitly
 cites official acountability of state, public
 bodies, public officials and civil servants for
 the legality of their activities, in 10 of its
 articles (articles 2, 12, 21, 28, 29,32, 60,
 63, 116, 118)
 Here is an example:
                  PSD, prosinac 2006.
  Chapter 10, article 118 of the Constitution of Finland

Official Accountability

  A civil servant is responsible for the lawfulness of his or
  her official actions. He or she is also responsible for a
  decision made by an official multi-member body that he or
  she has supported as one of its members.
  A rapporteur shall be responsible for a decision made upon
  his or her presentation, unless he or she has filed an
  objection to the decision.
  Everyone who has suffered a violation of his or her rights
  or sustained loss through an unlawful act or omission by a
  civil servant or other person performing a public task shall
  have the right to request that the civil servant or other
  person in charge of a public task be sentenced to a
  punishment and that the public organisation, official or
  other person in charge of a public task be held liable for
  damages, as provided in more detail by an Act.
                          PSD, prosinac 2006.
Therefore, in Finland, fight against
   corruption is a constitutional
     category, and protective
  instruments, for the state and
  society, against corruption are
     already prescribed by the
 Constitution (conflict of interest
    and access to information).

            PSD, prosinac 2006.
The Constitution of the Republic
           of Croatia
The Constitution of the Republic of
Croatia is a modern constitution as well.
Current Constitution was adopted in
1990 (December 12th). It was amended
many times (last amendment was in
April 2001).
The Constitution of the Republic of
Croatia has 9 chapters and 147 articles.

              PSD, prosinac 2006.
    Chapters of the Constitution of
       the Republic of Croatia
•   Historical Foundations
•   Basic Provisions
    Protection of Human Rights and
    Fundamental Freedoms
•   Organization of Government
•   The Constitutional Court of the Republic of
•   Local and Regional Self-Government
•   International Relations
•   Amending the Constitution
•   Concluding Provisions
                   PSD, prosinac 2006.
 General Determinant of the
Constitution of the Republic of
Constitution of the Republic of Croatia
is a document in which emphasis lies on
human rights and freedoms.

Accountability of the state and public
administration, public officials and civil
servants is not directly prescribed.

                PSD, prosinac 2006.
Constitution of the Republic of
  Croatia and its relation to
 Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, in 14
 of its articles (articles 3, 4, 5, 6, 19, 29, 38, 44,
 75, 104, 105, 108, 114, 136) prescribes measures
 which can be considered also as measures for
 the strengthening of accountability.
 Explicitly (in terms of measures which are
 usually used for fight against corruption), we
 can state the following articles:

                    PSD, prosinac 2006.
Article 6:
...Parties shall publicize the accounts on sources of their assets and

Article 108:
• The Government of the Republic of Croatia shall consist of a
   Prime Minster, one or more Deputy Prime Ministers and
• The Prime Minister and other members of the Government may
   not perform any other public or professional duty without
   consent of the Government.

Article 114:
• The Government shall be responsible to the Croatian
   Parliament. The Prime Minister and members of the Government
   shall be jointly responsible for the decisions made by the
   Government, and shall be personally responsible for their
   respective competencies.

                           PSD, prosinac 2006.
Therefore, protection of fundamental
rights and practice of freedoms of an
individual are basic principles of the
Constitution of the Republic of Croatia.
Accountability of public institutions or
civil servants is not a constitutional
category but a category prescribed by
other laws.

              PSD, prosinac 2006.



           PSD, prosinac 2006.
       Local Government Act
 Local Government Act has 12 chapters and
 105 articles.
 Act also has 14 provisions (articles 23, 25, 29,
 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 52, 61, 63, 73)
 which define local self-government’s
 accountability in terms of transparency and
 legality, and which can be considered as anti-
 corruption measures.

For example:
                  PSD, prosinac 2006.
  Chapter 5, article 40., Incorrect
  procedure in elective office

• If an elected official can be suspected on probable
  grounds of being guilty of an offence in office or of
  otherwise acting contrary to his duties, the municipal
  board shall demand an explanation from him and if
  necessary inform the council of the matter. If an
  offence in office has clearly been committed, it shall
  be reported to the police without delay.

