Sketch Grammars

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					Sketch Grammars
                  Types (Mosel 2006)

•   1. Preliminary grammar
•   2. Introductory grammar for a specific research topic
•   3. The summary of a large reference grammar
•   4. Dictionary grammar
•   5. Language documentation grammar

• NB. The author of a grammar needs to identify the
  kind of information that a reader needs in order to
  understand a specialized investigation.
               Preliminary grammar

• You begin working on this grammar as soon as the
  first analyses of preliminary paradigms and
  constructions are put into words.
           Reference grammar summary
• Contains a selection of an already existing analysis of
  the language based on what one considers as
  essential features of the language from a more
  general perspective.
                Dictionary grammar

• “Brings together elements of the grammar that are
  separated by the alphabetical order of the
  headwords” (Mugdan 1989: 732, in Mosel 2006:
• E.g. numerals
• Derivational means of expression (reduplication)
• Tsyina –titsyitsina ‘turning’;
• wlakɛ̃ - tɛwãwlãkɛ́ ‘struggle’
• what does it mean to be a noun, verb, adjective,
             Documentation dictionary

• This is related to the corpus of annotated recordings
  and a lexical database. Enhances the accessibility of
  the work for a more general readership.
               Specific topic grammar

• This is written after the research on the specialized
  area in question has been concluded.
• E.g. “The grammatical coding of postural semantics
  in Goemai (a West Chadic language of Nigeria)”
  (Hellwig 2003)
• Inherent complement verbs revisited: towards an
  understanding of argument structure constructions
  in Ewe (Essegbey 1999)
     Sketch grammar for postural semantics
              Birgit Hellwig (2003)
2.1 Phonology and tonology
2.2 Nominals and the noun phrase
2.3 Other word classes
2.3.1 Adverbs
2.3.2 Prepositions and spatial nominals
2.3.3 Particles and clitic
2.3.4 Question words
       Sketch grammar for postural semantics

•   2.4 Verbs and verbal clauses
•   2.5 Complex clauses
•   2.6 Non-verbal clauses
•   2.7 Summary
    Inherent complement verbs (Essegbey 1999)
•   2. The Ewe language
•   2.0 Introduction
•   2.1 Typological overview
•   2.2 Tones
•   2.3 Reduplication
•   2.4 Syntax
•   2.4.1 The basic clause
•   2.4.2 The verb and the verb phrase
•   2.4.3 The noun phrase
•   2.4.4 The postpositional phrase
•   2.4.5 The prepositional phrase
•   2.5 Conclusion

• Main aim is to facilitate access to the documentation. As
  such, the grammar should:
• -contain all the grammatical information that the reader
  needs to make use of the lexical database and
  understand how in the corpus of annotated recordings
  the translations relate to the transcriptions.
• -at any stage accurately reflect the author’s current
  knowledge of the language
• -be user friendly
• Bona      moon
• ART       woman

• Bona                        moon

• Which one would you choose for your dictionary and
• -analysis has already been done
• -the paradigm represents grammatical features of all
  articles in a systematic way
• - long glosses are not user friendly

• A sketch grammar should aim should aim to account
  for all the assumptions that underlie grammatical
  annotations in the corpus.

• Must help the user get a quick overview of the
  essential features of the language and all the
  information necessary for using the annotated
  recordings in further linguistic and related research.
• It should, for example, include all terms whose
  meaning is vague or variable in the linguistic
  literature (e.g. adverb, particles), or which is
  presumably known to specialists only (e.g.
  logophoric pronoun, serial verb construction).

• Question
• What would be included in the content of your
  reference grammar?
• Charts of the consonant and vowel system
               Tutrugbu vowel inventory

       Front                Central   Back
       [+ATR]      [-ATR]   [-ATR]    [+ATR]   [-ATR]
High   i, ĩ                           u, ũ     ɔ, ɔ̃
Mid    e, ẽ       ɛ, ɛ̃              o
Low                         a, ã
• A note on syllable structure and most important
  phonological processes
• CV = ki-wi ‘day’, bɔ-pã ‘house’, tɛ-wá ‘herb’
• CCV = plɛnɔ ‘help’, ɔwlago ‘evening’
• CVC = kam.pɛ ‘side’, kan.tse ‘calabash’
• A statement on how the orthography and/or
  transcription used in the documentation relates to
  phonological characteristics
• sh = /ƒ/
• ny= /ɲ/
• tsy = /tƒ/
• Overview of word classes and grammatical categories in order to facilitate
  a better understanding of the glosses.
• Inflectional paradigms
• Word and constituent-order rules
salí  nɔ́   gɛ      a-nyá                ka-hɔkpɔ - ɔ́ gɛ
thing DEF REL 3SG-tie               CM-wrist- DEF REL

 e-nú watch ɛ             yɛ       a-á-pɛ̅
3SG-be watch TP            FOC 3SG-PROG-want
‘The thing that is around the wrist which is the watch, that is what she is
    looking for’
      Sketch grammar and lexical database

• The sketch grammar needs to explain the principles
  of word classification and briefly characterize each
  class in order to facilitate the understanding of the
  abbreviations used in the lexical database and the
             Goemai Reference grammar

•   Chapter 1: Introduction
•   1. The Goemai language and its speakers
•   2. The fieldwork setting
•   3. Language profile
•   3.1 Typological origins
•   3.2 Diachronic origins
•   4. Structure of the grammar
            Goemai Reference grammar

