Slide 1 - Edinburgh Napier University by pengxiuhui

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									Opportunity and risk in social computing
environments

Centre for Social Informatics, Edinburgh Napier
  University
    Dr Hazel Hall, Reader
    Shooresh Golzari, Intern


TFPL Ltd, London
    Melanie Goody, Director of Consultancy
    Belinda Blaswick, Consultant
Centre for Social Informatics
Social informatics
    Design and use of information and communication technologies
     taking into account institutional and cultural contexts
CSI focus
    Sociotechnical interaction at different levels of the organisation at
     different stages of the system life-cycle
Staffing
    8 members based at Edinburgh, plus associates
    Home to the International Teledemocracy Centre
Reputation
    85% research output international/world class (RAE 2008)
Edinburgh Napier University
John Napier
    C16th mathematician and philosopher
    Decimal point, logarithms
    Born 1550 Merchiston Tower
Craiglockhart
    1916-1919 military hospital
    Meeting of Wilfred Owen and Siegfried
     Sassoon 1917
    Owen’s Anthem for Doomed Youth and
     Dulce et Decorum Est
Today
    13,500 students
    Research excellence in a number of areas
TFPL Ltd, London
Services
   Recruitment
   Consultancy
   Training
         Including networks and events
         TFPL Connect, SharePoint Summits
Scope
   Knowledge management
   Information management
   Records management
   Content management
   Library and information services management
Edinburgh Napier – TFPL connection
Track record of joint research - TFPL

    Royal Academy of Engineering secondment 2006
       E-information roles (with Blaswick) – ASIS&T 06
       Maximising value from communities consortium


Track record of joint research – Hall & Goody
    Outsourcing of research and information services (2005/6
     LIRG/Elsevier Research Award)
    KPMG as case study for doctoral work
       http://www.dcs.napier.ac.uk/~hazelh/esis/hazel_publications.html#phd
Room demographics
Who uses what for purposes of collaborative work?
    Blogs?
    Wikis?
    Social networking?
    Instant messaging?
    Microblogging?


Anyone think this is trivial?
    Scottish Falsetto Sock Puppet Theatre
       http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x7RrHXNyONc
Purposes of the study
Establish main opportunities and risks of social
  computing tools within organisations for collaborative
  work purposes, as perceived by information and
  knowledge management professionals

    Meet general interest of TFPL’s client base
    Inform TFPL’s training and consultancy portfolio
    Serve as pilot for larger, externally-funded piece of work

    Possible repeat study summer 2009
Purposes of the study
Establish main opportunities and risks of social
  computing tools within organisations for collaborative
  work purposes, as perceived by information and
  knowledge management professionals

    Licensed collaborative work platforms
       SharePoint (Microsoft)
       Lotus Notes and Quickplace (IBM)
       E-rooms (Documentum)
    “Mature” social software applications, e.g. instant messaging,
     blogs, wikis
    Newer Web 2.0 applications, e.g. social networking, microblogging
Purposes of the study
Establish main opportunities and risks of social
  computing tools within organisations for collaborative
  work purposes, as perceived by information and
  knowledge management professionals

    Focus to date mainly on freely available social software for
     personal use
    Academic studies treat “older” applications in non-corporate
     environments, e.g. educational settings
    Few studies on internal social computing environments
    Lack of extant literature on newer tools, e.g. social networking and
     microblogging applications
Purposes of the study
Establish main opportunities and risks of social
  computing tools within organisations for collaborative
  work purposes, as perceived by information and
  knowledge management professionals

    Rather than:
       Journalists, e.g. concern over vulnerable groups
       Educational researchers, e.g. goal of enhancement of classroom
        environment
       Public relations professionals, e.g. efforts to improve corporate
        communications
Research focus 1
Scale of implementation

   Organisational uptake of social computing
       Levels of adoption
       Degree of access to tools
           In general
           By tool
           By tool function


   Attitudes of IM/KM staff to social computing
       In general
       By tool
Research focus 2
Perceived opportunities: anticipated and actual

    Literature review highlighted:

        increased collaboration
        improved productivity
        enhanced IM practice
        positive cultural change
Research focus 3
Perceived risks: feared and realised

    Literature review highlighted:

        lowered productivity - time-wasting
        erosion of IM practice, e.g. for archiving and accessing exchanges
        compromised security
        antisocial behaviour
Research activities – 12 weeks summer 08
Literature review   Weeks 1-2

       Design of data collection
                                          Weeks 3-8
       tools and data collection
           Web-based survey
           Focus groups
           Telephone interviews

                          Data analysis         Weeks 8-12
                                Quantitative – Excel
                                Qualitative – manual
                                                             Weeks 10-12
                                                   Writing up
Data subjects
Population
    TFPL contacts
        Direct, e.g. clients, attendees at SharePoint Summits
        Indirect, e.g. through the Scottish Information Network


Invitation to participate
    Face-to-face at TFPL Connect meeting June 2008
    Survey and focus groups: by e-mail invitation
        Possible to attend focus group, but not complete survey
    Interviews: volunteers left contact details on survey
Study contributions
   Data set      Data derived from           Number of
                                             contributions
       1         Web-based survey                        57    Survey majority
                                                               from public sector
       2         London focus group                      13    organisations.