• The council may suspend an elected official for the
  period of an investigation or legal proceedings.
  Before the council meets, the chairman of the council
  may decide on said suspension temporarily.
                      PSD, prosinac 2006.
  Chapter 5, article 37., Forfeiting qualification for
• If an elected official forfeits his qualification for election,
  the organ to which he belongs shall declare his elective
  office terminated. Decisions shall be put into effect

  Chapter 7, article 61., Dissenting opinions

• A person involved in decision-making who has made a
  counter-proposal or voted against a motion, and, if the
  decision diverges from that proposed, the referendary
  concerned is entitled to register a dissenting opinion...
  Persons who have voted against a motion or registered a
  dissenting opinion shall not be responsible for the decision
  Referendaries are responsible for decisions based on their
  proposals, unless they have registered dissenting opinions.
                          PSD, prosinac 2006.
Therefore, Finnish Local Government
Act further continues and additionally
strengthens constitutional categories on
the accountability of public bodies to
the citizens, defines accountability for
decisions taken or recommended by the
public officials, and publicity of their

             PSD, prosinac 2006.
 Act on Local and Regional Self-
      Government (Croatia)

Act on Local and Regional Self-Government
has 12 chapters and 101 articles.

Act has 13 provisions which, in some way,
regulate the control of work and
accountability of local self-government. 2 of
these provisions can be considered (among
others) as anti-corruption provisions:

                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
• Article 48:
  ... The members of the authorities are not
  entitled to make decisions about issues
  referred to in paragraph 1 item 4 of this
  article when they are the interested party
  either personally or through members of their
  closer family.
• Article 72.
  The Ministry of Finance, or other legally
  determined body, supervises the legality of
  physical and financial operation of the units
  of local self-government and units of regional
                   PSD, prosinac 2006.
Therefore, the Croatian Act on Local and
Regional Self-Government does not explicitly
regulate accountability of local public
officials nor publicity of local self-
government bodies’ activities. In one of the
articles (article 48), a measure which is
directly stated can be considered as an anti-
corruption measure.
... The members of the authorities are not
entitled to make decisions about issues
referred to in paragraph 1 item 4 of this article
when they are the interested party either
personally or through members of their closer
family.            PSD, prosinac 2006.

             PSD, prosinac 2006.
Analysis of local self-government
    according to categories

RIJEKA                            SPLIT

            PSD, prosinac 2006.
   Structure, power and
decision-making procedures
     in local authorities

         PSD, prosinac 2006.

PSD, prosinac 2006.
CITY COUNCIL                           COMMITTEE FOR REVISION, Office for Revision

CITY EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE                        Internal Revision
 MAYOR                                          TAD centre (Turku Area Develop.)
 independent authority
                         DEPUTY MAYOR for               DEPUTY MAYOR for
                         services                       environment
SERVICES of                                            COMMITTEE FOR REAL-ESTATE
South-West               COMMITTEE FOR SOCIAL
Finland- fire dept.      WELFARE                       DIRECTORATE FOR TECH.
                          COMMITTEE FOR                SERVICES
CENTRAL                   EDUCATION
                                                        COMMITTEE FOR
                          COMMITTEE FOR                 AND URBAN DEV.
                                                        COMMITTEE FORCONSTRUCTION
                                                        COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC
                          COMMITTEE FOR SPORTS          TRANSPORT

                          COMMITTEE FOR YOUTH           COMMITTEE FOR HARBOUR

                          COMMITTEE FOR CULTURE        COMMITTEE FOR WORKS ON
                                PSD, prosinac 2006.
As all units of local administration, Turku has a
wide autonomy, which is a consequence of a
decentralised government in Finland.
Education, social welfare and health care,
except in exceptional cases (universities and
university hospitals) are under jurisdiction of
local self-government, more specifically, they
can be considered as units of local authorities
because of the way the city administration is
organised. According to the statements of
officials, and according to the legal framework,
local authorities are “responsible for education,
social welfare and health care of Finnish citizens.”

                   PSD, prosinac 2006.
When it comes to the organisation of
administration and authorities, to understand
it more easily, it is important to emphasise
that Finland can be considered as a country
constantly undergoing transition.

So, “the Central Government”, under its
jurisdiction, has the Court of Justice, police,
public prosecutors, etc. Even though, it is
important to know that until 90s, the Court of
Justice was a local institution.

                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
• City Council decides on general strategy and
  sectoral strategies as well as on plans deriving
  from these strategies. City Council also
  determines and decides on public policies of
  the city which are tied to important questions
• City sub-committees (elected bodies) prepare
  decisions for the City Council (consensus).
• Legality of decision proposals and decisions of the
  City Council is checked by the City Executive
  Committee (elected body), (consensus)
• Mayor is responsible for the execution of the City
  Council’s decisions and implementation of plans,
  and he is directly monitored by the City Executive
  Committee elected by the town councillors.

