Asia Quake in Depth

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					Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   1

                 P AKISTAN E ARTHQUAKE 2005
                             (V OL . 1)

                                     E DITOR
                              D R N OOR UL H AQ

                             A SSISTANT E DITOR
                                A SIFA H ASAN
2                                                          IPRI Factfile

                             C ONTENTS

Preface                                                               v
1.    Asia Quake in Depth                                             1
2.    Aid Arrives as Death Toll Nears 40,000                          2
3.    Musharraf: Text of President's Address 12 October               4
4.    The Kashmir Earthquake                                          10
5.    Preparing for the Unknowable                                    12
6.    Responding to the Tragic Disaster                               13
7.    Six Troops Killed in Pakistan Chopper Crash                     15
8.    Musings on the 8/10 Earthquake Tragedy                          16
9.    Al Arabiya to Jointly Launch Telethon with Saudi TV             19
10. NATO Pressed to Step up Quake Aid                                 20
11. Quake Aid Helps U.S. Alter Image in Pakistan                      20
12. Rich Countries Giving Too Little to UN for Quake Victims: Oxfam   23
13. Situation Analysis                                                23
14. Jordan Holds Telethon to Raise Funds for Quake Victims            26
15. Kashmir Border to be Opened for Quake Aid                         27
16. For Pakistani Villagers, a Risky Decision to Stay                 28
17. Disease Threatens Earthquake Victim Camps: Oxfam                  30
18. Half of Quake Dead Were Children: UNICEF                          30
19. Kashmir’s Earthquake: Don’t Care or Don’t Know?                   31
20. Global Aid for Disaster                                           33
21. A Lot More Needed, says Annan: Relief and Reconstruction          36
22. WB Endorses Rebuilding Estimates of $5.2 Billion                  37
23. National Security Vs Natural Calamity                             38
24. President General Pervez Musharraf’s Address to Donors’
      Conference                                                      41
25. Prime Minister’s Speech at Donors’ Conference                     52
26. Kofi Annan’s Speech at Donors’ Conference                         58
27. President’s Closing Speech at Donors’ Conference                  60
28. Donors Conference’s Interventions                                 61
29. Pledges for Reconstruction and Rehabilitation                     78
30. Prime Minister's Press Conference Highlights                      79
31. Annan Visits Azad Kashmir; Terms Situation as Serious             82
32. Earthquake Compensation Increased to Rs 80bn                      85
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction    3

33.   19-Member Parliamentary Body to Review Quake Relief                     87
34.   Dangers of Quake 'Dependency Culture'                                   88
35.   Howard Pledges $37 More in Quake Aid                                    90
36.   US Navy to Rebuild Mianibandi Area of Muzaffarabad                      91
37.   $4 Billion Spend on Quake Reconstruction: Musharraf                     92
38.   UN Calls for Emergency Disaster Fund                                    93
39.   Govt. - Opposition Meeting Gives Birth to Hope                          94
40.   Special Directorate to Audit Quake Assistance                           98
41.   A Pictorial Review                                                      100
4                                                                    IPRI Factfile

                                   P REFACE

On 8 October 2005, an earthquake of 7.6 magnitude at the Richter Scale
devastated an area of over 29 thousand kilometres in five districts of Azad
Kashmir and four districts of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of
Pakistan. The earthquake was felt as far south as Lahore and a high-rise
residential building in Islamabad was reduced to rubble.
          The killer quake claimed above 79,000 lives, an equal number were
seriously injured, and over 3.3 million people were rendered homeless. The
civil administration and its infrastructure almost vanished in the affected areas
of Kashmir and NWFP. Most of the places became inaccessible due to
recurring landslides and disappearance of roads at several places.
          On the home front, the catastrophe was met with great national
fervour. All sections of society from Khyber to Karachi zealously participated
in relief operations through generous donations both in cash and kind. The
NGO workers and armed forces swiftly reached the quake-hit areas and
immediately started rescue and relief operations.
          The foreign rescue and relief teams started arriving within forty-eight
hours of the disaster. This was followed by relief goods and helicopters
provided by the UN, US, Russia and some other countries. The helicopters
were of great help owing to the inaccessibility of the large areas due to difficult
terrain and damage to the roads. The international agencies and NGOs are
also actively cooperating in the impending rehabilitation and reconstruction
         Initially, international response to the disaster was slow despite a
strong appeal for economic assistance by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan.
However, to raise the required amount, the United Nations convened a
conference in Geneva on 26 October followed by an international Donors’
Conference in Islamabad on 19 November 2005. The response was
encouraging as the donors pledged around US$ 5.8 billion that included US$
3.9 billion loans and US$ 1.9 billion grant assistance to help, rescue and
reconstruct the quake-hit areas.
         This Factfile covers media reports on the earthquake as well as the
national and international response to the unprecedented calamity.

30 November 2005                                                    Noor ul Haq
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     1

                          A SIA Q UAKE       IN   D EPTH

More than 73,000 [79,000] people were killed and as many as 2.5 [3.3] million
people were left homeless by the 7.6 magnitude earthquake that struck
Pakistan-administered Kashmir on 8 October.
         Most of the people who lost their homes are now living in tents or
makeshift shelters. According the WFP, 2.3 million people will need food
assistance for two to four months.
         The situation remains critical as emergency teams struggle to cope
with the sheer numbers of people injured, enormous logistical challenges, and
deteriorating weather conditions.
         Senior international aid officials have described the relief operation in
Pakistan as the most difficult the world has ever known. Funding shortages are
compounding the problems faced by the aid effort.
Survivors are still in Danger
The prospect of a second wave of death looms over survivors as thousands of
injured people remain stranded without access to food, shelter, sanitation or
health care.
         Some 365 health facilities out of the 564 in the affected area were
either destroyed or damaged in the quake. In Muzaffarabad, Bagh and
Rawalakot, many survivors are falling ill with acute respiratory infection.
         Earthquake survivors in highland areas are being urged to move to
lower ground where aid can reach them. Some 250,000 people currently live
above the snowline.
         The first snowfall is expected in mid-November and officials fear that
they will be around 200,000 tents short.
         Other shelter options are being actively considered including non-tent
options and other forms of winter-resistant shelter.
         The Pakistan government has set up 10 camps for the homeless in
and around Manshera, Muzaffarabad and Bagh. Each camp holds anything
between 60 and 3,000 people.
The city of Muzaffarabad lies in ruins. Roads, buildings, hospitals, schools and
houses have been destroyed and power lines are down. There is no
infrastructure left in the city. The whole district suffered 80% damage, leaving
nearly 820,000 people affected by the disaster.
         Thousands of survivors who lost their homes now live in "tent cities"
in Muzaffarabad with little sanitation or access to clean water.
         Aid is being distributed in Muzaffarabad and villages in the district.
2                                                                   IPRI Factfile

Neelum Valley
Between 90 and 100% of the houses in Neelum Valley have been destroyed.
The road between Muzaffarabad and Kuttan is damaged in 15 places and
officials say it take several months before it is opened to traffic.
          Barian and Chalayana, two villages in the Neelum Valley home to
about 7,000 people, have been completely destroyed.
The death toll in Bagh is estimated at 15,000 and 80 percent of the houses in
the district have either been completely destroyed or are uninhabitable. Nearly
370,000 people are in need of aid in Bagh district.
         IR staff are distributing aid in the city of Bagh and towns and villages
in the district.
More than 270,000 people in the Poonch district have been affected by the
earthquake. The town of Rawalakot is 60 percent destroyed, while Abbaspur is
80 percent destroyed.
        IR is distributing aid in Rawalakot and villages in the Poonch district.
Weeks after the disaster, there are still 58 out of the 182 IR supported orphans
in the earthquake zone that are unaccounted for.
         In Bagh, 2 orphans are missing, while in Muzaffarabad, there are 21
orphans that IR staff have not been able to contact.
         Of the 118 orphans in the badly-hit region of eastern Manshera, 35
children are still unaccounted for.
         Most of the orphans in the earthquake zone have lost their homes.
                                                                      Islamic Relief

          A ID A RRIVES     AS   D EATH T OLL N EARS 40,000
Remote areas still cut off as search for city survivors goes on
Aid began to flood into Pakistan yesterday as the death toll from the
weekend's earthquake continued to spiral and anger over the slow pace of the
recovery effort boiled over in remote parts of Kashmir, which have been
without supplies for days.
        Consignments of food, medical supplies, tents and sniffer dogs were
landed in Islamabad as the authorities struggled to get relief to devastated
areas. Key highways have been blocked by landslides and many communities
have been without water and electricity for days.
        In Pakistan, officials said the death toll would reach 40,000 by the end
of the week. In Indian-administered Kashmir, the number of dead had passed
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     3

800, with more than 10,000 people still missing in the mountainous region in
Kupwara district, near the India-Pakistan frontier.
         The United States, which in the first hours of the crisis had apparently
offered$100,000 (£57,000), raised its donation to $50m (£28m) when the scale
of the disaster became apparent. Another significant American contribution is
the diversion from Afghanistan of eight helicopters to airlift survivors from
the disaster zone. The helicopters arrived from Kabul yesterday and the
gesture will score a public relations coup for America in Pakistan. "The
terrorists make us out as the infidels, but this is not true and we hope this
mission will show that," US military spokesperson Sgt Marina Evans told the
Associated Press news agency.
         Britain has pledged $2m worth of assistance, including nine tonnes of
relief supplies. Aid agencies said they were overwhelmed by the public's
response to their appeals and the Pakistani diaspora had begun collecting
substantial sums to send back home. The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB)
said it expected to raise more than $5m over the next few weeks from
collections at mosques.
         With the reconstruction costs running into hundreds of millions of
dollars, governments also began to pledge substantial help. Last night, Kuwait
offered $100m to rebuild the region's cities.
         In a rare sign of cross-border cooperation, India is sending tents, food
and medicine and other aid for earthquake-hit areas in the Pakistani portion of
Kashmir on a "very urgent basis". The neighbours, who have fought three
wars over Kashmir, have set aside their rivalry following the earthquake.
         But people are still forced to dig with little more than their bare hands
in an often vain attempt to release relatives and friends entombed in the
         In Muzaffarabad, the capital of Pakistani Kashmir, where more than
11,000 were killed, frustration turned into sporadic looting. Masood-ur
Rehman, assistant commissioner of the city, said 90% of buildings, and all of
its government and educational institutions, were destroyed.
         "Bodies are scattered in the city," he said. "Ninety percent of victims
are still buried under the debris. We are facing problems in the rescue
operation as the roads are blocked. We are helpless. The city is out of order."
A football pitch on Muzaffarabad's university campus has been turned into a
temporary camp for thousands who only have the heat of camp fires for the
bitterly cold nights. With food scarce, little shelter and no communications,
many relief organisations are warning that time is running out for thousands.
"I don't think anybody is alive in this pile of rubble," rescue worker Uzair
Khan said. "But we have not lost hope."
         With potentially millions homeless, many victims remain beyond
help's reach in remote villages in the foothills of the Himalaya, Karakoram and
Hindu Kush mountain ranges.
4                                                                    IPRI Factfile

         International rescue teams were continuing to arrive last night,
bringing specialist equipment to excavate the rubble and hospitals were being
set up to cope with the injured.
         In an upmarket suburb of Islamabad, where a 10-storey apartment
block collapsed, a team of British experts and heavy diggers were brought in to
try to get to anybody who might still be alive under the rubble. "Time is short
and we need to move quickly. We have the equipment and are confident that
we can get more people out," said Paul Wooster, of Rapid UK, who heads a
team of 25 British experts in disaster recovery.
         Mamoon Tariq Khan, whose mother and grandmother are believed to
be under the crumpled concrete, said: "They will die if they are not found
soon. Either through lack of food or water or if they are injured because of an
                                                           Guardian, 11 October 2005