•   Chapter 2. Phonology and tonology
•   1. Phonemes, tonemes and orthography
•   2. Syllables, morphemes and words
•   3. Clauses
•   4. Summary
            Goemai Reference grammar

•   Chapter 3: Nouns and the noun phrase
•   1. Noun phrase
•   2. Nouns
•   3. Conjoining nouns and noun phrases
•   4. Nominalization
•   5. Other elements of the noun phrase
•   6. Summary
             Goemai Reference grammar

•   Chapter 4: Verbs and the verb phrase
•   1. Verbs and the verb phrase: an overview
•   2. Argument structure and lexical aspect
•   3. Argument structure constructions
•   4. Detransitivizing strategies
•   5. Adding participants to an event
•   6. Changing lexical aspect
             Goemai Reference grammar

•   Chapter 7. Tense aspect modality (TAM)
•   1. Intoduction
•   2. Unmarked verb
•   3. Tense
•   4. Aspect
•   5. Modality and mood
•   6. Summary
           Goemai Reference grammar

• Chapter 8. Clause types
• 1. Simple verbal clauses
• 2. Non verbal clauses: equational and possessive
• 3. Verb serialization
• 4. Multiverb constructions
• 5. Summary
A brief look at some content in Tutrugbu
               Noun classes in Tutrugbu
• Assimilating pronominal prefixes
a. Focus1-July-20-2007.006
   ɛ-mɔ       yofó-ánɛ́      ba-dzɛ̃ tá- bha
   1SG-see white.person-PL CM-woman AM-two
   I see white people two women.

b. i-vũ               e-zĩ̃̌
   1SG-catch           CM-thief
   ‘I caught a thief.’
           HEINE’S (1968) NOUN CLASSES

•   Class I. a- /ba-
•   a-/ba- agã, bagã ‘animal’
•   ɛ/ba- ɛyɛ̃̌, bayɛ̃̌ ‘horse’
•   e-/be- ebú, bebú ‘dog’
•   ø-/ba- pampró, bapampró ‘bamboo’
•   ø-/be- seƒoƒo, beseƒoƒo ‘flower’

• Class II. ɔ-/ɛ-
• o-/i- ozĩ, izĩ ‘hole’
• ɔ-/ɛ- ɔtsrɛ́, ɛtsrɛ́ ‘leg’
• Class III. kɛ-/bɔ
• kɛ-/ɔ- kɛdzyá, bɔdzyá ‘meat’
• ki-/bu- kiplukpá, buplukpá ‘book’

• Class IV. kɛ-/a-
• ki-/e- kidzõ̌, edzõ̌ ‘road(s)’
• kɛ-/a- kɛpɔtɛ́, apɔtɛ́ ‘cloth’
• Class V. bɔ-/ba-
• Bu-/be- butú, betú ‘mountain
• bɔ-/ba- bɔwá, bawá ‘medicine’

• Class VI. ka-/bɔ-
• Ke-/bu- kevũ, buvũ ‘building’
• Ka-/bɔ- kazhwɛ, bɔzhwɛ ‘bird’
• Class VII. bɔ-/tɛ
• Bu-/ti
• bɔ-/tɛ-

• Class VIII. ka-/ba-
• Ke-/be- kelí, belí ‘day’
            Generalizing agreement markers

• a. a-nyɛ́-ɛ́     á-lɛ́       bɔ-pã́  mɛ
  CM-man-DEF           CM-house inside
  ‘The man is at home.

b. o-kutú-ɔ́    a-kpasɛ         a-gbɛ            nɔ́
   CM-orange-DEF AM-be.contained CM-bowl          DEF

  ‘The orange is in the bowl.
          Generalizing agreement markers

• c. ke-he         a-má
  ‘There is no problem.’

d. kɛ-vɔbɔ́ wɔ̃́sɔ́ tumpá     nɔ́   mɛ
   CM-frog lie       bottle    DEF   inside
   ‘Frog lay in the bottle.’
         Generalizing agreement markers

d. Ba-nɔ           ba-lɛ              ́
   CM-person CM-house-inside
   The people are in the house.

e. Bɔ-dzyá be-kpe                    nɛ́  a-gbɛ̃̌
   CM-meat AM-become.plenty           PREP CM-bowl

  nɔ́ mɛ
  DEF inside
  ‘(Different kinds of) meat abound in the bowl.’
         Marking agreement on the verb
a. ki-tsikpĩ̌ nɔ́ kɛ-yɔ́lɔ     bɔ-dɔ̃      tɔ́
   CM-pot DEF AM-stop           CM-thing cook
   ‘The pot stopped cooking.’ (Spider-and-orphan.050)

b. gɛ o-kotokú   nɔ́    lo-yí      so-ɔ,
   As CM-sack     DEF    AGR-be.full therefore-TP,

  gɛ a-á-ba               bɔ-ŋaŋa    túlí bɔ-wɔ́lɛ
  as 3SG-PROG-come CM-food            SPECI AM-fall
  ‘Because the sack was full, as he went some of the
  food fell out.’ (Spider-and-orphan.150-151)
          Marking agreement on the verb

a. a-nyɛ́    a-lɛ         ye-nú m’      á-ka
   CM-man AM-this         RP-be 1SG:POSS CM-father
   ‘This man, he is my father.’

b. o-kútú           ɔ́-lɛ     o-lo-nu    mɔ-yɛ́
   CM-orange          AM-this   RP-??-be   1SG-POSS
   ‘This orange, it is mine.’

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