                                                               Organisation size =
       3         Glasgow focus group                     12    median 725
                                                               employees.
       4         Interviews                              14
                                                         96*

 *It was possible to make more than one contribution to the research, e.g. all
 who were interviewed completed the survey (96-14=82); similarly it was
 possible to complete the survey anonymously and attend a focus group.
Data collected, recorded & analysed
 Set Data collected                    Recording and analysis
 1   Tool uptake within                Excel for analysis of quantitative data.
     organisation; governance of       Qualitative data coded up and analysed
     tools; attitudes to opportunity   manually.
     and risk; challenges;
     demographic data
2&3 Participant reactions to, and      Recorded as Word files and content
    discussions of, preliminary        integrated into report under main themes
    results of web-based survey.       as derived from analysis of survey data.
                                       Also posted to TFPL blog, e.g.
                                       http://blog.tfpl.com/tfpl/2008/07/index.htm
                                       l
 3   Participant experience of     Recorded as Word files and content
     implementation: as executed, integrated into report under main themes
     planned or not yet undertaken as derived from analysis of survey data.
                            Hazel and Shooresh based at
Focus group held at         Napier in Edinburgh
IDOX offices in Glasgow
(31/07/08)



Respondents to web-              Melanie and Belinda based at
based survey (07-                TFPL in London
14/07/08) and
participants in telephone
interviews (28/07 -              Focus group held at
01/08/08) based across           IDOX/TFPL offices in London
the UK                           (23/07/08)
Uptake of social computing 1
Range in levels of adoption

    From non-provision...
    ... to sophisticated implementations that integrate “consumer”
     applications with licensed systems
    Sense that study may have come “too early”
        High number of “don’t know” and “neutral” responses to survey
         questions
        Two thirds of respondents who provided additional free text comments
         at end of survey noted impacts on social computing initiatives in their
         organisations were yet to be felt
        Interviewees cautious in drawing firm conclusions
Uptake of social computing 2
Levels of access – survey respondents with access
    Higher levels in public sector (yet greater deployment in private)
    Licensed plus “consumer” tools: 57.7%
    Licensed system only: 31.7%
    “Consumer” tools only: 11.5%
    Organisations that restrict access: 24%


Encouragement to adopt social computing tools
    26.5% “high”
    32.4% “moderate”      Public sector organisations more
    41.2% “low”           enthusiastic than private
Enthusiasm amongst IM and KM staff 1
Levels of enthusiasm for social computing amongst IM
  and KM staff = high
   Increases collaboration and improves productivity in general
       Facilitates knowledge and information sharing
       Connects individuals and groups
       Widens communication channels
   Enhances IM practice
       More obvious and better organisation of resources
       Consolidation of material and reduction of silos
       24 hour access
   Induces positive cultural change (especially social networking)
   Widens employee choice  retention (social networking)
   55% involved in decision making around social computing tools
Enthusiasm amongst IM and KM staff 2
“Top” tools
    Wikis for information sharing
        NB “information”
    Blogs for connecting individuals and groups, and widening
     information channels
        Unite physically separated team members
        Provide outlet for promotion of on-going work to a wide audience
        Open up conversations
        Route to feedback on activities
    Social networking
        Culture
        Employee choice
Implementation concerns 1
Low organisational encouragement in the deployment of
  tools

   41% “low” encouragement
   Few efforts in change management and training, even where there
    has been heavy investment
Implementation concerns 2
Biggest risk
    Failure to capitalise on opportunities offered by social computing
     tools due to poor implementation management
    Respondents familiar with this risk from earlier experiences, e.g.
     intranet developments from mid-90s onwards
    This risk is not considered in the literature

    “Like most things it’s about cultural change. A tool (however clever)
     can be used well/badly. Therefore usual considerations apply
     around what purpose does it serve, selling it to the business,
     understanding business benefits/risks, giving staff skills to use
     [it/them] properly, providing standards and guidance around use,
     encouraging good practice.”
Less prominent risks
IM problems
    Information sprawl (but not overload); archiving; means of
     accessing archives; (version control and information quality)
Compromised security
    (Legal infringement and disrepute theoretically valid, though not
     realised in practice); some leakage of confidential information
Lowered productivity
    Coping with IM problems; failure to adopt social computing tools
    “If employees are going to waste time, they do not need social
     computing tools to do it”
(Anti-social behaviour)
Top tools for IM and KM professionals
Rank   Tool         Opportunities                Risks posed
 1     Wikis        Information sharing; IM      Information quality in terms
                    practice; productivity       of wiki accuracy; leakage of
                                                 confidential data
 2     Blogs        Connecting individuals &     Disrepute; leakage of
                    groups; widening             confidential data
                    communication channels
 3     Social       Positive cultural change &   Leakage of confidential data
       networking   widened employee choice
Tool availability & usefulness
Availability        Usefulness
Wikis               Wikis
Blogging            Blogging
Social networking   Instant messaging
Instant messaging   Social networking
Microblogging       Microblogging
Tool availability, usefulness & usage
Availability        Usefulness          Usage
Wikis               Wikis               Social networking
Blogging            Blogging            Instant messaging
Social networking   Instant messaging   Wikis
Instant messaging   Social networking   Blogging
Microblogging       Microblogging       Microblogging
Tool availability, usefulness & usage
Availability        Usefulness          Usage
Wikis               Wikis               Social networking
Blogging            Blogging            Instant messaging
Social networking   Instant messaging   Wikis
Instant messaging   Social networking   Blogging
Microblogging       Microblogging       Microblogging
Tool availability, usefulness & usage
Availability        Usefulness          Usage
Wikis               Wikis               Social networking
Blogging            Blogging            Instant messaging
Social networking   Instant messaging   Wikis
Instant messaging   Social networking   Blogging
Microblogging       Microblogging       Microblogging
Tool availability, usefulness & usage
Availability             Usefulness                Usage
Wikis                    Wikis                     Social networking
Blogging                 Blogging                  Instant messaging
Social networking        Instant messaging         Wikis
Instant messaging        Social networking         Blogging
Microblogging            Microblogging             Microblogging