Bismillah-Ir-Rehman-Ir-Raheem My Dear Pakistani Brothers and Sisters
Pakistan today is faced with a massive calamity. An earthquake of 7.6
magnitudes and the resultant devastation is the worst tragedy in Pakistan's
history. As a result of this, nearly 23,000 have been killed and some 50,000
people are wounded. Millions of people have become homeless.
         Balakot and Muzaffarabad cities are the worst affected areas.
Communication infrastructure, roads, power, water and telephone system all
have been destroyed. This tragedy is much bigger than the capacity and
capability of the government as a whole. We have to face this challenge. In this
connection, I pray for all those who lost their lives in this tragedy. This is the
blessed month of Ramadan. I therefore appeal to the nation to offer special
prayers on Friday for the afflicted families that Allah Almighty may grant them
courage to bear the loss.
         Also, pray, in these trying times, that Allay Almighty may guide the
government and the whole nation to overcome this calamity in an effective
manner. My dear fellow citizens, we have to face this catastrophe with
courage, confidence and unity. We have to confront this calamity as a
courageous nation and a confident government. We should not be cowed
down by this disaster. We have to face it with determination and transform
this catastrophe into betterment of the people.
         Those who died cannot come back, but it is in our hands to work for
the better future of the affected areas and their people. In addition, Inshaallah,
we will succeed. I know it is the people of these affected areas who are facing
all the problems and we have to mitigate their sufferings. I would like to say
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     5

here that in such a situation, criticising others and indulging in mud slinging is
a sign of defeat and helplessness. Pakistan, its people and the government are
those who cannot be defeated. Therefore, we have to face this tragedy with
courage, patience, determination and confidence.
          Therefore, it has to be reflected in our media and in our actions that
we are a confident nation and facing this problem courageously. I would like
first of all, to pay tributes to the people.
          I do not have words to praise their passion, determination, sympathy
and solidarity that they have showed. The entire nation has emerged as one.
Then, I would like to pay tributes to the army; specially the engineers and
doctors who acted promptly to restore the communication network and
treated the wounded. I would also like to acknowledge and appreciate the
contributions by the NGOs, specially the Edhi Trust, who immediately started
the relief work. I pay tributes to all the political parties, including the
opposition, for their response and attitude.
          I would also like to express Pakistan's gratitude for all the assistance
that we are getting from the international community. We have been given a
lot of donations. We have been assisted in relief and rescue operations and
several medical teams and field hospitals have been established by various
          May I specifically mention the names of Turkey, UAE, the United
States, the UK, Saudi Arabia, China, Germany, Russia, France, Japan,
Switzerland, Spain and Iran. Azerbaijan Prime Minister was very kind to ring
me up and offered all possible assistance. We express our gratitude to him and
we have accepted Indian aid in certain form and inform them. I would also
like to mention the number of telephone calls and the number of letters that I
have received from various heads of state. We express our deepest gratitude
for all your words of kindness, words of sympathy in our hour of need. Thank
you very much.
          My brothers and sisters, Lets see where the problem lies and how it
has to be dealt with. This tragedy has occurred in two regions, specially.
          First, the Azad Kashmir region, Muzaffarabad, Bagh and Rawlakot
and beyond Muzaffarabad, in Neelam river valley and Jehlum river valley.
Secondly, in the Hazara division in the North-West Frontier Province. Here an
access is going from Mansehra towards Balakot and Kaghan.
          There has been lot of damage in these areas. In addition, the second
access is Battal, Shangla and Batgram areas. In this area specially, the damage
and the loss is maximum.
          Besides, a building collapsed in Islamabad and there is some damage
in Lahore.
          It is very important to understand what are the magnitude and the
kind of damage.
6                                                                  IPRI Factfile

         First, all the communication infrastructure and roads have been
destroyed. There are two access roads to Muzaffarabad - one from Murree and
the other from Abbottabad, Mansehra. Both roads had been destroyed and no
traffic was possible on these roads.
         In addition, beyond Muzaffarabad, roads to Neelam and Jehlum river
valleys are closed.
         Apart from roads, there are many villages, which are located away
from these roads in valleys and in the mountains. These are not accessible
even in the normal circumstances. There has been a lot of damage in those
areas. In addition, we do not have any precise estimate of losses there. As the
roads were closed, helicopters were the only means to access these areas and
villages where roads are totally non-existent.
         In addition, Pakistan army does not have enough helicopters to deal
with the situation. As far as the army is concerned, it was already present in
Azad Kashmir, in Muzaffarabad, Bagh and Rawlakot. However, they
themselves suffered by the quake. Some 450 army-men were martyred and
nearly 700 wounded. Therefore, they were also not in a position to help
others. There is no army in the area of Mansehra. Fresh troops had to be sent
         I would like to say here that no country in the world is prepared to
face catastrophe of this magnitude. It has to react and efforts are to react and
react quickly and help the people.
         Therefore, this was the magnitude and the kind of the disaster we
         Now we look at the response. What we have to do, what we are doing
and what we need to do in future. In my view, our response to this tragedy is
in two phases.
         Immediate Response - relief and rescue of the people - and second is
the Longer-term (response) - rehabilitation and reconstruction. The
government has to take action in these two phases.
         First of all, take the immediate response - what we did immediately
and what we have to do. In the first 8 to 12 hours, we were only getting
information and we did not have an idea of the magnitude of the destruction.
         Therefore, immediately we reacted to the collapse of a building in
Islamabad. In addition, I would like to pay tributes to the public, CDA, army
and civil organizations for their swift response who put their lives at stake to
save others.
         Later the British rescue team joined these efforts and they have shown
excellent performance and I would also like to pay tributes to them. Now we
come to the Azad Kashmir, Mansehra and the adjoining areas. First of all, the
most important task was to clear the roads. Here, I would like to say that
within 48 hours, the six engineers battalions opened up Murree-Muzaffarabad
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction    7

and Abbottabad-Mansehra roads. Now even heavy transport can ply on these
          I also pay tributes to these engineers.
          Side by side, the second important operation to be taken immediately
was to rescue people, especially in Muzaffarabad and Balakot areas, who were
buried under the rubble and bury those who were killed, and treatment and
evacuation of those who survived or wounded. I know, there was a delay in it
but it was due to the fact that roads were blocked, there was no army and the
administration itself was among the victims and, therefore, it took a while to
reach these areas.
          After clearing roads, the immediate task was to evacuate the survivors
from under the wreckage and bury those who were killed. I would like to say
that there had been some delay as, because of lack of helicopters and
dilapidated roads, it was impossible for the army to reach there. But now, the
rescue and relief activities are in full swing as roads are now opened and
besides our army helicopters we have also got more helicopters, specially
Chinooks and Black Hawks helicopters from the United States.
          Here, I would like to say that within 72 hours (three days), the entire
army has been mobilized. A full division from Gujranwala has been moved to
Mansehra, after travelling 300 miles, and set up its divisional headquarters
there. One brigade has been deployed in Mansehra, one brigade has been
despatched to Batgram and two brigades are currently present at Balakot.
          A company - 100 to 150 army troops - is positioned at every 15 to 20
kilometres on the road. It will cover either side of the road into mountains and
villages and carry out relief and rescue operation.
          In Muzaffarabad area, a divisional headquarters under the command
of a major general has been established in Murree and a second division has
been deployed in Rawlakot from Mangla. They also had to travel hundreds of
miles to reach there. The army is there now and they have started the rescue
and relief operation. This action has been taken within 72 hours of the tragedy.
          For me, it is not a slow movement but we have rather acted very
promptly. People did suffer in the first one or two days for which we, myself,
the entire nation, the army, the people and the government are sad about it.
          Now as the roads are opened, army has reached there and we have
plenty of helicopters. I assure you the rescue operations will be conducted in a
more effective manner.
          These were the main areas. However, there are other villages in
remote areas and in the mountains and we are sending helicopters to assess the
damage. In this regard, we have arranged for the satellite photographs, which
may have been received by now.
          Through these satellite photos, we want to analyse the extent of
damage in small remote areas so that we can access them and provide help.
Now, the most important goods to be transported are tents and blankets, as
8                                                                      IPRI Factfile

especially in the areas of Muzaffarabad and Balakot, people have no shelter.
There has been delay here also but again as I said earlier, roads were blocked
and helicopters were scarce.
          As the roads are opened, we have more helicopters and PAF's C-130
are also flying, and I am confident that tents and blankets are now reaching the
people in large quantity.
          I would like to mention here, that tents in Pakistan are manufactured
in a very small number and there is a shortage of tents all across the country
and we are importing them.
          This relief was immediately needed.
          Besides, we had to send medical aid, as it was also very important. I
pay tributes to all doctors, including army and foreign doctors. When I visited
Muzaffarabad within the first 24 hours, a Turkish medical team was already
          There were also civilians doctors from all over the country, some of
whom reached there within 48 hours and I pay tributes to all of them. When I
went to Muzaffarabad, Rawlakot, Bagh in the first 24 hours, nearly 100
operations had already been carried out on the field and nearly 1000 people
had been evacuated to hospitals.
          Medicines from all over the world are reaching Chaklala base, where
they are being sorted out and sent to the affected areas by roads and
          Whereas there were many doctors, the problem was that there was no
arrangement for surgery in forward areas. Therefore, we sent mobile surgical
teams, fields' hospitals in Mansehra area and Muzaffarabad so that medical
treatment is immediately provided to the injured on the spot.
          Those requiring surgery are being brought to the field hospitals while
more critically wounded are being shifted to hospitals by air and roads. There
is also a need to provide foodstuffs in these areas, which is being done.
          Food packets containing Atta, pulses, rice, ghee, tealeaf, milk powder
and sugar are being prepared and distributed among the affectees. There has
been a delay in this regard but it was due to time consumed in preparing these
packets and delivering them in the affected areas.
          I would like to pay tributes to the Utility Store departments for
working day and night to prepare these packages.
          I would again like to appreciate public as thousands of people and
organizations are working to arrange these relief goods and deliver them to the
affected people.
          For all these activities, we are in dire need of financial aid. We have set
up a President's Earthquake Relief Fund. I appeal to the nation to generously
contribute to this fund. I would specially appeal to the business community,
traders and industrialists. Allah Almighty has given you plenty and now is the
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   9

time for you people to make maximum contribution to help the people in
these affected areas.
         I appeal to the international community to donate funds, give
financial assistance and donate to President's relief fund.
         I can assure you that this relief fund will be utilized in the most
transparent manner for the benefit and rehabilitation of the areas affected by
this earthquake.
         I assure the nation that whatever donations you contribute, these will
be maintained by the Fund in a very transparent manner. The amount
collected by the fund would be announced daily in 9.00 p.m. news bulletin and
major donors would be identified.
         The nation will be given full details of the account of the fund and I
promise to the nation total transparency in managing this fund.
         There has been a tremendous enthusiasm shown by the public, the
government, army, NGOs, Edhi Trust, Red Crescent and many other NGOs
in this entire relief operation. In addition, there have been many volunteer
groups working in the affected areas.
         However, some of these efforts would go waste if we did not carry
out this entire activity in an organized and orderly manner.
         Therefore, in my view an overall organization is imperative for the
entire rescue and relief efforts. Such an organization has been established at
the Prime Minister Secretariat where Major General Farooq has been
appointed as the Federal Relief Commissioner.
         All representatives looking after the entire assistance, coming from
both within the country and abroad, had been placed under him.
         Besides, provincial relief commissioners have been established in the
four provinces. I have directed them to publicize their telephone contacts, fax
and e-mail addresses through newspapers and in the electronic media so that
all people, NGOs and volunteers could contact them first so that they should
be guided about the specific needs of different areas.
         This is very important that we know and operate through these point's
men in all the provinces and at the centre.
         In addition, those who are going to Muzaffarabad or Mansehra should
first contact army headquarters and they have been directed to help and guide
you to the affected areas.
         As you are working so hard and showing great sympathy, I appeal to
all volunteers that there is a need of some organization in all these efforts to
achieve optimum results.
         I would like to mention stage two here. 'Inshaallah' now this activity
will be carried out in an effective and organized manner but in my view we will
need maximum financial inputs for the rehabilitation and reconstruction.
10                                                                   IPRI Factfile

         The President's Relief Fund and the government's financial support
would be fully utilized for this purpose. We have announced compensation of
Rs.100, 000 for each martyr and Rs.50, 000 each for the wounded.
         I hope provinces; district administration and the army will ensure that
the compensation reaches the most deserving people.
         Then, we have to clear debris in the areas of Balakot, Muzaffarabad
and other affected areas, which in my view is a gigantic effort. This will follow
help in reconstruction of houses in these areas, especially for those poor
people who live in remote areas. This may take months and years but I am
very confident that we have the resources that we will use to change this
calamity into betterment of the people.
         The martyrs cannot come back and we will pray for them but it is in
our hands to work for the betterment of their families and those who survived.
Inshaallah, we will do this. In the end, I assure all the affected people that I
will always stand by them in their hour of need and trial and will not sit in
peace until I change this critical and difficult time into a better future for you.
Please support me. May Allah be with all of us. Pakistan Paindabad.
                                              Times of Pakistan, 12 October 2005