                     PSD, prosinac 2006.
Mayor and Deputy Mayors are civil servants
and actually they manage employees of the
city (there are 14.000 of them or almost 10%
of the total number of inhabitants).

Mayor and Deputy Mayors employ most of
employees (civil servants) for the needs of
the city.

                PSD, prosinac 2006.
          SPLIT & RIJEKA
                CITY COUNCIL

       MAYOR                  CITY GOVERNMENT

       CITY         CITY               CITY     CITY
       OFFICE       OFFICE             OFFICE   OFFICE

                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
The Republic of Croatia still hasn’t finished
the process of decentralisation of authorities,
so many of key powers and services still
remain under the jurisdiction of the state (e.g.
construction permits, part of schools, part of
hospitals, part of social welfare). Thus, the
jurisdiction of the local self-government
remains unclear in terms of planning of public
policies in all mentioned sectors (this applies
to Rijeka & Split both).
Croatia is currently in the process of transition
of couple of sectors at once (which is
conditioned by the accession to the EU)
                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
Rijeka – structure and decision-making
• City Council typically adopts general acts which create the
  city politics, areas of urban planning, budget, utility
  services acts, and all acts which are adopted under a
  special procedure with Rules of Procedure.
• City Government implements these acts and adopts a
  number of other operational acts.
• Mayor implements and is responsible for all decisions
  made by the City Council and City Government
  There are around 400 people employed in the immediate
  administration, but with pre-school education, social cases
  and utility services, there are around 4000 people.

  Heads of directorates suggest employment, City Councils
  approve systematisation and expert departments employ.

                        PSD, prosinac 2006.
Split – structure and decision-making
 • As in Rijeka, general politics, general acts, budget,
   urban plans, key decisions, as well as decisions on
   expenditure of big amounts of the budget resources,
   are decided upon by the City Council
 • Decisions of the Council are executed by the City
   Government together with the Mayor, and the
   implementation and its legality is a responsibility of
   the Mayor
 • There are around 300 people employed in the city
 • Employment procedures are similar to Rijeka’s

                       PSD, prosinac 2006.
Political context

      PSD, prosinac 2006.
• So called reciprocal democracy (calculation of the
  number of representatives’ seats through index).
  No party can have a majority
• City Council has 67 members (prescribed by the
  law) which represent 9 different political parties.
• In the City Council, there 2 large groups,
  conservatives with 19 seats and social-democrats
  with 18 seats. All others have less. There is no
  majority voting. There has to be an agreement
  among all parties.
• Some cities in Finland, including Turku, are
  taking a course of politicising the mayor function
  and majority democracy.

                    PSD, prosinac 2006.
     Rijeka – political context
• Majority democracy, left coalition in power
• City Council has 33 members (approximately
  defined by law), which represent 11 political
• SDP has 9 representatives (coalition in
  power), HDZ has 6 representatives and they
  represent the most powerful political
  strengths in the City Council. Decisions are
  made according to the majority of votes.

                  PSD, prosinac 2006.
      Split – political context
• Democracy according to the majority, right
  centre coalition in power
• City Council has 25 members (approximately
  defined by law), which represent 10 political
• HDZ has 6 representatives, NGL 5 and SDP
  5. These mentioned parties represent the
  most powerful political strengths in the City
• Decisions are made according to majority of

                  PSD, prosinac 2006.

PSD, prosinac 2006.

• Almost 50% of the budget tied to
  obligatory city services comes from
  state taxes. The rest comes from local
  incomes, including local tax which is
  18% for the City of Turku.
• Budget is detailed and clear in order to
  make the control of finances easier. Any
  expenditure out of fixed budget items is
                PSD, prosinac 2006.
       Control of Finances
Financial management is administered
through unique computerised system for all
offices and institutions of the city. Office of the
Director of Finances has an insight in the
expenditure of any institution or office, at any
time (on the same day)
Control of finances is administered by the City
Council’s Committee for Revision together
with the City Council’s Office for Revision.
Mayor’s Office for Internal Revision conducts
random revision of institutions and offices
(continuously through all year).
                  PSD, prosinac 2006.
      Planning of Finances
According to recommendations of Finnish
regional and local authorities, budget
planning and long-term financial plans
follow public policies, strategy and
developmental plans (Turku follows
recommendations mentioned). Thus,
making of the city budget for Turku is a
long process and it starts each year in
spring for the next year.
Proposals are made by the city sub-
committees. Final proposal is submitted by
the Mayor through city government, and it
is adopted by the City Council.
               PSD, prosinac 2006.
      Public Procurement
City of Turku follows EU Directives on public
procurement in its public procurement procedures (in
total, over 300 million EUR in a year).