     Ready availability of a tool does not guarantee popularity
     Under-exploitation of most valuable tools?
     “[All of the tools] support [collaboration] in different ways and are
      limited mainly because of uptake rather than limitations of the tool
      itself”
     Microblogging barely on the radar, yet consider its offerings…
Microblogging
Elements of social networking
    End user determines source of information flow based on “social
     network” that he/she builds
Elements of instant messaging
    Interactions are brief and to the point, real time, “familiar” format
Elements of wiki
    Public nature of conversations encourages collaborative building of
     new knowledge
Elements of blogging
    Microblog, with easy linking to other resources
Microblogging
Elements of social networking
    End user determines source of information flow based on “social
     network” that he/she builds
Elements of instant messaging
    Interactions are brief and to the point, real time, “familiar” format
Elements of wiki
    Public nature of conversations encourages collaborative building of
     new knowledge
Elements of blogging
    Microblog, with easy linking to other resources
Potential to meet needs of IM/KM professional and user
  preferences together?
5 stages of Twitter acceptance
http://www.slideshare.net/minxuan/how-twitter-changed-my-life-presentation
 1. Denial
      “I think Twitter sounds stupid. Why would anyone care what other people are
         doing right now?”
 2. Presence
      “OK, I don’t really get why people love it, but I guess I should at least create an
        account.”
 3. Dumping
      “I’m on Twitter and use it for pasting links to my blog posts and pointing people
         to my press releases.”
 4. Conversing
      “I don’t always post useful stuff, but I do use Twitter to have authentic 1x1
         conversations.”
 5. Microblogging
      “I’m using Twitter to publish useful information that people read, and to
         converse 1x1 authentically.”
Reminder of context of findings
Findings align to priorities of information management
  roles: providing access to resources and information
  governance
    Wikis as open tools for the capture of knowledge made explicit in
     the form of information are rated highest
    Collaborative value of social networking applications is less
     “visible”
Other groups, other priorities
    e.g. in the same organisations Human Resources staff may see
     greater evidence of inappropriate use of tools
Timing
    Microblogging not mainstream in summer 2008
Priorities of information and knowledge
management professionals

Know the value of social computing
    Attendance at focus groups to enhance knowledge
Sell message on value to the organisation
Play an active role in implementation planning
    Choice of tools
    Management of roll-out
    Design of governance guidelines
Become mediators in social computing business
  environments
Explore microblogging
“Discussion” exercise part 1
1. Generate “Tweet fountain” for your table
    http://www.ukeig.org.uk/conf2009/index.html
Steps
    Individuals need Twitter user names: help invent names for those
     who do not already have them (You are one another’s followers)
    As individuals write tweets on post-its: one 140 character tweet
     (English or French) per post-it, including user name
         Observations/thoughts: “Going to check out Zotero after seminar”
         News/PR: “My organisation is doing X”
         Information delivery (current awareness): “Here’s a great resource…”
         Questions: “Does anyone know about Y?”
    Arrange tweets on the wall in order of appearance
“Discussion” exercise part 2
Steps
   If you would like to respond to a tweet generated by one of the
    people you “follow” (i.e. same table members), do so with post-its.
    Preface them with @username at the top so it’s clear to which
    tweet you are responding.

   Switch tables (together)
         Check what the other tables have been “discussing”
             See if there are individuals whose contributions are such that you would
              like to “follow” them
             If appropriate (and not too chaotic), add responses to the tweet fountains
              of the other tables
Example
hazelh    Learnt quite a bit about Zotero this morning

PB        Concerned that life is too short to get involved with
          Twitter
Emilie    Can anyone recommend a good X for doing Y in a
          small commercial library?
Pascal    Looking for reference site for Yammer installation
David     Anyone at SLA members’ day like to take same bus
          home after today’s session?
hazelh    @Pascal
          Think they use it at one of the big cell phone
          companies?
Dawn      @David
          Can give you a lift if you’re heading north?
Dissemination

								
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