                      T HE K ASHMIR E ARTHQUAKE
THE NEWS from earthquake-stricken Pakistan gets steadily worse. Initially
the death toll was estimated at 20,000, making the disaster 20 times more lethal
than Hurricane Katrina. But yesterday an army official close to the rescue
operations revised it up to between 35,000 and 40,000, with 2,000 more
fatalities likely across the border in Indian-controlled Kashmir. This is nothing
like the Asian tsunami, which killed an estimated 230,000; nor does it approach
the scale of the Bangladeshi cyclone that killed about 140,000 in 1991. But the
provincial capital of Muzaffarabad has been reduced to almost nothing. At
least 2 million people are homeless, and winter is just weeks away.
          The response -- or at least the announced response -- has been
generous and fast. The United Nations issued an appeal for $272 million
yesterday, but its call appeared almost redundant: Kuwait and the United Arab
Emirates have each promised $100 million worth of assistance; the Bush
administration, which was slow off the mark after the tsunami as well as after
Hurricane Katrina, has already pledged an initial $50 million. Aid missions of
various kinds have reportedly arrived from Britain, China, South Korea,
Turkey, Spain, Iran, Russia, the Netherlands, Japan and Germany. The first
U.S. transport plane loaded with blankets and other relief supplies landed in
the afflicted region on Monday. Yesterday U.S. helicopters arrived from
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction       11

neighboring Afghanistan to ferry in relief supplies and take the injured to
         Just as with Katrina, managing and coordinating a vast relief effort is
no easy matter. Pakistan's military-dominated government may be suited to
delivering a quick initial rescue effort, but the lesson of past earthquakes is that
top-down responses aren't enough. Pretty soon, the relief operation has to
make a transition: The victims can't be treated as passive recipients but must
be helped to help themselves. In rural areas, villages can be rebuilt by their
inhabitants if local leaders are given the cash to procure construction materials.
In towns, cash assistance to families has been shown in past disasters to work
better than handouts of food and blankets after the initial emergency has
         At the same time, Pakistan's government needs to focus immediately
on the decisions that only the public sector has the authority to make. Before
urban rebuilding starts, geologists need to determine where reconstruction can
most safely be located. Once that decision is made, the government must
arrange to buy the chosen land or set the rules by which private citizens can do
so. It must establish procurement procedures for the reconstruction of public
infrastructure that balance haste and sound financial management, and it must
establish building codes. The lesson of past disasters is that this sort of
planning has to happen fast, before dozens of aid agencies cut separate deals
with different government departments to rebuild this or that in an
uncoordinated manner.
         If there is any silver lining to this tragedy, it's that it may shock people
into fresh thinking. This can lead to innovations, such as insurance schemes
that create incentives to build in safer places, or it can lead to geopolitical
progress. Greece offered help after Turkey's 1999 earthquake, beginning the
diplomatic thaw between these traditional enemies. After the Kashmir
earthquake, India offered aid that Pakistan accepted. Perhaps this gesture may
accelerate the reconciliation between India and Pakistan.
         No matter what progress may come, the earthquake certainly was too
high a price to pay. "For the first two days we have been either digging ground
to recover bodies or digging to bury them," Sikander Hayat Khan, the highest-
ranking elected official in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir, told Reuters.
"Kashmir has turned into a graveyard."
                                                    Washington Post, 12 October 2005
12                                                                 IPRI Factfile

                P REPARING      FOR THE     U NKNOWABLE
Why the Kashmir earthquake happened and what might be done?
PAKISTAN'S earthquake measured 7.6 on a scale known as the moment
magnitude. This measure, a successor to Richter, allows seismologists to
compare the energy released by different earthquakes. At each step of the
scale, about 32 times more energy is released than at the previous step. It has
no upper limit, but the largest recorded earthquake was in southern Chile in
1960 and measured 9.5.
         Earthquakes happen mostly where the earth's tectonic plates collide.
In Pakistan, quake activity is mainly concentrated in the northern and western
sections of the country, along the boundary of the Indian, Iranian and
Eurasian plates. The Indian plate is moving north at about 5cm a year,
resulting in a force on the southern edge of the Tibetan plateau—the force
that generates the Himalayas. As a result, earthquakes occur along the
Himalayas all the way to Myanmar. (The movement of the Indian plate also
caused the devastating Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and tsunami late last
         In recent years, Pakistan has not suffered as greatly from earthquakes
as its neighbours in the Himalayas, Afghanistan, Nepal, China and India. Its
biggest earthquake in living memory occurred in Quetta in 1935, with 30,000
deaths. Nevertheless, Kashmir is seismically active on both sides of the border,
with many regular, though less damaging, quakes. In 2002 in the Gilgit-Astore
region, 100km (63 miles) north of Muzaffarabad, large earthquakes made
about 16,000 people homeless.
         Across the Himalayas there is what seismologists call a “slip deficit”—
a lack of earthquakes to release the stress that is known to be accumulating.
The Kashmir quake was in just such a region, where a great earthquake was
overdue. Nevertheless, Roger Bilham, of the University of Colorado, says it is
doubtful that the Kashmir quake released more than one tenth of the
cumulative energy stored there. Furthermore, in the past half-century the
Himalayan region has seen fewer powerful earthquakes than might be
predicted from historical records. The most notable area of concern is the
central Himalayan Gap, a 600km-long central arc of the Himalayas. Mr Bilham
believes this area has the potential to generate several earthquakes of
magnitude 8 or more, and is the most vulnerable (in terms of potential loss of
life and damage) of the regions that could produce a great earthquake. The
whole of Nepal is also a worry.
         The Kashmir quake may be the worst recorded in the Indian
subcontinent. Its deadliness was linked, among other things, to the weakness
of buildings, the depth of the quake, the density of population, the fault and
soil types, and the intensity of the shaking. The Bhuj earthquake, only 100km
from the border of Pakistan, was of similar magnitude but killed 18,500.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   13

          Because of population growth and density in the Himalayas, hundreds
of thousands may be at risk—particularly in India, where the government and
the United Nations Development Programme have identified 38 cities with
more than half a million people located in the most seismically active regions.
A way has to be found to reduce the deadliness of quakes in the most
vulnerable areas.
          Yet earthquakes cannot be predicted accurately enough to know when
people should be evacuated. It is all the harder in the Himalayan region, with
hidden underground faults that are poorly monitored by seismic instruments.
That leaves two options, other than fatalism: to put up better buildings, and to
improve planning for responding to disasters.
          Progress is slow. Key buildings in need of better earthquake-proofing
have been identified in Delhi, and work is under way. Similar plans elsewhere
have come too late to help the hospitals in Indian Kashmir. Though it is
impossible to make buildings completely resistant to earthquakes, they can be
made much safer. In both India and Pakistan, building codes exist; in both
countries, they have been poorly enforced, with masses of unprotected
housing stock in areas of great danger.
          In India, to build more suitable housing would add only 2-4% to
construction costs. But in the poorest regions, such as Kashmir, most houses
are built of local materials by the people who then live in them. In fact, in
India, 80% of housing is owner-built. Architects and engineers, who might
improve building and design, are in short supply. It is lack of knowledge and
skills that is the main problem, rather than the cost of the work.
          Greater scientific knowledge about the region's earthquakes and faults
would much improve understanding of which areas are most at risk. For this
reason, Mr Bilham wants to gather evidence as quickly as he can before rain or
earth-slips obliterate it. Astonishingly, he has been refused a visa.
                                                  The Economist, 13 October 2005
        < >

              R ESPONDING        TO THE     T RAGIC D ISASTER

The devastating impact of the earthquake has evoked deep humanitarian
feelings among Pakistanis. Almost every segment of our society is trying to
make some contribution towards rescue and relief efforts with a view to
consoling and ameliorating the situation for the victims. Undoubtedly, those
who have lost their loved ones would take some time to reconcile to their loss
but the demonstration of sympathetic feelings on such a high scale is certainly
encouraging and a source of great satisfaction.
         To analyse properly the overwhelming response from various
quarters, it would not be out of place to group them into three categories: the
14                                                                   IPRI Factfile

official response, the unofficial response and the response of the international
community. At the official level, the government has been very quick in
initiating rescue and relief operations. However, it was only after a couple of
days that a clearer picture began to emerge. Rough estimates indicate that four
to five million people have been rendered homeless. Not only have entire
villages been wiped out, even cities like Muzafferabad and Balakot experienced
massive damage to life and property. The infrastructure was virtually
          Undoubtedly, the first priority of the government is to repair roads
that have been damaged or blocked in order to carry the relief goods and
rescue equipment. In this connection, the army helped a lot. Not only military
helicopters were used to reach far off and remote places, during the initial
period when roads were badly damaged, helicopters were the only means to
reach the areas that were hit by the earthquake. The damage was massive and
it required enormous efforts to cope with the situation. The government did
not hesitate to make requests to friendly governments for helicopters.
          Apart from securing helicopters from various countries and repairing
the damaged roads, the government officials, especially at the ministerial level,
were regularly seen engaged in activities aimed at alleviating the victims’ plight.
Both the President and the Prime Minister were extremely concerned and
actively engaged in efforts to meet the requirements deemed essential for
policy guidance and operational execution. Almost every day, one of the top
leadership would visit badly hit areas.
          One must single out the contributions made by the Pakistan Army.
Not only did the army itself suffer in terms of loss of life, it was seen
everywhere to help those who needed help. In most of the remote places, it
was the army that reached first and undertook rescue and relief operations.
Once the road network was re-established, the coordination efforts were also
taken over by the army. The spirit with which the army worked in this difficult
period certainly deserves appreciation.
          Apart from the official response to the disaster, the unofficial
response from both civil society as well as from the ordinary citizen was
overwhelming. The young and the old, men and women, all were seen filled
with enthusiasm and motivation to make contributions. In almost all cities of
Pakistan, the public was moved to collect relief goods and money with a view
to sending it to the earthquake hit areas. The spontaneous display of the spirit
to help by ordinary Pakistanis is a source of great satisfaction. While the
magnitude of the disaster was immense, the response demonstrated by the
nation to meet the situation was indeed matching if not overwhelming. The
non-governmental organisations (NGO) are also actively participating in the
relief work. But much more than organised NGOs, the emergence of small
groups all over the country, filled with a spirit to do something for their
unfortunate brethren certainly makes one proud.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     15

          Finally, the response of the international community was also
extremely impressive. A substantial amount of foreign aid began to pour in.
Not only that billions of rupees were promised by many countries, a big chunk
of relief goods has already landed in the country. Many countries sent their
medical teams to assist and help and many others sent teams of trained
rescuers. Lacking in proper training and equipment, the Pakistanis were helped
by these foreign teams to rescue people trapped in rubble. In addition to the
bilateral promises from many countries, the multilateral organisations such as
the World Bank and Asian Development Bank have also made commitments.
          While there is no doubt that the relief efforts are undertaken on a
massive scale, the scale of the tragedy itself is so large that more efforts would
be required. As mentioned above, the government is doing everything that is
possible and the general public is helping enormously, yet one hears voices of
discontent. Indeed there are areas where nobody has yet been able to reach.
Two reasons account for this undesired delay. One, these are remote
mountainous areas. Second, bad weather hampered the relief efforts. Ever
since the weather improved, reports indicate that relief goods began to reach
even in these remote areas.
          Responding effectively and adequately to such a catastrophe is not an
easy task. However, the way the Pakistanis rose to the occasion is certainly
commendable. Apart from a few incidents of profit making and looting, the
relief work is going on rather smoothly. The looting incidents by some hungry
and battered people can be justified in the sense that those who have lost their
loved ones and have been living in the open and did not have access to food
could opt for somewhat irrational behaviour.
Despite the odds, the Pakistanis have once again demonstrated that they can
live through testing times honourably. The spontaneous sprouting of spirit for
fellow Pakistanis is commendable. It makes us part of a proud nation that can
face any calamity, natural or man-made
          The writer works for Islamabad Policy Research Institute
                               Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema, The Post, 16 October 2005

ISLAMABAD, Oct 16: A Pakistani helicopter crashed during a rescue
operation in Azad Kashmir killing six troops on board just as the country
needs its full fleet of choppers to cope with its worst disaster, the military said
16                                                                    IPRI Factfile

          “There were six people on board. They are all dead,” Maj Gen
Shaukat Sultan told AFP. He said it was unclear if the crash was due to a
mechanical accident or poor weather.
          It was the first aid helicopter to crash since the beginning of the relief
operation to save the millions of destitute from the Oct 8 quake.
          The Mi-17 went missing at around noon on Saturday northeast of
Bagh in Azad Kashmir. The military found the wreckage, including the bodies
of four military officers and two technicians around 1:30 am, Sultan said.
          “The crash will not affect the relief operation,” Sultan later said on
state television.
          Pakistan has been facing a shortage of helicopters to airlift relief
goods to the devastated areas spread over more than 20,000 square kilometres.
          “There are 54 helicopters in operation currently, including 15
helicopters from three countries, the United States, Germany and
Afghanistan,” Sultan said.
          A US embassy official said 10 US helicopters were in operation with
more than 20 that are in the pipeline possibly coming this week.
          Three helicopters from Japan arrived Saturday and Sunday near
Islamabad and will be in service soon after consultations with the Pakistan Air
Force, a Japanese embassy spokesman said.
                                                        Dawn, 17 October 2005