Half of the procurement is centralised and under
direct control of the Mayor (Office for Procurement).
In five years, there has been one complaint on the

A new law on public procurement is in the process of
making, which will accelerate the procedure and
enable more detailed public control of public
procurement procedures (procurement and control

                   PSD, prosinac 2006.
         Rijeka - Finances
• Incomplete decentralisation is mostly
  visible on budget resources. The city
  doesn’t get as much as it could if
  administering a different fiscal policy,
  which also causes difficulties in the
  proactive planning of budget tied to
  public policies
• City surtax 6,5%
                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
 Rijeka – Control of Finances
• Monthly reports on resources spent are
  controlled through a database.
• State Revision = has jurisdiction and
  obligation to control local self-government
• Internal Revision = department which is
  established conducts revision for executive
  authorities’ needs (city government and
                  PSD, prosinac 2006.
Rijeka – Planning of Finances
• According to adopted guidelines,
  financial plans are created in the City
  Council (together with important
  economic and financial parameters
  given by the state). Plan is developed
  on a 4-year basis.
• Surtax can be planned on a year basis

                PSD, prosinac 2006.
    Rijeka – Public Procurement
• City Administration’s Department for the Utilities
  Services System is the biggest supplier of the City of
• In 5 years, 1 complaint to the tender procedure
• Within the department (as well as the rest of the
  administration), standardised template for procurement
  per tender.
• In total, in all departments, complaints on public
  procurement - 14
• Complaints to the State Commission- 6 (2005)
• Department for Internal Revision controls the procedure
  and contracts.
• Due to lack of legal solutions, the Mayor of the City of
  Rijeka issued a special instruction on public
  procurement with the aim of strengthening
  transparency and neutrality of procedures.
                      PSD, prosinac 2006.
          Split - Finances
• As in Rijeka, incomplete
  decentralisation in Split leads to
  difficulties in adequate planning of
  finances tied to public policies.
• City surtax 10%

                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
 Split – Control of Finances
Execution of the budget is controlled

State Revision has the obligation of control.

Department for Internal Revision exists and is
functional. It reports to the Mayor.

                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
  Split – Planning of Finances

• Budget is planned by the whole city
  government (with all its services), and is
  developed by the Department for
  Finances in agreement with all
• Budget is developed according to plans
  which were determined earlier, including
  the Public Procurement Plan
                 PSD, prosinac 2006.
  Split – Public Procurement

• System of the centralised public
  procurement is in the process of
  development. For now, it is hard to
  follow public procurement procedures,
  as well as its results.
• In general, the Act on Public
  Procurement is implemented.

                PSD, prosinac 2006.
Development and Planning

        PSD, prosinac 2006.
Development and planning of local authorities follow so
called LFA model (model often used in the EU).
Turku has a defined vision of the city until year 2015,
strategic plan until 2009, and annual operational plans.
Also, the city develops different public policies which
follow the strategy and the vision. Key public policy for
2005-2009 is population and employment, although it can
be said that most of sectors in administration are bound
by public policies.
When planning, it is important that budget follows already
mentioned plans and public policies.

                     PSD, prosinac 2006.
An example of the City of Turku

           PSD, prosinac 2006.
                      City of Turku Strategy 2001-2004

Orientation to   Competitiveness   Self-sustainable   Fairness   Cooperation
citizens and     and creativity    development
users of

                               PSD, prosinac 2006.
                          Strategic Priorities

Response to competitiveness                      Turku self-sustainable development

• Strong research work and education             • Balanced economy
• Areas: Bio, IT, logistics, tourism             • Diverse structure of doing business
• Learning through work, LLL                     • Competitive employers
• International networking                       • Sustainable urban structure –urban.
• Intensive communication and lobbying             centre, quality suburbs
                                                 • Healthy and nice environment- good water supply

Quality of life and prosperity                   Youth, children and families with children

• Active citizens – culture and exercise         • Education
• Physical and mental safety –                   • Youth culture
  available                                      • Inspiring environment for work
• Diversity in housing                           • Status of families with children
• Prevention of marginalisation –                • Youth and management of life
  suppression of unemployment

                                    PSD, prosinac 2006.
            Rijeka - Planning
In the process of development of plans, a large number of
statistical reports and different analyses is used. Long-
term (3 - 4 years) and short-term (1 year) plans are
developed. They can be found in documents, so called
Guidelines of the City of Rijeka.

