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					                        UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA
                      FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES



                                       Author:
                               Maja Špolad - 21030674




                                       Mentor:
                        Associate Professor Zlatko Šabič, PhD




                  THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
                                 (Negotiation strategy)




Subject: International organizations




                               Ljubljana, February 2008
I. CHILD MALNUTRITION


   1. The substantive issue
Poverty is the main basic cause of malnutrition worsened in some instances by negative
cultural practices despite a favourable political commitment.


Despite the well-documented relationship between malnutrition and child mortality,
nutritional interventions received little attention in Tanzania throughout the 1990s. During
this 'lost decade', many health strategies focused on a single disease, and when efforts at
integration were made, as through the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)
approach, nutrition was the weakest component.


Tanzania's national Demographic and Health Survey data released in 2005 indicated that there
were approximately 40,000 severely malnourished children in the country, in addition to
about 2,4 million chronically malnourished children. Quality of care data show that curative
services are failing these children. For example, the Joint Malaria Project found malnutrition
services to be among the country's worst, with many malnourished children dying before
being registered and therefore not even counted in hospital statistics. In one major hospital in
Dar es Salaam, WHO and Ministry of Health (MoH) staff estimated that severe malnutrition
accounted for around 60 per cent of child deaths. Therefore, Tanzania is very concerned with
the extension of poverty and consequentially, of the child malnutrition.


   2. Policy objectives
However, in the last decade has seen substantial improvements in the nutrition status of
children under-five years of age especially in areas implementing integrated nutrition
programmes like the Joint Nutrition Support Programme (JNSP) and the Child Survival and
Development (CSD) programmes. Tanzanian invites the rest of the world to accompany and
to collaborate on those programs.


Tanzania is strongly supporting the UNICEF efforts, that has in view of the critical need to
address child malnutrition, began to raise the awareness of the issue. Furthermore, clinicians
and nutritionists on the international protocols for facility-based management of severe acute
malnutrition (SAM) should be set up in a greater numbers.



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Tanzania is strongly in favour to support the importation of the therapeutic products needed
for management of SAM, since these were not part of the essential drugs list and were
therefore difficult to import. Finally, UNICEF sought to ensure the sustainability of these
measures by partnering with the Paediatric Association of Tanzania (PAT) and the
International Food and Health Association (IFHA) to enable them to take over the training of
clinicians, establishment of national standards and delivery of essential therapeutic products.


   3. Negotiating strategies
At first, eleven regional and district hospitals have begun piloting the integrated management
of SAM strategy. The Paediatric Association of Tanzania is facilitating the process through
on-the-job training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation. PAT will also support the
elaboration of national protocols to include management of SAM and will revise the training
curricula of medical and nursing schools accordingly. In addition, it will maintain a national
database of performance indicators for each of the hospitals piloting the integrated strategy.


As a result of strong advocacy with the Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority (TFDA),
therapeutic products for the management of SAM are now permitted. TFDA is processing the
registration of such products to allow their importation, and IFHA is in discussion with
Nutriset, the French makers of Plumpy'nut, to set up a local producer.


The international protocols for management of SAM have been available for a decade and
have been successfully implemented in many African countries (Burundi, Chad, Ethiopia and
Niger) as part of emergency relief. However, in non-emergency countries, the management of
SAM has received far less attention, and hospital treatment practices are extremely outdated.
Tanzania would be happy to cooperate with neighbour-states, with the African Union (AU)
and with Southern African Development Community (SADC) upgrading the strategies.
Furthermore, Tanzania views UNICEF as the most important forum for mitigate and limit the
child malnutrition problem.


   4. Final recommendation
The SAM initiative in Tanzania has helped to highlight broader nutrition problems in the
country and enabled clinicians and nutritionists to comprehend the full impact of a 'silent
emergency' like malnutrition on the lives of its children. Tanzania would like to help the rest
of developing world to save children's lives. The key challenges ahead, for the maximum


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outcome should be: 1) finding ways to scale up the management of SAM to all hospitals and
health clinics to ensure that every child has access to proper treatment, 2) finalizing and
validating national protocols, and 3) mainstreaming the management of SAM in health
policies and strategies.


It is expected that by the end of the first year, as many as 10,000 severely malnourished
children will have been reached through these interventions, approximately 6,000 of whom
would probably have died otherwise.


II. INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS – A REVIEW


   1. The substantive issue
Much of the contemporary literature on the utility of international sanctions approaches the
apparent riddle of why sanctions are embraced so eagerly when they are supposedly such an
'ineffective' tool of statecraft by focusing on the instrumental and rational purposes of
sanctions. As a result, one purpose that does not always lend itself to a rational means end
calculus, the purpose of punishment, tends to be overlooked or, more commonly, dismissed
outright. The international community explores punishment as both a useful and an effective
purpose of international sanctions. It argues not only that sanctions should be distinguished
from other forms of hurtful statecraft but also that they are a form of "international
punishment" for wrongdoing, despite the difficulties of applying the term "punishment" in the
context of international relations.


Tanzania itself, holds only a little interest about the use of international sanctions. In a past
UN sanctions impose restrictions on the sale or supply of arms and related material to persons
in states neighbouring Rwanda, including Tanzania, when the goods in question are intended
for use in Rwanda. To implement these measures, the United Nations Arms Embargoes
Orders 1993-1998 set out the licensing requirements in the UK for all acts associated with
such sale or supply.


      2. Policy objectives
Having no elaborated demands regarding this issue, Tanzania will follow general policy
objectives agreed within the international community, and harmonized with regional actors.



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Tanzania will probably support the endeavours of those states which are most affected by the
international sanctions.

However, some forms of punishment are exceedingly effective, and this may explain why
sanctions continue to be a popular instrument of statecraft and it is also the reason why
Tanzania rather supports the sanctions. Tanzania believes, sanctions should be applied with
caution and transparently, and they should be terminated once the goals that informed their
imposition were achieved. A periodic review of sanctions should be conducted to mitigate
their negative impact on civilians and third States.

Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a change in the role of sanctions in
international relations in three distinct ways: first, sanctions have been used more frequently;
second, they are being imposed for a broader range of reasons than ever before; and third, the
UN has become the principal laboratory for testing their strength and scope. Usually the last
resort before violence, sanctions are an essential tool of preventive action. Tanzania discerns
two categories of preventive action: alleviating risk factors when the danger of violence is
imminent and resolving root causes of violence. The first category includes such measures as
identifying and strengthening moderate leaders, initiating formal negotiations, and imposing
sanctions. The second category includes eliminating weapons of mass destruction, promoting
democracy and economic development, and working to improve health and education.

   3. Negotiating strategies

Tanzania calls on States to continue to avail themselves of the various procedures and
methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes, including fact-finding missions, goodwill
missions, special envoys, observers, good offices, mediation, conciliation and arbitration.

The crucial importance that African States attached to the imposition and implementation of
sanctions could not, therefore, be over-emphasized. The African Group reiterated that the
power of the Security Council to impose sanctions should always be exercised in accordance
with the United Nations Charter and international law. Sanctions should be considered only
after all means of peaceful settlement of disputes under Chapter VI of the Charter had been
exhausted and after their effects had been thoroughly considered. Sanctions should also be
non-selective, smart and targeted to mitigate their humanitarian and socio-economic effects.




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To that end, we all agree, the United Nations needed to define the objectives and guidelines
for the imposition of sanctions.

Tanzanian delegation believes and support the idea, that sanctions can prevent violence in
four ways. First, they signal international disapproval of a government's behaviour toward
other countries or its own citizens. Second, they are a necessary early reaction. If the target
ignores sanctions, then the international community is justified in moving to harsher
measures. Policymakers may not be able to build sufficient political support for the use of
force if they have not signalled disapproval first with softer measures such as sanctions.
Third, sanctions limit a state's freedom of action and motivate the state to correct bad
behaviour. And fourth, sanctions take their toll: States burdened by economic sanctions suffer
in the competitive global economy.

At this item on the agenda in particular, Tanzania will not act on behalf of its own initiatives
and will seek to harmonize its actions, firstly within the African Union (AU) and with UN.
Tanzania views United nations (UN) as the most important forum for mutual cooperation and
peaceful settlement of international disputes in the international community. As one of the
representatives of the developing world, Tanzania believes that the reform of the existing UN
sanction process in necessary in order to give a chance of equal representation to all nations of
the UN.


   4. Final recommendation


It would be disappointing for those that are mostly affected by this problem if a solution in a
form of sustainable long term development strategy of the country could not be reached. UN
should be careful with deciding about different kinds of sanctions, yet decisions of Security
Council's sanctions would boost the credibility of the Council in confronting those who
oppose peace.