         M USINGS      ON THE     8/10 E ARTHQUAKE T RAGEDY
October 8, 2005 was a poignant day for all Pakistanis. In the 58 years of the
country's existence it is no doubt a stunning disaster. An earthquake,
measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale struck the northern regions. In the
twinkling of an eye the lush green valleys of Hazara and Azad Kashmir were
turned into rubble, echoing with the wails of men, women and children, and
the dance of death and destruction followed. Bustling human habitations were
suddenly muted into ghost towns -- houses shattered, men, women and
children entombed alive under the fallen debris, many crying desperately from
below the rubble to be saved while still clinging to life. The whole spectacle
reminded one of Hiroshima and Nagasaki where death stalked and devastation
ruled like a demon.
         The civil administration of these quake-devastated areas was
completely taken off guard and paralysed, water and food became scarce, and
human corpses were seen decomposing and giving off a putrid smell. Men,
women and children spent desolate cold nights under open skies waiting for
help to arrive. Streams dried up, roads and tracks disappeared under mountain
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction       17

boulders while the topography of the land was completely altered as the earth
heaved and trembled in fury.
         The killer earthquake struck like a bolt from the blue. However the
Pakistani nation stood up in unison and despite internal socio-political fissures,
faced the unprecedented challenge. The government was seized with the
formidable task of rescuing, providing relief to the afflicted in a terrain that is
mountainous, inaccessible and tricky. It is desperately trying to open the
broken, blocked roads, carry airlift relief operations and move military
garrisons to start rebuilding the ravaged zones.
         Foreign relief aid started streaming in for the unfortunate victims of
the tragedy. The task seems indeed stupendous, given the magnitude of the
disaster killing scores of thousands, wounding thousands, and displacing
millions of people. The immediate need was to pull out thousands of buried
people, to provide food and medicines to the wounded and prevent any
epidemic. The long-term need is to rebuild demolished homes and rehabilitate
the dislocated people.
         The magnitude of the disaster was quite unexpected but the national
spirit rose to new highs. While the nation collectively rose up to help In the
years to come, climatologist's are foreboding is that the world in general and
the poor countries in particular may face more of such disasters. These could
stem from global warming, urbanisation, pollution and over-consumption of
resources, unplanned industrialisation and growth (land and forest mafias) and
poor legislation. Any possible use of nuclear weapons -- deliberately or
inadvertently could pose real dangers that compound these "silent threats."
Recently, storms, earthquakes and rains have shown that nature, if treated
unfairly, seeks its own revenge.
         There are warnings that sea -- like tsunamis in Karachi and more
seismic activity in the northern region may occur in future. Lying in the
seismic zone, the northern regions will have to devise serious precautionary
strategies and coherent disaster management measures. Moreover, merely
rescue and relief is not disaster management. The aim should be, first,
prevention of mishaps by all possible means, and, secondly, if possible, on
long term rehabilitation of the disaster stricken people. Besides an overarching
strong agency, capacity building of local communities is important, as they are
the ones to first respond and act as shock absorbers.
         There has to be synergy amongst various government agencies of
development, environmental planning and security forces. There should be a
central authority, which will coordinate activities of the government, non-
governmental and foreign agencies in times of such crises. Disaster
management strategy must not be reactive and should not rely on post-crisis
management. It has to be proactive and preventive.
         Although natural disasters cannot be prevented, their ill-effects can be
at least mitigated by right prioritisation, anticipatory planning and political will.
18                                                                   IPRI Factfile

Fortunately, the Musharraf government is seized of this possibility and is
trying its best to cope with the problem. However, it remains to be seen how
sustainable the process will be.
          There is a silver lining in this dark ordeal, however. The tragedy has
underscored for both India and Pakistan to learn to cooperate in tackling the
scourge of floods, earthquakes, besides nuclear weapons. Already there are
welcome signs of cooperation. A moment of truth is that a calamity is an
opportunity. It should set moral and other errant compasses right as greed,
apathy, poverty, and fanaticism erode the vitals of nations.
          In the meantime, hats off to the Pakistani people who have rallied to
brave the tragedy. A siren call is being sounded that a just, socio-economic
order should be based on participation, tolerance, justice and educational
empowerment. It is hoped that the nation comes out of this ordeal seasoned
and sobered.
          Another lesson is that the far-flung regions need to be catapulted into
development and linked with the mainstream. Here the onus lies as much on
local government; but the ultimate responsibility is that of the government
which sets overall direction. Needless to say that deprived regions are a
disgruntled federation and hence a weak, divided nation.
          The difficulties of terrain and conditions should not become alibis for
lack of development; in fact, these regions could become assets through
sagacious development policies. The ravaged areas are known for their natural
beauty and tourism potential.
          In times of tragedies like these, any sensitive soul is forced to do some
soul-searching. Where have we erred? Why did it have to happen? Was it in
any way avoidable? These are some nagging but philosophical questions that
agitate minds. Often, normative questions collide with scientific explanations.
Historical truth suggests that when moral compasses of a people go awry,
when humans transgress bounds of humanity, when injustice, repression and
ignorance is allowed to run rampant, when natural balance of nature is violated
by avarice and hubris, the heavenly law of retribution comes into play. Such
transcendental truths are enshrined in teachings of all prophets, philosophers
and sages.
          The spontaneous reaction of the international community to
Pakistan's plight by extending generous help testifies two verities: Pakistan's
new role in the international community and the stature it has lately acquired
in the international community while pursuing a pragmatic policy, that is fast
turning its back on global terrorism and militant ideologies. It is a vindication
of Pakistan's acceptance as a pivotal state in the region.
          More importantly, the response reaffirms the humanitarian strain in
mankind where humanity supercedes other barriers. The relief aid by countries
like USA, and Britain and others in rescuing people from the jaws of death are
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   19

appreciated by many Pakistanis; this may modify the prevailing anti-Western
         Pakistan lives in an interconnected world and events like the recent
earthquake evoke a spirit of altruistic internationalism. More importantly, in
this age a nation afflicted by a calamity cannot remain isolated. Recent
outpouring of international sympathy and help negate the philosophies of
hidebound millenialarists and crazy ideologues who preach hatred and
violence. In fact, strong bonds of humanity cut across language, caste and
creed barriers.
         Human societies have witnessed natural and man-made catastrophes.
Plagues, wars, epidemics, tornadoes, floods, droughts and pestilence have
stalked mankind. The flame of life has quivered but never got extinguished. It
is the tenacity and resilience of human spirit that has triumphed.
         It is the same spirit that is animating the post-quake scenario in
Pakistan. The country has witnessed wars, floods, earthquakes and diverse
calamities but outlived them. While one feels deeply melancholic over the
thought of thousands dead, wounded and displaced by a sudden stroke of ill
luck, there is a flaming hope that shines through the dark skies. It is with this
hope that Pakistanis are now braving these hours of trial and tribulation.
                                   Maqsudul Hasan Nuri, The News, 18 October 2005

Saudi television channels to raise donations for Pakistan's earthquake victims
Riyadh --- The Saudi-owned Al Arabiya satellite news channel has announced
that it will jointly launch with the Saudi Television a telethon on Saturday to
raise funds for victims of the massive earthquake which hit Pakistan.
          The Saudi TV would air reports from Al Arabiya correspondents in
the affected areas "in an effort to mobilize relief aid and raise donations to
alleviate the human suffering," said the Dubai-based Al Arabiya.
          Al-Arabiya would be linked to both "the field base in Pakistan and the
central donation receiving location in Saudi Arabia" but would not collect
donations itself, the station said.
          Saudi Arabia has already announced $133 million aid to Pakistan to
help it overcome the effects of the earthquake. A massive operation to send
relief goods is also seemingly on. The Pakistani expatriate community has been
in the forefront collecting donations for earthquake victims.
The Pakistani embassy in Riyadh and the consulate in Jeddah have also been
collecting donations. Million of Riyals have been donated so far. Tons of
cargo, including tents, are lying at the consulate and embassy designated
warehouses, waiting to be airlifted to Pakistan.
20                                                                  IPRI Factfile

        On the government-level more than 10 Saudi Arabian airlines cargo
planes have reached Islamabad.
                                                       Asia Media, 21October 2005

             NATO P RESSED          TO   S TEP   UP   Q UAKE A ID
The UN’s emergency relief chief is to fly to Brussels on Friday to appeal to
Nato to send more helicopters to help victims of the South Asia quake.
        Jan Egeland has urged members of the 26-nation alliance to launch “a
second Berlin airlift” to rescue those left without shelter as winter approaches.
The US has said the first of 20 more of its helicopters will arrive next week.
        Mr Egeland’s appeal follows the UN’s admission that the quake is the
worst logistical nightmare it has ever faced.
        The UN says the shortfall in aid for victims of the South Asian quake
has made the relief situation worse than after last December’s tsunami.
        Nato began flying in 900 tonnes of aid on Thursday, but Mr Egeland
said a massive airlift was also needed to bring people out of remote areas.
                                                           BBC, 21October 2005

     Q UAKE A ID H ELPS U.S. A LTER I MAGE                IN   P AKISTAN
Afghan and Iraq Wars Had Built Anger
CHAKLALA AIR BASE, Pakistan -- High in a remote valley, the U.S. Army
transport helicopter settled Thursday with a bump on the dry riverbed, and the
earthquake survivors came running. Jostling and shoving for space, they
crowded around the rear cargo hatch as the soldiers on board began tossing
out tents, blankets and biscuits until they had no more to give.
          As the helicopter revved its engines for takeoff, a balding man with a
beard leaned across the edge of the lowered cargo ramp and, smiling his
gratitude, extended his hand toward Brandon Chasteen, a 21-year-old Army
medic from Chattanooga, who gave it a hearty shake. A moment later the
chopper was churning toward another landing zone to pick up a load of
          Two weeks after the massive Oct. 8 earthquake in northeastern
Pakistan, a mushrooming U.S. aid operation is doing more than just saving
lives. It also is helping to improve the dismal public image of the United States
in a conservative Muslim country where anti-American feeling has been
aggravated in recent years by the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.
          Television news broadcasts have been filled in recent days with images
of U.S. Navy cargo ships offloading relief supplies in Karachi, olive-drab
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction    21

Chinook helicopters disgorging bundles of tents and blankets in isolated
mountain villages, and American soldiers -- some diverted from military
operations in Afghanistan -- working with their Pakistani counterparts to
evacuate the injured.
          President Bush's Oct. 14 visit to the Pakistani Embassy in Washington
to offer condolences for earthquake victims received wide coverage in the
country's media, as did pleas by some in Congress for an increase in the $50
million in earthquake relief that the Bush administration has already pledged.
          Even the conservative clergy, who have long been in the vanguard of
anti-U.S. feeling in Pakistan, have grudgingly praised the U.S. response.
          "Obviously, this is the other side of the United States," said Maulana
Shabbir Ahmad Shujabadi, a prominent religious scholar in the port city of
Karachi. "For the first time in so many years I have seen the American planes
dropping relief and not bombs on the Muslim population."
          It is too early to say whether the aid operation will have any lasting
effect on public attitudes toward the United States in this impoverished nation
of 160 million people, many of whom regard Osama bin Laden and the
Taliban as heroes.
          The Bush administration has close relations with Gen. Pervez
Musharraf, Pakistan's president, a key U.S. ally in the war against terrorism.
But the United States elicits far less warmth among ordinary Pakistanis, many
of whom are convinced that the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq reflect hostility
toward their faith. A survey released in June by the Pew Global Attitudes
Project found 23 percent of Pakistanis had a favorable view of the United
          Against that backdrop, the Bush administration is eager to highlight its
role in aiding victims of the massive 7.6-magnitude quake, which shattered
towns and villages across a vast swath of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir and
adjacent parts of North-West Frontier Province. Authorities estimate that the
earthquake killed 40,000 to 50,000 people in Pakistan; about 1,400 more are
thought to have died in the part of Kashmir controlled by India, just across the
Line of Control, the cease-fire line that separates Pakistani and Indian forces in
the disputed Himalayan province.
          With many survivors trapped in remote areas that will soon be
blanketed in snow, U.N. officials have warned that thousands more could die
if foreign governments do not contribute more to the hugely complicated
relief effort.
          "The United States was in at the beginning," Ryan C. Crocker, the
U.S. ambassador to Pakistan, told reporters Thursday. He cited, among other
things, the airlift of 1,200 tons of aid in the 12 days after the quake, the
deployment of a military field hospital in Pakistani Kashmir and the imminent
arrival of U.S. Navy Seabees who will work with Pakistani army engineers to
open roads blocked by landslides.
22                                                                   IPRI Factfile

