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					Tutorial on Methane Hydrate




              Presented by
Ad Hoc Group on Methane Hydrate Research
             March 24, 2004
Tutorial on Methane Hydrate
•   What is it and how is it formed?
•   Where is it found?
•   How much may exist?
•   Multi-National Research
     – Marine
     – Arctic
•   Research Needs
•   International Research Consortium
•   APEC EWG Participation
        What is a Gas Hydrate?

Crystalline solid consisting of
gas molecules, usually
methane, each surrounded by
a cage of water molecules
 Where Does the Gas Come from?
Biogenic Hydrate                   Thermogenic Hydrate
 Microbial activity in the upper    Thermal breakdown of
 several hundred meters of          organic material at
 deep-sea sediment (about 99%)      greater depths
Where Does Gas Hydrate Exist?
Where gas and water are present at:
• Moderately low temperatures
• Moderately high pressures




   Free Gas                           Free Gas

              GEOTHERMAL   GRADIENT
Where are Hydrates Found on Earth?
         How Much May Exist?



Hydrate binds
immense amounts
of methane in
sediments
                          Gas Hydrate
Multi-National Research Progress
• Demonstrated the feasibility of methane
  production from arctic hydrate deposits


• Detailed studies of the geologic setting,
  methane flow and biologic communities of
  several subsea hydrate deposits


• Identified methane hydrate deposits
  throughout the world’s oceans, primarily
  based on unique seismic reflections
Mackenzie Delta, Mallik Production Experiment 2002
                                        Participants:
                                        •   Canada
                                            –    Geological Survey of Canada
                                            –    Industry

                                        •   Japan
                                            –   Japan National Oil Corporation
                                            –   Japan Petroleum Exploration Company

                                        •   USA
                                            –   U.S. Geological Survey
                                            –   U.S. Department of Energy

                                        •   Germany
                                            –   GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam

  Well tests prove for the first time   •   India
                                            –   Ministry of Petroleum Geology and
  that gas production from hydrate is           Natural Gas,
                                            –   Gas Authority India. Ltd.
  technically feasible
                                        •   ICSDP     (International Continental
  By dissociating or melting the gas                   Scientific Drilling Program)
                                            –   Universities and research institutes in
  hydrate by heating and/or                     Japan, Canada, USA, Germany, and China
  depressurizing the reservoir
Marine Methane Hydrate Characterization
Joint Industry Program in Gulf of Mexico involving: U.S. Department of
Energy, Department of Interior, Chevron-Texaco, Schlumberger,
Halliburton, ConocoPhillips, TotalFinaElf, and Japan National Oil Corp.
                                            Goals:
                                            • Characterize natural gas
                                              hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico;
                                              and
                                            • Understand the hazards of
                                              drilling through the hydrate
                                              stability zone
                                          Status:
                                          • High resolution seismic,
                                            laboratory studies and subsea
                                            sampling in progress
                                          • Several sites will be cored and
  Fugro Explorer mini drillship
                                            logged this summer
    Marine Methane Hydrate Exploitation
                    Nankai Trough, Japan
•    1995, Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI
     launched gas hydrate exploitation program
•    Bottom Simulating Reflectors present in Nankai Trough and around
     much of Japan
                              •   1999 Test well in Nankai Trough, drilled
                                  by Japan National Oil Corp. and Japan
                                  Petroleum Exploration (JAPEX) -- cored and
                                  logged a large accumulation of gas hydrate
                                    – Gas hydrate fills pores in sandstones
                                       from 211–270 m below seafloor
                              •   Basic laboratory research, high-resolution
                                  seismic and additional coring in progress
                              •   Program aims to develop technology for
                                  commercial production of methane from
                                  hydrate by 2016
             Ocean Drilling Program
                                                    Marine Gas Hydrate Studies
• 2002:
  Hydrate Ridge, Pacific                          drilling &
  Northwest U.S.
                                        ODP       downhole meas.
                                                                         Seismic studies


• 1995:                                                                                     *
  Blake Ridge, U.S.           Ocean
                                                                                                        Sampling
                                                                                                        & Seafloor


  Atlantic
                                              Deep-towed                                                Measurement
                                              high res. seismic          OBS
                                                                                                        Heat flow
                                   Seafloor

• 1982:                                                                              Electrical profiling


  Deep Sea Drilling                            Hydrated sediment                           BSR
                                        BSR
  Program, Middle-                                                Free gas zones
                                                                                                                PGC

  America Trench: first
                                              Water saturated sediment
                                                                                                               RDH GSC-PGC




  hydrate cores
                           HydrMarine




                                                                                   Natural Resources Canada
  Other Pacific Rim Hydrate Research
Canada:
• Pacific Margin (Cascadia Margin) - studies investigating genesis,
  origin, and morphology of regional gas hydrate deposits
• Atlantic Margin (continental slope) - geophysical studies to
  identify geo-hazards related to gas hydrate in areas of intensive
  oil/gas production and transport
• Arctic Margin (Beaufort Sea) - investigation of the relations
  between offshore gas hydrates, local/regional hydrocarbon gas
  fluxes, and anomalous sub-marine landscape features as well as
  seismic studies in inter-island channels of the Arctic Archipelago.
Chile:
• 2003 expedition offshore central Chile, including scientists from
  Chile, Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and
  Germany applied different geophysical and geochemical methods
  to detect and characterize gas hydrate
         Other Pacific Rim Hydrate
             Research (cont.)
Japan:
• MH21, Methane Hydrate Research Consortium: integrated
  laboratory and field studies to characterize hydrates and
  develop technology needed for commercial production of
  natural gas from hydrate by 2016

United States:
• Production and safety: field studies and reservoir modeling in
  Alaska North Slope and Gulf of Mexico. Coring, logging
  planned 2004.
• Geophysical detection, geochemistry, ecology and global
  carbon modeling studies by multiple government agencies,
  universities and industry
Many Pacific Rim countries have found preliminary evidence of
gas hydrates: New Zealand, Korea, China, and Australia
                 Research Needs




•   Refine world hydrate estimates
•   Develop remote measurement techniques
•   Determine role of hydrate in global carbon cycle
•   Improve coring and sampling techniques
• Transfer technology to countries with hydrate resources
International Research Consortium
      Goals and Objectives
• Increase knowledge of the location, geologic
  character and volume of methane hydrate in
  the Pacific Rim
• By facilitating multi-national research and
  coordinating information exchange
• And working with APEC Energy Working
  Group to communicate research results to
  government policy makers
• Contributing knowledge needed for future
  production of methane from hydrate
   Proposed Consortium Structure
• Focus on seismic, core and sample surveys to locate, quantify
  and define geologic setting of methane hydrate deposits
• Consortium open to academic, private and governmental
  research organizations
• Participation in any research project will be optional to
  Consortium members
• Project expenses will be paid only by participating
  organizations
• Consortium Secretariat (provided by U.S.)
   – Assist project teams to organize expeditions
   – Maintain and distribute project data
   – Outreach and communication
APEC Energy Working Group Participation

• APEC Enhanced Energy Security Initiative,
  October 2003
• Proposal for International Methane Hydrate
  Research Consortium presented at multi-national
  workshop in Chile, November 2003
• Ad hoc group formed by APEC EWG, December 2003
• Consortium organizing meeting planned in Fall 2004
    Encourage participation of research community
    and energy producers.
    Contact Edith.Allison@hq.doe.gov to participate
    in the meeting

				
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posted:10/8/2011
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