Guidelines also contain strategic projects which will be
followed by Rijeka. Planning is not done according to the
LFA model, yet there are more groups of strategic

City budget follows already mentioned plans in the
process of its development and adoption.

                     PSD, prosinac 2006.
             Split - Planning
There is a strategy produced by the Faculty of
Economics in Split
Deriving from this strategy are also political
programmes of the coalition in power as well as a 4-
year plan.
It is clear that there is no systemic planning within city
structures, and that the plan is an aggregate of a
number of strategic projects
Adoption of an urban plan in record period of time
can be considered as a success of city authorities,
even though this plan predicts a number of strategic
changes in the looks of the City of Split.
Plans don’t follow LFA model

                     PSD, prosinac 2006.
Publicity of Work/Activities

          PSD, prosinac 2006.
       Turku – Publicity of Work
As well as fight against corruption, publicity of work of
public administration is a constitutional category in
Publicity of work is a basic general principle of Finnish
public administration which is practiced especially at the
level of local authorities because this level is the main
provider of services to the citizens.
City of Turku receives a couple of thousand requests for
access to information, out of which, only a couple of them
ends up at courts due to non providing of information.
Cases when the information is not provided, mainly
include insecurity of civil servants whether or not he/she
may or may not provide information, thus a court decision
is waited for. All decisions and records of local authorities
working bodies in the City of Turku are published on the
Internet.               PSD, prosinac 2006.
    Rijeka – Publicity of Work
• City of Rijeka, aside to (prescribed by law) notices of
  general acts and decisions, also publishes one part
  of the City Council documentation, and one part of
  publications such as reports on activities and budget
• Guidelines of the City of Rijeka are also published
• Special attention is given to the implementation of the
  Act on the Right of Access to Information, as well as
  to activities of city authorities on proactive informing
  of the public on work done by the city administration

                      PSD, prosinac 2006.
    Split – Publicity of Work
• Split publishes its decisions in public
  gazettes (Official Gazette and on the
• Effort is being made into implementation
  of the Act on the Right for Access to
• There are difficulties in structured and
  proactive informing of the citizens

                PSD, prosinac 2006.
      Turku- Civil Society
Civil society on the level of Turku is one
of the main service providers (social
welfare, youth and culture).
However, compared to the Republic of
Croatia, civil society is less engaged in
controlling the work of local authorities.

               PSD, prosinac 2006.
        Rijeka – Civil Society
• Rijeka approached to organised work and
  cooperation with civil society with the charter
  on mutual cooperation.
• Total annual financing of civil society
  organisations reaches the level of 20 million
• Aside to social sector, civil society is active in
  political dynamics of the city as well, in
  awakening of different problems and
  safeguarding of anti-fascism inheritance.

                    PSD, prosinac 2006.
          Split – civil society
• Split also approached to organised
  development of a relationship with civil
  society through charter on cooperation.
• Civil society in Split is extremely active in
  development and implementation of public
  policies tied to youth and it reacts to local and
  national problems.
• City authorities have high expectations from
  civil society, especially in segment of
  strengthening of organisation and capacities
  of civil society organisations
                    PSD, prosinac 2006.
              Turku - media
According to the statements of interviewed
  officials, in the area of Turku, most released
  printed media has a conservative political
  orientation (even though it is officially
In that sense, the question arises of the so
  called misuse of public space or privileged
  position of some political groups.
At the same time, and on account of executive
  city authorities being more or less
  technocratic, media cover critically the work
  of local authorities and they are the ones who
  ask for the information most.

                  PSD, prosinac 2006.
       Rijeka i Split - media
• In both cities there are developed
  relationships between the cities and local
• Complaints of city officials and employees
  can be summed up to insufficient
  representation in media related to following of
  city programmes, activities’ reports and
  special projects, and on the other hand to
  attempts of making pressure on public
  authorities decisions in terms of fulfilling
  certain lobbies’ interest.

                   PSD, prosinac 2006.
    Preliminary Conclusion
According to analysis, key assumptions for suppression
and control of corruption on local level are political will
transfused into laws (e.g. constitution, local government
act, act on publicity of authorities’ activities, act on
public procurement), and a strict system of
management and control of finances.
Clear legal solutions, together with proactive, obligatory
publicity of work, and a transparent and readable
procedure of development and expenditure of budget
(including the public procurement procedure) which
follows LFA model of development of strategic and
operational plans, are key tools for control and
suppression of corruption on the level of local

                    PSD, prosinac 2006.

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