          Perhaps most important, the United States has supplied 17
helicopters, including 12 from the military and five that were already in
Pakistan on counter-narcotics duty. An additional 20 choppers are en route,
according to Rear Adm. Michael A. LeFever, who is heading the U.S. military
relief effort.
          The lumbering, twin-rotor Chinook that landed on the riverbed
Thursday was part of an Army National Guard unit that draws its personnel
from several Western states and is deployed in southeastern Afghanistan.
          Its pilot, Chief Warrant Officer Aaron Wallace, is a father of four and
a former high school teacher who works back home as a helicopter instructor
at an Army training center in Reno, Nev. His co-pilot, Capt. Dan Lewis, is a
state trooper who flies for the California Highway Patrol and lives in Fresno,
where he has a wife and 2-year-old son.
          For them and the rest of the crew -- including Chasteen and another
medic, a flight engineer and another soldier who normally mans a door-
mounted machine gun -- the earthquake relief mission has come as something
of a respite.
          Since their unit arrived in Afghanistan in March, enemy ground fire
has struck more than half of its 12 choppers, one of which was downed in
Zabul province several weeks ago with the loss of all five on board; another
has been shot at so many times that it has been nicknamed "the lead sled,"
according to Lewis, 35, whose laconic state trooper's demeanor fairly screams,
"Driver's license and registration, please."
          "It's a nice break," Lewis said. "It was strange for us to come over
from Afghanistan because we had no idea how we'd be treated. But they came
out, shook our hands. They're very nice people."
          Thursday was a typical workday for the Chinook and its crew.
          Loaded with tents, blankets and a small amount of food, the chopper
took off from Chaklala Air Base near Islamabad at 8:35 a.m. under blue skies,
then turned east toward the forested mountains of Kashmir. As is customary
on such missions, a Pakistani army pilot, Capt. Saad Ullah Khan, rode in the
cockpit jump seat to help identify targets for aid deliveries and communicate
with people on the ground.
          Just a few minutes from the Line of Control, Wallace pushed the
aircraft into a slow spiral, dipping to within a few feet of the valley floor. The
crew deposited its first load next to a creek, the helicopter's powerful rotors
kicking up a storm of spray as villagers scrambled through the maelstrom to
retrieve the bundles. Working their way slowly up the valley, the pilots and
crew made several more deliveries, exchanging constant warnings over the
intercom about the power lines that laced the area.
          Following the last delivery, at the riverbed, they eventually landed at a
military camp, where soldiers in surgical masks were digging graves and injured
men, women and children awaited evacuation. After the injured were loaded
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction       23

on board and the chopper took off, Chasteen and another medic crouched at
the side of a 12-year-old girl, gently applying a splint to her badly broken leg.
         "She'll get to keep her leg," Chasteen said later that morning, once the
chopper was safely back at base. "She's one of the lucky ones."
         Chasteen, stocky and blond, the oldest of seven children, said he
wants to pursue bachelor's and master's degrees in international relations when
he gets out of the Army next year.
         But in the meantime, he said, he is glad to be in Pakistan. "At least
these people aren't trying to kill us," he said. "That makes it a little easier."
                    Jhon Lancaster, Washington Post, Foreign Service, 22 October 2005
                      dyn/content/article/2005/10/21/AR2005102102140_2.html >

                      V ICTIMS : O XFAM

LONDON; Rich countries are giving little or nothing to the United Nations
for South Asian earthquake relief efforts, the British aid charity Oxfam said
Tuesday on the eve of a UN donor conference in Geneva.
         It said many countries have given less than their fair share to the UN
South Asian Earthquake appeal, leaving it only 19 percent funded despite UN
Secretary General Kofi Annan's urgent call for help last week.
         Oxfam named seven rich countries which have so far given nothing to
the UN appeal in the wake of the October 8 temblor -- Belgium, France,
Austria, Finland, Greece, Portugal and Spain.
         It also identified four that have given less than one-fifth of their fair
share -- the United States (nine percent), Italy (seven percent), Germany (14
percent) and Japan (17 percent).
         By contrast, it said Sweden, Luxembourg, The Netherlands and
Denmark have given more than their fair share, and that even Poland and
Chile have managed to contribute something.
                                                       The News, 25 October 2005
                                  < >

                           S ITUATION A NALYSIS
Sixteen days after the mammoth quake wreaked havoc in Kashmir’s
Himalayan region, a second wave of terror is seen. Aftershocks, emission of
smoke from one of the mountains, and constant sound of blasts have
terrorized the entire population of the Allai in Battagram district since the
October 8 earthquake and prompted the government to make plans to
evacuate reluctant villagers from their beloved valley. The smoke-emitting
24                                                                 IPRI Factfile

mountain in question is located between Battila and Ganthar villages. A
huge crack appeared in the mountain after the quake and the emission of
blue smoke is playing on the nerves of the people. Making matters worse are
the frequent blasts that one hears from womb of the earth.
         A team of geologists which visited Allai in the Battagram district have
declared part of the mountainous range as a high risk-zone, but ruled out
possibility of any volcanic activity in the area. Military officials said around
2,300 explosions were reported in the area, some of which also caused
tremors. Officials of the Geological Survey of Pakistan, which were flown to
Allai earlier in the morning, informed the prime minister that the explosions
were being caused by the trapped gases, but there was no evidence of any
volcanic activity.
         Four aftershocks measuring up to 5.2 on the Richter scale shook
northern Pakistan early today, sparking fears of more landslides after the
overwhelming earthquake. There were no immediate reports of injuries or
damage from the tremors. The heaviest aftershock was with a magnitude of
5.2, and there were three weaker tremors which followed. Pakistan has
suffered 978 aftershocks since the giant 7.6-magnitude quake. The biggest was
on October 9 and measured 6.2 on Richter scale.
         The UN said that “death traps” were forming in quake-stricken areas
as blocked roads and lack of funding hindered relief deliveries to survivors.
With only a three-week window to deliver aid to mountainous regions before
the first snowfall, UN officials and relief agencies are scrambling to provide
shelter and food so that hundreds of thousands of people can survive the
         The Ministry of Religious Affairs has no clue about the whereabouts
of 1,434 successful intending pilgrims belonging to the earthquake-affected
areas. These persons have deposited a total amount of Rs. 200 million with the
government to visit Saudi Arabia for Hajj in 2006. Only one survivor of the
unprecedented disaster has confirmed to the ministry that although his whole
family had perished in the tremor, he would perform Hajj to seek mercy from
Allah Almighty.
         A high-level donor conference is being held in Geneva today to
mobilise additional financial support for relief efforts for one of the most
devastating earthquakes that struck Pakistan. The UN is to raise its flash
appeal to more than half a billion dollars to help Pakistan tackle the aftermath
of the earthquake. After collecting less than one third of its 312 million dollar
(259 million euro) appeal for aid, the UN and Red Cross fear thousands of
injured and homeless people will be stranded without care in the mountains of
Azad Kashmir over winter.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   25

CWS-P/A’s Response
Adding hindrance to the relief work is the speedy cold and harsh winds of the
Himalayans. Scared people of the Allai valley are also seeking shelter in the
nearby areas, after the smoke they see emitting from the nearby mountains.
Although the government has ruled out the possibility of any eruption they
still stand at evacuating the valley.
          CWS-P/A team struggling to cope with the devastating earthquake is
relaying more on the support of the army to air drop its relief aid to the far
fledged affected areas due to the weather constrains. CWS-P/A Tent Village in
Bisyan, 8km from Balakot, is seen affluent with the arriving new families.
People seeking shelter are coming in the tent village in search of hope.
          Due to lack of shelter near the affected areas people have shown
resistance from getting discharged by the hospital authorities. This adds to the
efforts of CWS-P/A to make the Tent Village more homelike to the people
and provide maximum facilities.
          Norwegian Church Aid has assisted CWS-P/A with the drainage,
sanitation and water issues within the tent village; the water system is expected
to be put in place later today. 13 latrine pits and the drainage required have
been dug within the areas looking at the feasibility of the people. Four tents
for the health unit, warehouse, community center and administration have
been erected. The Church of Pakistan has offered to provide the medical
services within the camp.
          The sanitation equipment has been set up in the CWS-P/A Tent
Village. The military had earlier said that they would provide water daily,
however this is no longer possible and they will need to contract a water
tanker to deliver water within the tent village. CWS-P/A may need to reassess
the water plans as these were made on the basis that chlorinated water would
be delivered. It appears that chlorinated water is probably available in the
valley, or will be available, but there is a need to transport it to the camp.
          So far the figures show that 25,1988 houses have been completely
destroyed within the affected areas in the Northern part of the country and
currently 800,000 people are without shelter. The death toll could increase
alarmingly if these people don’t receive tents or shelter before the winter
arrives. Currently with advocating the number of helicopters has increased to
100 which have eased the possibilities for air dropping shelter kits and food
items to the inaccessible villages.
          CWS-P/A field team is also attending and keeping close contact with
the UN cluster meetings in the affected areas. It was reported that 140,000
people are likely to move from the hills down to Battagram and Balakot –
probably 70,000 in each place – within the next two weeks. In the assessment
of CWS-P/A staff there is a serious situation on the ground and currently the
26                                                                  IPRI Factfile

valley is already heavily populated with few sanitation, water, shelter and food
resources. Services will be totally overwhelmed by such an influx.
          During the day there was much greater engagement within CWS-P/A
staff and the arriving families in the Tent Village – two female staff members
interviewed families, discussed fire hazards and generally made them feel
welcome. People seem to arrive quite shell shocked and tired. Initially they
look extremely relieved to find a relatively comfortable and structured place.
After a little time the reality of their loss and situation seems to sink in.
          Issues relating to sale of orphaned children are also increasingly
catching the attention of the media. These children are falling prey to the
wrong hands and are being sold to people from the sex trade. Protection of
children and women is a major issue and needs to be highlighted and
advocated on.
          The PHF forum now meets twice a week. The next meeting will be
held tomorrow. A guest speaker, Mr. Zia Chaudary, Accountability Advisor
for Humanitarian Accountability Partnership International, has been invited
who will talk about accountability of organizations involved in the relief
          CWS-P/A continues to actively participate in UN cluster meetings on
Emergency Shelter, Protection, Health and Nutrition and is also joining the
group formed on Logistics.
                                                              26 October 2005
                      < >

                           V ICTIMS
AMMAN: Jordan on Friday staged a telethon to gather funds for the victims
of Pakistan’s massive earthquake, raising more than half a million dollars in the
first hours of the campaign.
         By mid afternoon some 420,000 dinars ($588,000) in donations were
phoned in to state-run Jordan television which is organising the event along
with the Hashemite Charity Organisation, television said.
         Religious Affairs Minister Abdel Salam Abbadi and Jordanian Prime
Minister Adnan Badran, in separate statements on state television, urged
Jordanians to be generous to help the victims of the October 8 earthquake.
         Badran set the tone by making a personal contribution of 10,000
dinars ($14,000). The Arab Bank, a pillar of Jordan’s economy, pitched in with
a similar amount and announced that it was exceptionally opening up several
branches after the Friday prayers to receive donations.
         The telethon is being held at the request of King Abdullah II, the first
head of state to travel to quake-stricken Pakistan on October 14.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   27

        Jordan has already sent four planes of relief goods along with a 25-bed
mobile hospital and 50-member staff to Pakistan in the aftermath of the
deadly earthquake.
                                                       The News, 29 October 2005

       K ASHMIR B ORDER          TO BE    O PENED      FOR   Q UAKE A ID
ISLAMABAD, Pakistan, Sunday, Oct. 30 - Pakistan and India agreed early on
Sunday to open the disputed frontier in earthquake-stricken Kashmir for the
first time in their embittered 58-year history, officials said.
          Starting on Nov. 7, Kashmiris from divided families will be allowed to
cross on foot at five points on the Line of Control, the military line that
divides parts of the Himalayan region that is claimed in its entirety by both
India and Pakistan.
          Officials from both countries met in the Pakistani capital Islamabad
on Saturday in an effort to reach an agreement, and the talks ran well past
          President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan had suggested on Oct. 18 that
the two countries should open the Line of Control to Kashmiris on both sides.
India proposed that Kashmiris from the Pakistani-controlled part of Kashmir
could have access to medical relief at three points on the Indian side. In turn,
Pakistan said that Kashmiris from both sides should be allowed to cross at five
points, and not just for medical relief.
          The agreement between the nuclear-armed rivals came as a breather
for the people of Kashmir, where the Oct. 8 earthquake left a trail of
destruction and devastation. The countries have fought three wars over
Kashmir and a military insurgency has claimed thousands of lives. The joint
statement characterized the agreement as a "humanitarian gesture." It also
stressed that priority of crossing would be given to the Kashmiris from divided
          "It is a difficult time for Kashmiris," Tasnim Aslam, a spokeswoman
for Pakistan's Foreign Office, said. "We think that with this decision,
Kashmiris from divided families will be able to meet their relatives, and will be
able comfort and help one another."
                         Salman Masood, New York Times, on line, 30 October 2005
28                                                                       IPRI Factfile