Tanzania emphasizes; as the world becomes more economically interdependent, sanctions can
become a sharper tool of preventive action. No longer an instrument of superpower
competition, sanctions can be used by the community of nations to protest abuses and enforce
norms of behaviour between states and between governments and citizens. Tanzania points
out, that much hard work needs to be done to improve the effectiveness of UN mandated



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sanctions. The difficulty of the task and the often frustrating work of forging a consensus
among nations should not deter us from improving this alternative to violence. A solid
institutional structure for sanctions will be a tremendous asset in the daily work of
maintaining peace in the world.


III. ENVIRONMENTAL REFUGEES


   1. The substantive issue


The protection of environment has been on the international agenda for quite some time now,
but in spite of seriousness of the issue, states have not yet been able to ascertain at least some
common awareness of the problem, let alone to reach any constructive or viable consensus,
due to their underlying interests. The rapid degradation of environment and climatic changes
caused primarily by developed industrial states affect the poorest and less developed regions
of the world more than those that hold the prime responsibility for it.

There is a direct linkage between conflicts and the incidence of refugees and internally
displaced persons. In addition, there is also a linkage between mal-care for environment and
persons whose homes vanished in a way, looks like 'nature' has taken it, but in reality we are
all responsible for that. In this respect, Tanzania finds itself in a very difficult situation of
hosting more than 800,000 refugees, most of whom are products of the crisis in the Great
Lakes region. Besides, refugees pose many problems relating to security and environmental
degradation. There is urgent need for the international community to increase its support to
the refugees as well as the refugee-hosting countries. In the same vein, Tanzania reiterate a
call for international burden sharing and responsibility in refugee situations. A final solution
to the environmental refugee situation lies in resolving environmental problems so as to find a
proper place for refugees who have lost their homes.

   2. Policy objectives


Tanzania believes, that the UN environmental activities are too scattered and if the UN was to
make a significant impact on environmental standards, these would necessarily need to be
consolidated. Tanzania therefore supports the existence of the World Environmental
Organization (WEO) under the patronage of UN. The government of Tanzania says it



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recognizes the key role NGOs have to play in the solving forced migration problems, but the
recent NGO Regulation Act is viewed by most NGOs as a controlling rather than facilitating
instrument.


As a representative of developing world, Tanzania strongly advocate the position that
development aspirations of less and least developed states will be seriously taken into
consideration. Those states should not be hindered by strict standards imposed on them by
industrialized countries protecting their interests. In this context, Tanzania will speak in
favour of various technology for environment swaps and other means of funding, which
would alleviate reaching of sustainable levels of development for developing countries and
thus facilitate attainment of environmental standards.


   3. Negotiating strategies


As has already been mentioned, Tanzania's major priority is to build strong ties with all
African countries respectively African continent. The AU is the principal continental
organisation, which embodies the aspirations of the African people. Tanzania will always act
and coordinate its interests in the framework of coalitions that are most suitable for its cause.
Those include regional cooperation within the AU and Southern African Development
Community (SADC), as well as broader cooperation within the Group 77 and China of the
General Assembly (GA) and Non-aligned movement. Most of those countries, especially
African ones, share common developmental background and face similar environmental
problems, which could serve as a unifying force and a foundation for cooperation. However,
the weakness of such regional coalitions could be in different status of those countries, since
some of them are at a higher development stage as others and would be less willing to make
compromises at the expense of rapid industrialisation.


   4. Final recommendation

Where we failed to protect the environment, the damage is obvious. Reckless harvesting of
trees and uncontrolled forest fires has resulted in water resources drying up, low levels of
rainfall and biodiversity being put under great threat. Single government should increase
public education on environmental conservation, and give more supervisory powers to the
ministry dealing with the environment. Environment refugees are not present in Tanzania in


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such great numbers as other refugees. Even thought Tanzania is well aware of this issue. As
Africa's leading refugee-hosting country, Tanzania is a key actor in the global refugee regime.
Later on the settlement approach was replaced by a camp-centred and repatriation-focused
model that continues today. The Government of Tanzania believes that concerted efforts to
find a solution to the refugee problem should focus on addressing the reasons that have led to
displacement.

Tanzania certainly hopes that some agreement, on unification and coordination of
environmental standards could be reached. In our most optimistic predictions, we shall hope
to see the that marginalized and displaced communities enjoy fundamental human rights and
dignity.




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posted:10/9/2011
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