     F OR P AKISTANI V ILLAGERS ,           A   R ISKY D ECISION        TO   S TAY

As Winter Looms, Quake Victims Resist Evacuation to Camps
PROOT KALAY, Pakistan -- High on the wall of an isolated valley, Atiqullah,
his wife and eight children are struggling to stay alive. They huddle for warmth
in a makeshift shelter of plastic and wood, ration meager supplies of rice and
turnips and dread the onset of winter snows that will soon blanket their
destroyed village in drifts as tall as a man.
          A schoolteacher and farmer who uses just one name, Atiqullah, 43,
said he knows that one option available to the family is evacuation. They could
pack up their paltry belongings and hike 12 miles down the valley to the
nearest town, where they presumably could find shelter in one of the relief
camps springing up at lower elevations.
          But so far, he said, he is not willing to trade the family's self-reliant life
in the mountains for a future as destitute refugees, despite the risks inherent in
that choice. "I will stay here with my cattle," said Atiqullah, a whip-thin
Pashtun tribesman with hawk-like features and a piercing gaze. "I will die
          Therein lies the dilemma for the government and foreign aid agencies
as they struggle with the aftermath of the massive Oct. 8 earthquake in
northern Pakistan, which killed at least 55,000 people, injured tens of
thousands more and left several million people homeless, many of them in
rugged mountains that are difficult to access in the best of times.
          While many survivors have hiked out of the mountains in search of
help, tens of thousands are electing to stay behind, spurning pleas from the
army, in particular, to evacuate flattened villages -- many cut off by landslides -
- for burgeoning relief camps where victims can more easily be provided with
shelter, food and medical care.
          Here in the Allai Valley in North-West Frontier Province, the army
last week announced plans to evacuate as many as 80,000 people -- by
helicopter, on foot and by mule -- from isolated villages in higher parts of the
valley that will soon be draped in snow. But the evacuation was suspended
after just one day when many villagers balked at leaving homes and croplands
their families have occupied for generations, according to army officials
involved in the operation.
          In the face of such resistance, aid groups are developing plans to
provide families with roofing material and other supplies that will allow them
to repair damaged homes or build temporary winterized structures that --
especially at higher altitudes -- are considered preferable to tents, which in any
case are in short supply.
          Provided that such shelters can be built before winter sets in, many
relief officials say, the approach is preferable over the long run to housing
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction              29

victims in squalid tent cities where they run the risk of losing touch with
communities and livelihoods. Relief camps are still being built at lower
elevations to accommodate survivors who feel they have no choice but to
leave the mountains, U.N. officials said.
         "Camps are the last resort," said Chris Lom, a spokesman for the
International Organization for Migration in Islamabad, the capital. "They
frequently will become dependent in camps, making it very difficult for them
to go back."
         Although the disaster is more than three weeks old, U.N. officials
complain that the world has still not awakened to its dimensions, warning that
thousands of survivors are at potentially lethal risk from disease, hunger and
exposure. On Friday, U.N. officials said that donor governments have
provided only about 20 percent of the $550 million that the United Nations
has requested to fund relief operations for the next six months; they warn that
some helicopters could soon be grounded as a result.
         Those figures sketch an incomplete picture, however, because they do
not take account of other forms of aid that bypass the U.N. relief apparatus.
For example, the United States so far has committed about $100 million to the
relief effort, most of which will be provided directly to the Pakistani
government or private aid agencies rather than routed through the United
Nations, or used to fund helicopter flights and other relief activities by the
American military, U.S. officials said.
         Jan Vandemoortele, the U.N. aid coordinator in Pakistan, said in a
brief interview that even with such bilateral assistance, the international
response so far has been "thoroughly insufficient" to the scale of the disaster.
U.N. officials say the relief effort is in many respects a much bigger challenge
than last year's Asian tsunami, given the remoteness of areas affected by the
         One such area is the Allai Valley, which is home to about 190,000
people. Many live in tiny villages that cling to steep forested mountainsides
overlooking a twisting river with water the color of jade. From its lower
reaches near the town of Battagram, about 70 miles north of Islamabad, the
valley gains elevation as it runs north toward the rugged Kohistan mountains,
now rimmed with early snow.
         For more than a week, the army and relief groups have been
extending their reach in the valley, whose road network has been largely
blocked by landslides. About a week ago, an army platoon set up camp and
established a helicopter pad in the village of Bateela about a mile from Proot
Kalay, a smaller village that was home to about 500 people.
                           John Lancaster, Washington Post, Foreign Service, 1 November 2005
30                                                                IPRI Factfile

Squalid conditions in camps for Pakistani earthquake victims could kill
thousands more people, far exceeding the toll in remote villages that have been
the focus of aid efforts so far, Oxfam said on Friday.
         The British charity said the risk of disease was growing in crowded
camps that have sprung up in devastated cities, while the sheer numbers of
people living there meant that any outbreak would be disastrous.
         "The focus on what's happening in the most remote communities in
earthquake-hit Kashmir is overshadowing the thousands more lives that are in
danger in the increasing number of camps," Oxfam said in a statement.
         "Unless conditions are improved in these camps, diseases like cholera
could spread like wildfire," Jane Cocking, who is in Pakistan leading Oxfam's
emergency response, said in the statement.
         "If disease does break out in the camps, the number of deaths could
far exceed those in danger in their villages."
         United Nations officials have repeatedly spoken of the need to get
shelter and food to Himalayan hamlets cut off by the October 8 earthquake,
which killed 73,000 people in Pakistan and 1,300 in India.
         Helicopters from around the world have been flying daily sorties to
reach them before winter sets in and Pakistan says around 40 have yet to be
         "The thousands of people living in remote villages are in serious
danger, especially once the snows come, but the plight of those who are living
in camps has not received the same attention," Ms Cocking said.
         The statement said tens of thousands more people were set to move
into formal and informal refugee camps over the winter, many of which have
been erected on flood plains with inadequate water and sanitation facilities.
         Oxfam said it was scaling up its water and sanitation operation in the
earthquake zone.
         The charity has already restored a supply of clean water to almost
100,000 people and plans to provide water to another half a million.
                                                  ABC News, 5 November 2005

MUZAFFARABAD Nov 11: Children likely make up half of the 74,000
people who died in the quake, the United Nations said on Friday, confirming
fears that the disaster had claimed a “lost generation.”
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   31

         “We estimate that half of the death casualties were children, but many
more were injured,” Unicef representative for Pakistan Omar Abdi told the
Integrated Regional Information Networks, a UN-funded news agency.
         “The data hasn’t been registered yet. But half of the population of
Pakistan is under 18 so we would estimate out of those who have died, half are
children,” Abdi added.
         The October 8 quake hit at the start of a school day and there were
immediate fears that children could make up the bulk of the casualties when it
became clear that thousands of schools had collapsed.
         Pakistan’s chief military spokesman, Major General Shaukat Sultan,
had told AFP two days after the disaster that “a whole generation has been
lost” in Kashmir and North West Frontier Province. Local government figures
show that around 17,000 students alone died, Abdi said, while there were
many other young people who were not in school at the time.
         “They have also been affected emotionally. Those that were going to
school now find that there are no schools. They are at risk of diseases. As for
the impact on children, it’s significant,” Abdi added.
         Nearly four-fifths of all schools and public buildings collapsed in the
quake, he said.
         Women were badly hit by the quake as well as the young, Unicef’s
Abdi added.—AFP
                                                      Dawn, 12 November 2005
                                < >

 K ASHMIR ’ S E ARTHQUAKE : D ON ’ T C ARE               OR   D ON ’ T K NOW ?
The Kashmir death-toll is rising yet aid remains a trickle. Beena
Sarwar asks why and calls for action.
My 9-year old daughter Maha knows about the earthquake that devastated
Pakistan-controlled Kashmir and parts of Indian-controlled Kashmir on 8
October 2005, but she keeps saying: “hurricane – sorry, I mean
earthquake…”. It is hardly surprising – our arrival in Cambridge,
Massachusetts from Karachi, Pakistan on 27 August coincided with the build-
up of hurricane Katrina before it smashed into Louisiana. Television was full
of the threat and then the devastation as Maha began school the following
week. Like her classmates, she contributed to her school’s hurricane-relief
drive. For weeks she has pounced on all the small change from grocery
shopping and deposited her pocket money into the “hurricane jar” in her
32                                                                    IPRI Factfile

         The Kashmir earthquake has already claimed more than 79,000 lives
according to official figures; unofficial estimates put the number closer to
100,000. Whichever is closest to the truth, the figure is likely to double as
winter sets in. In that case, it will approach the 200,000 casualties of the Indian
Ocean tsunami of December 2004.
         Katrina left a little over 1,200 people dead and displaced half a
million. “Misery links victims of quake, hurricane; Scope of Pakistan crisis
much larger, however”, is how the Baton Rouge Advocate headlined Robert
Tanner’s report from Battal, Pakistan (22 October 2005). Tanner had also
covered the aftermath of Katrina. He said that the earthquake’s aftermath was
“much crueller”.
         Those wounded in the mountains have far nastier injuries than those
hit by a hurricane or tsunami. Much of the earthquake area is accessible only
on foot or by helicopter (these have often been grounded by bad weather as
winter sets in). With scant medical facilities, doctors are being forced to carry
out amputations without anaesthesia, even on children.
         The earthquake made over 3.3 million homeless; and the earthquake
victims are shelter-less in sub-zero temperatures.
         Aid workers call this place more difficult to work in even than Darfur.
Unicef calls it “the children's catastrophe" because of the large number of
children who are homeless and at risk – between 1.6 and 2.2 million. United
Nations secretary-general Kofi Annan calls this aspect of the crisis even worse
than the tsunami.
         But compared to the generosity witnessed after the tsunami, the
world’s response has been miserly. The tsunami of December 2004 catalysed
$10 billion in disaster relief for its victims – marginally less than the $10.5
billion the United States Senate proposed for Katrina’s victims (to which
President Bush committed a further $51.8 on 7 September). In contrast,
Pakistan has received only $630 million so far, out of the minimum $5 billion
urgently needed. There are three evident reasons for this: “donor fatigue” after
repeated disasters in the past year; unease about giving money to a nuclear-
armed, military-led nation unable to contain the religious militancy breeding
within its borders; and concerns about help not reaching those that need it
most (something not helped by reports about over-extended armed forces
refusing non-government organisations a free hand in distributing tents and
other relief).
         There may be more western corporate interests in the tsunami areas,
but this still doesn’t explain the relatively little corporate aid to the earthquake
– India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan receive about the same meagre percentage of
foreign direct investment, 1% of their gross domestic product.
         Whatever the case, the scale of the human need demands that
governments and donors work out, and fast, how to bring aid to those who
are suffering.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction      33

         “Donor fatigue” doesn’t explain the relative silence of media that
normally thrive on disaster. The few reports trickling in from the earthquake
zone remain blips in the overall media radar. Despite stunning photographs
and excellent reporting on how precarious life is without tents and aid, these
reports are mostly buried in the inside pages. The contrast with the sustained
and prominent reporting on the Asian tsunami and hurricane Katrina is stark.
Do western media lack interest because the earthquake struck an unfamiliar,
far-off area?
         Katrina struck the United States itself. The tsunami hit popular tourist
destinations during peak holiday season, directly affecting hundreds of
westerners; survivors gave the media great eye-witness interviews.
         “There are no westerners in Kashmir,” says David Ropeik, an
Instructor in Risk Communication at the Harvard School of Public Health.
         “We don’t know that area, and can’t identify with the earthquake
victims. The feeling is that this doesn’t affect ‘us’.”
         Might this change if the media played its due role? That’s the hope of
the organisers of an online petition called “Save lives by urging media to
provide coverage for earthquake in South Asia”; and in an effort to highlight
the issue, an umbrella group of concerned organisations held a world-wide
vigil on 8 November, one month after the quake struck. The vigil was
observed in thirty American cities, together with Amsterdam and Lahore;
many of those involved plan to continue their efforts to bring the earthquake
to further public and media attention.
         Meanwhile, the donations jar in Maha’s class, recently relabelled
“earthquake relief”, remains nearly empty. “They don’t know about it
enough”, she figures. They don’t know that more 15,000 children died when
their schools collapsed over them during the earthquake, and that 10,000
children may well die from hypothermia in the next two weeks, unless the
world wakes up – now.
                                                                 14 November 2005

                      G LOBAL A ID       FOR   D ISASTER
The 8 October earthquake raises several questions concerning global aid
response. Greater in magnitude than tsunami, this disaster caused massive
destruction in northern areas and NWFP, covering over 29,000 sq-km. Tens
of thousands of people were killed and countless injured. According to the
United Nations around 4 million people were affected by the worst-ever
catastrophe that struck the country. It will take decades to rebuild the area
reduced to rubble.
         Even a developed country cannot have resources to cope with such a
grave national emergency. So a joint response from the international
34                                                                 IPRI Factfile

community was urgently needed for rescue, relief, and reconstruction
purposes. But it remained slow and inadequate. UN Secretary General Kofi
Annan has deplored the poor response by the world at large, especially by the
rich countries. He repeatedly warned the world that if food, medicine, tents,
blankets were not provided to the quake victims on emergency basis, human
causalities would further fear to rise. Government’s initial estimates for
reconstruction are US$ 5 billion and it will take five to 10 years to complete.
An emergency international ministerial conference was held at the initiative of
the United Nation on 26 October at Geneva to discuss shortfall in aid to
Pakistan. The conference was chaired by Annan. About 6o countries attended
the conference. The UN Humanitarian Affairs spokeswoman, said the
conference would take stock of the situation and the humanitarian response’
and also look at the problems that need to be confronted as swiftly as possible.
Rich countries were invited to use this occasion to make new pledges in
response to the UN flash appeal, in cash and in kind, through multilateral or
bilateral channels, as put by an official of the Office for Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).
          Annan had pointed out that the United Nations would like to see a
‘result-oriented outcome’ of this conference ‘without any excuses’. It should
also be mentioned here that when the United Nations appealed to the
international community to assist the tsunami victims, over 80 percent aid was
provided within a week. Unfortunately in case of Pakistan, only 12 percent was
offered over the past three weeks. According to the UN spokeswoman only
US$ 90 million had so far been pledged towards the early US$ 312-million
appeal for victims. The UN tally so far includes US$ 68 million in cash and
another US$35 million in pledges from donor governments for six months of
emergency relief funding. This collection is only about 32.6 percent of the
relief money United Nations had appealed for. It was realized that rich
governments are not doing enough.
          It might be the result of ‘donor fatigue’ caused by huge aid given to
the victims of tsunami and hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Tsunami relief
collected US$1.4 billion and the hurricane Katrina US$ 1.8 billion.
The U.N Humanitarian Aid Coordinator for Pakistan, has also acknowledged
this fact. For whatever reason, the world response to the 8th October disaster
remained slow and sluggish.
          United Nations has appealed to the donors to help Pakistan within
two weeks to avoid more deaths and causalities.
          Just ahead of the conference, Masood Khan, Pakistan’s Ambassador
to the United Nations, insisted that the aid flash appeal for Pakistan should be
upgraded from US$ 312 million to US$ 549 million. This is an increase of 56.8
percent from the previous pledge. Whatever estimates or standards were
drawn, Pakistan’s request still seems quite modest.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   35

         At the Geneva conference, US$ 580 million ‘pledges’ were made by
the donors of which only US$ 15.8 million were offered to UN flash appeal,
leaving the United Nations with only 20 per cent of its appeal. Now with these
new pledges, the UN has received only US$ 111 million. This definitely fell far
short of UN quick goals for relief effort. UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO, WFO
need urgent cash and kind. But donors did not make prompt decisions at the
         They referred back to their governments. Confusion remained intact.
Ambiguity of global aid blemished the conference. Swift action was not taken.
UN officials are themselves not clear how much was pledged in cash or kind,
to UN or on bilateral basis, as stated by the UN Spokesperson.
Therefore, it is clear that Pakistan is not getting enough money in time. It was
a time to act, not simply to go back to a respective government and then come
back again. Time is running out. The good news is that we have very good
pledges. The bad news is that we still have too few concrete commitments to
the UN flash appeal’, stated by Jan Egeland, UN Emergency Relief
Coordinator at a news conference in Geneva. ‘I think that the NGOs that are
complaining about lack of response to appeals are right. We share that view’,
stated by Annan at the conference. OXFAM, a UK based NGO, said that ‘the
public will be shocked that so many rich governments have given so little’.
Some of the European countries even did not contribute a single penny to the
United Nations. The sympathetic response of the Islamic countries was indeed
appreciative. Nearly half of the new pledges - US$250 million - came from the
Islamic Development Bank, as mentioned by one of Egeland’s aides.
         Commenting on the donors’ response at the Geneva conference,
Ahmed Kamal, Pakistan’s former Ambassador to the United Nation, was
‘dismayed’ at the poor response of the international community at the time of
this gravest national emergency. Sartaj Aziz, former Foreign and Finance
Minister of Pakistan, said that the response at the Geneva conference was
         But as global response to UN flash appeal for aid to Pakistan’s
disaster relief was slow and inadequate, we do not need to expect much from
the rich countries. Let us mobilize all our national resources and energies,
which we are already doing, so that we could avert another catastrophe caused
by ‘pledges’, ‘promises’, and ‘untimely’ actions of donors. Let’s not wait but
keep acting. And let’s write a proud history of ours.
                              Ahmad Rashid Malik, The Nation, 15 November 2005
                  < >
36                                                                 IPRI Factfile

       A L OT M ORE N EEDED , SAYS A NNAN : R ELIEF                AND
                      R ECONSTRUCTION
ISLAMABAD, Nov 17: UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said on Thursday
many more lives could have been saved after the October 8 earthquake, had
the UN received resources and there were no logistic challenges in rushing
relief to the inaccessible areas.
          “The UN did receive some response but we need much, much more
to be able to help the people in need,” he told journalists at the Chaklala Air
          Mr Annan has arrived in Pakistan to attend Saturday’s International
Donors Conference to seek long term support of the world community in
rebuilding devastated areas in Azad Jammu and Kashmir and the NWFP.
          He said: “We need more resources, not just for emergency but also
for recovery and reconstruction.”
          Mr Annan beseeched the world to wake up to the scale of the disaster
and give generously to help the country rebuild. He said he wanted the world’s
better-off governments, corporates and people to help Pakistan.
          “I would expect the world, those with capacity, to give generously and
give willingly, and I’m not just speaking to the governments but also to the
private sector and individuals who can contribute,” he said.
          About the UN warning of second cycle of deaths, he said the death
rate had been increasing ever since.
          Mr Annan said the world could not have imagined the scale of
devastation till after the first few days and asked the media to highlight the
magnitude of the devastation and the urgency to rush relief to the affected
          He said the UN planned to rebuild better houses in what he said was
the ‘recovery plus,’ not just build what was before, but build it in a manner
that could withstand another disaster.
          The UN secretary-general was received by Foreign Minister Khurshid
Kasuri who thanked him for UN assistance to cope with the disaster.—
          Qudssia Akhlaque adds: Mr Annan has a hectic schedule for Friday
that includes meetings with the top Pakistani leadership and visit to the quake-
affected areas in Azad Kashmir and the NWFP.
          Speaking to media on his arrival here, the UN secretary-general
termed the response of the international community to the catastrophic
disaster inadequate, prodding it for contributions that are more generous.
          On Friday, Annan’s first official engagement will be a brief meeting
with President Gen Pervez Musharraf at the Aiwan-i-Sadr after which he will
embark on a tour of the quake-hit areas.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     37

         The president or the prime minister is expected to accompany the UN
secretary-general. When this reporter asked military spokesperson Maj-Gen
Shaukat Sultan about it on Thursday, he said: “Certainly, someone important
would accompany the UN secretary-general.”
         He said Mr Annan would fly over the entire quake-hit area to see the
magnitude of the disaster while land at a couple of places. He would also be
taken to an area where rehabilitation work is being undertaken.
         Maj-Gen Sultan, who will be accompanying the media, for security
reasons did not divulge names of specific areas to be visited. However, he
hinted that “one major place” where no media member had ever been was
included in the visit.
         While Muzaffarabad is on the agenda, there are strong indications that
the UN secretary-general would go up to the Line of Control that divides
         A 35-member national and international media team, including four
official members of UN media, would also be going in two separate
helicopters. One owned by the UN and the other Pakistan army.
         After the tour ends in the afternoon and the UN secretary-general will
have lunch with the president. Later, he will call on Foreign Minister Khurshid
Kasuri at the Foreign Office.
         In the evening, Mr Kofi Annan will address a press conference at the
hotel where he is staying.
         His meeting with the prime minister will take place later in the
evening, which will be followed by a ‘quiet’ dinner.
                                                      Dawn, 18 November 2005
                                 < >

  WB E NDORSES R EBUILDING E STIMATES                      OF   $5.2 B ILLION
WASHINGTON, Nov 17: In a 124-page assessment report, the World Bank
has endorsed Pakistan government’s claim that it needs about $5.2 billion to
effectively implement a relief, recovery and reconstruction strategy in the wake
of last month’s devastating earthquake.
           The Preliminary Damage and Needs Assessment report, released by
the Asian Development Bank and World Bank here on Thursday, says that at
least $3.5 billion was needed for reconstruction of houses, schools, health
facilities, roads and other public infrastructure.
           A joint ADB and WB team began an assessment survey on October
24 and completed it in a record time of 19 days.
           The report estimates that $1.92 would be needed for relief operations,
$205 million for death and injury compensation, $301 million for early
recovery, $97 million for restoration of livelihood and $3.503 billion for
38                                                                IPRI Factfile

reconstruction, including $450 million for short term reconstruction and
$3.053 billion for medium and long term construction.
         The assessment, carried out in close coordination with the
government, sets out guidelines for a comprehensive recovery approach that
will meet the needs of the affected people.
         The guidelines call for a common framework to be adopted by
organizations and institutions involved to ensure consistency and equity across
rehabilitation efforts.
         Quoting official figures, the report notes that at least 73,000 people
were killed in the NWFP and the AJK, with 3.5 million persons displaced and
an estimated 1.6 million persons without adequate food supply.
         The World Bank has transferred $200 million to Pakistan from the
$470 million announced on October 25. The rest will be available in a week or
         A senior WB official said the bank would indicate further amounts on
November 19. “We stand ready to do as much as needed until the job is done
in a manner which does not leave anyone behind. We all need to make sure
that the additional burden of this calamity does not hamper the country’s
poverty reduction efforts,” the official said.
         The assessment puts the total reconstruction cost for the main sectors
under: — Social infrastructure: private housing ($1,552 million) health ($303
million) education ($472 million) environment ($151 million) and public
administration ($72 million). — Physical infrastructure: transport ($416
million) water supply and sanitation ($32 million) irrigation ($10 million) and
energy and fuel ($40 million). — Economic sectors: agriculture and livestock
($300 million) and industry and services ($155 million).
                                                    Dawn, 18 November 2005
                               < >

The international support secured by Pakistan’s post-9/11 change of course
might have been spontaneous but the internal management of that policy has
been far from easy. The economic recovery of the past five years has been an
even more difficult process, despite global support.
         The country’s remarkable passage through these crises could now be
eroded by the consequences of the October 8 earthquake in Azad Kashmir
and the NWFP.
         During the five years of economic recovery, and for a decade before
that, Pakistan’s defence budget had remained at virtually zero growth. Efforts
to redress at least the most important imbalances in our defence capability
were held back, in anticipation of improved fiscal conditions. Our defence and
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction      39

development challenge has now an added complexity: the nation’s obligation
and pledge to rebuild the devastated lives and environment of the earthquake
          Pakistan’s unexpected predicament would be greatly eased if its
defence needs could be placed on hold for another decade. This would enable
us to rebuild the earthquake-affected areas more quickly. Unfortunately, just as
no country can choose its neighbours, none can persuade its adversaries to
desist from taking advantage of its internal and external weaknesses.
          In contrast to Pakistan, India’s defence spending has been spiralling at
unprecedented rates and it is listed among the top arms buyers in the world.
New Delhi has launched very large expansion and modernization programmes
for the Indian army, navy and air force. The Indian leaders have publicly
advocated preemptive military action against adversary nations.
          In any future war against us, the Indian strategic enclave assumes that
the conflict would somehow be controlled to keep it sub-nuclear, enabling
India’s numerically superior conventional forces to overwhelm those of
Pakistan. To avoid being forced up the nuclear rung in such an eventuality,
Pakistan needs to build and maintain minimum deterrent levels of
conventional forces. That process has already fallen behind by 15 years.
          In the context of our post-earthquake needs, a few commentators
have suggested that the purchase of Pakistan’s F-16s should be postponed or
even cancelled. Some others have questioned the recently announced contract
for the Swedish Erieye Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C)
aircraft for the PAF.
          Regrettably, India’s purchase of the Israeli Phalcon AWACS radar last
year seriously escalated the intensity of all future land-sea-air conflict scenarios
between Pakistan and India. By accurately tracking from standoff distances the
movements of our army units within Pakistani territory, the Indian AWACS
could compel our land forces to fight from a position of extraordinary
          Similarly, the protection by our naval ships of Pakistan’s logistic lines
in the Arabian Sea would be seriously hampered by the Indian AWACS. The
PAF’s wartime task of protecting industrial and military infrastructures could
be seriously disrupted by the Phalcon-directed interceptors arriving undetected
by Pakistan’s surface-based radars. The overriding implication of the Indian
AWACS is that it would place the already outnumbered conventional forces of
Pakistan at an even greater handicap. Undoubtedly, this scenario persuaded
Pakistan’s government and the three services to agree to acquire an adequate
air surveillance capability on an urgent basis.
          Only a few countries possess mature technology for long-range, look-
down airborne radars and fewer still produce operationally proven surveillance
planes that are actually in service. Some advanced AWACS, like those made in
the United States, are beyond Pakistan’s reach for reasons of technology and
40                                                                  IPRI Factfile

cost. The PAF’s five-year evaluation of all AWACS became urgent when India
signed the Phalcon contract with Israel. Of all the candidate systems that
offered adequate performance for the least cost, the Swedish Erieye made by
SAAB was professionally judged to carry the most value.
         It is further reassuring to know that the government has contracted to
acquire the SAAB-Erieye system on credit financing entailing least real-
expenditure burden on a yearly basis for the national exchequer with payments
spread over a 10-year period. In the first five years of the contract, only 20 per
cent of the national exposure in real terms is made while the nation receives
the entire lot of six missionized AEW & C aircraft.
         Credit payments for the remaining 80 per cent from the national
funds then begin to be made in the remaining five years. This is a financially
attractive proposition, giving the government the required fiscal space for
pursuing other development programmes including the earthquake
rehabilitation effort.
         The 20-year delay in acquiring Pakistan’s additional F-16s has now
rendered the correlation between the Indian and Pakistani air forces critically
mismatched. The PAF’s only high-tech combat aircraft (the F-16) arrived in
Pakistan 23 years ago. The Indian Air Force (IAF) now possesses three kinds
of high-tech aircraft and the number of each type continues to grow.
         While Pakistan-India talks that have taken place at several levels this
year have shown promise and good intentions on both sides, there has been a
noticeable absence of a turning point on Kashmir, and Pakistanis, who have
seen ‘talk-to-death’ tactics being played out in the past, cannot be blamed for
feeling cynical and weary.
         Similarly, Pakistan can hardly make India’s assumed good intentions
the basis for measuring the threat to its security. Instead, the nation’s security
experts have to evaluate India’s unceasing quest for offensive military power
to determine the threats that Pakistan might face unexpectedly, as it did during
10 months in 2002.
         The PAF has reportedly taken the initiative to propose a review of the
F-16 programme, preferring in the interim to get some used F-16s and
updating its 1980 model F-16s. The deliveries of the new F-16s have
apparently been pushed three to five years forward and are spread over a
longer time span, to enable the government to manage the decade-long
rehabilitation and reconstruction planned for the earthquake-hit regions more
         As it was on September 11, 2001, Pakistan’s best option in the present
adversity is once again the most difficult one to implement. The country’s
resources must be carefully apportioned for earthquake-related expenditures,
major national development projects and social sector investments. Pakistan’s
guard against unexpected military confrontations must not, however, be
lowered to such an extent that it invites aggression. Of course, our citizens
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     41

expect, as they must, that expenditures in all these endeavours remain in the
hands of those who will maintain and meet the most stringent standards of
transparency and accountability.
         The most traumatic lesson that Pakistan has learned in its
neighbourhood is never to assume that respect for international law can hold
back a neighbour’s aggressive impulses. Should there be any military reverses
on our borders, those who are now claiming that the government had failed to
prepare for our worst earthquake would, with far greater justification, blame
the rulers for basing our national defence on false threat assumptions and for
their lack of readiness.
         Great calamities invariably put nations through agonizing dilemmas. It
is not wise to allow Pakistan’s defence preparations to be degraded to such an
extent that the country is unable to protect its frontiers. It is also illogical to
advocate that Pakistan cannot simultaneously deal with the difficult challenges
of the earthquake and meet, at the same time, the minimum essential
requirements of national security.
                                                           Dawn, 18 November 2005
                           < >

                 D ONORS ’ C ONFERENCE
Prime Minister of Pakistan Mr. Shaukat Aziz, Secretary General of the United
Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan, distinguished delegates, excellencies, ladies and
         Let me start by personally expressing on my own behalf and on the
behalf of entire nation, our extreme gratitude to first of all to Secretary
General Mr. Kofi Annan for the concerns he has always shown, the support
he has always given and the involvement that he has always shown in helping
Pakistan in our hour of need. We are extremely grateful to you sir. I would
also like to extend the nation’s gratitude to more than 75 delegations from all
over the world and representing various organizations to be here in Pakistan to
share our grief and to lend support at this hour of need of Pakistan. I will
specially single out representation of India today sitting here, thank you very
much. I will also like to take this opportunity to express my extreme gratitude
to all the world leaders with whom I spoke and who responded so
spontaneously in sending delegations on my request to Pakistan for this
occasion. I am extremely grateful to all of them. Let me say ladies and
gentlemen that it was in this same spirit of support and of concern that we saw
the international community helping us in the first two stages of the
earthquake and that is rescue and relief operation stages. The relief operation
is continuing even now. The disaster and this calamity that you saw in the
42                                                                     IPRI Factfile

films shown to you struck us. And magnitude of this disaster was of indeed
heart-rending for any one. 73,000 people died and equal numbers of people
have been seriously injured, many disabled for life.
          There are 400,000 households affected and this account for about 3.5
million people affected.
          Children are the main victims because they happened to be in schools
at that time. Major front of the casualties has been taken by the children. They
say a full generation has been lost.
          Livelihood of the people in the affected areas has been lost.
          Livestock has been killed, the minor business that they were doing in
those areas have totally been collapsed. Entire infrastructure in the areas has
been destroyed. Roads, the schools, the colleges, the hospitals, all the utilities
including electricity, gas, telecommunication facilities stand destroyed at this
moment in those areas.’
          More than that, the survivors of the calamity are facing unbearable
human sufferings. Children have orphaned, the women have been rendered
destitute and thousands of people have been disabled and suffering from
psychological trauma. The overall affected areas, ladies and gentlemen, that
you see on maps on right and the left and behind us is plus 28,000 square
kilometers. I was comparing this with some countries, it almost equals to
Netherlands or Belgium. In all 9 districts have been affected, 5 in NWFP and
4 in Azad Kashmir. This accounts for 25 tehsils. Tehsils are the sub-districts or
sub-divisions, there have been two to four tehsils in each district. An overall
4000 village clusters have got affected. I call villages as clusters because villages
as you go to mountains where this earthquake has struck, it has a core of about
25 to 50 houses but then it has a surrounding on the mountains of a number
of houses dispersed all over the mountains. So therefore, a cluster of about
100 houses on the average forms that village.
          Ladies and gentlemen the earthquake struck on 8 October at 08.52
hours. The response was extremely swift I would say. First by the people of
Pakistan. They rose as one, their response was indeed overwhelming and heart
warming for any leader of a country.
          They reached out from the length and breadth of the country for their
brethren in distress.
          They galvanized, they jelled into one and reached out to that areas of
Azad Kashmir and NWFP. The army moved fast, the medical assistance of the
army in the form of evacuation of the casualties by the evening of 8th
October, by 5 O’clock there were helicopters hovering over every hospital in
Islamabad and Rawalpindi waiting to land and unload the. On the same day in
the evening the engineers of Pakistan army were moved to open the road
access to Muzaffarabad and by about 12 O clock the next day, one of the road
accesses via Abbottabad and Garhi Habibullah to Muzaffarabad was opened.
This was the greatest achievement which led to faster supplies to the forward
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   43

areas. By the morning on next day, a brigade which means about 3000 people
had reached their locations and within three to four days forty-fifty thousands
troops in the form of two divisions reached their locations. This is no mean
achievement by any army of the world. The international community, the
United Nations, the NGOs all moved fast. They came into Pakistan to help us.
My extreme gratitude to each and every one of them.
         Ladies and gentlemen, the stage one was the rescue operation. I would
like to express deep gratitude to all the teams which came from many
countries of the world. Without their help we would have lost may lives.
         Pakistan lacked the technical expertise of reaching out the casualties
and saving people from under the rubble. It was these rescue teams that
helped us. My extreme gratitude and extreme gratitude of the whole nation to
these rescue teams who saved lives.
         The stage two of the operation was the relief operation which still
continues. Tremendous support, as I said, is available to this relief operation
by the international community, by the people of Pakistan within Pakistan and
by the expatriate Pakistanis. The international community, the Pakistani
NGOs and the foreign NGOs, the UNO - no words are enough to express
our gratitude to all of them.
         Mr. Kofi Annan I would like to express special gratitude to you for
your concern and your convening the Geneva Donor Conference where
financial support was assured to Pakistan for the relief operations. My I also
take this opportunity to express our gratitude to Mrs. Kofi Annan who is here
with us today sharing our grief. The financial support and the supply of relief
goods given to us during the relief operation has been massive and the support
has helped us in addressing the relief operations problem.
         Pakistan government responded swiftly, it established institutions
under the President’s reconstruction initiative. We established the President’s
relief fund which is operative now and the people are contributing into it. It is
totally transparent and it will remain so. We appointed the Federal Relief
Commissioner who is looking after the entire gambit of relief operations.
         Then we established Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation
Authority which will be responsible for policy formulation and execution of all
the reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts from now onward. We have also
launched a national volunteer movement.
         This we thought as essential, because the spirit, the energy that has
been generated, the enthusiasm, the patriotism being displayed by the people
of Pakistan, specially by the youth of Pakistan in leaving their jobs and
reaching out to the people in the destructed areas, we thought this energy
needs to be given a direction, to be channelised for the purpose of supporting
the earthquake victims. That is why we have launched this national volunteer
44                                                                 IPRI Factfile

          I will be addressing the first batch of these volunteers who will then
be dispatched into the forward areas to help the earthquake victims in the
reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts.
          This was the response of the government on the strategic level. We
indeed confronted many problems. I thought I would try to share them with
you very briefly. The first problem was delivery of the relief supply to the
people. This included a three stages delivery.
          Number one from places all over the world and from every nook and
corner of Pakistan bringing relief supplies to the main centers of the support
of relief operations that is Chaklala in this area of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.
This was the problem because Pakistan did not have the aircraft lift capacity.
Then the other branch of this forward movement was to take these relief
supplies from the main basis in Rawalpindi-Islamabad to the forward basis in
the areas of Frontier and Kashmir and in the wake of broken down
communication infrastructure lack of helicopter support - this was major
problem that we faced. And then the third stage of moving the relief goods
from forward bases to the people, with limited communication infrastructure,
few roads reaching out and those roads washed off the only resort was
through animal transport and man porters. This was the first problem that
confronted us but over the time we have resolved this problem because of
international assistance in aircraft lift from foreign countries to Pakistan. By
mobilizing the entire railways system of Pakistan and the road transport
system to convey goods from within Pakistan to the main basis and then the
helicopter fleets that we got from the international community in taking all
these goods from the main basis to the forward basis. Then again the
helicopter fleets that we have and the animal transport regiment, the mules of
the army which took them forward and delivered them to the people.
Therefore ladies and gentlemen as the situation now stands, the logistic
support now leaning forward.
          In that the goods moving from main basis to the forward basis is
through the road transport and through the forward basis to the people
through helicopters so the helicopters have been moved to the forward basis.
The other problem that we face was the provision of shelters and there is a
race against time as I have shown to you. We are racing against time because
the winters are about to set in. Snows have already fallen on the peaks and I
think first December or the middle of December all the peaks it will be
snowing in the areas. Although the valleys do not receive snow.
          The main issue was provision of shelter and tents to face this winter
and may I say again that we had shortage of supply and we appealed the
international community and the international community came forward to
help us and the entire industry of Pakistan galvanized functioning 24 hours a
day and we will meet a target of five hundred thousands tents delivered to the
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction      45

people in those areas by the end of this month. That we feel is sufficient to
move them through the winter in an adequately comfortable manner. So
therefore the situation of shelters becomes satisfactory. The last point that we
faced was that this areas suddenly in a few minutes got de-moneytized. No
body had any money with him/her. The patients who were brought to various
cities of Pakistan did not have a penny. If you discharge them they could not
go back, they do not have money to pay the fair of buses. Therefore we
thought the immediate action is to moneytize the area and the government has
taken very fast action and decided to pump 20 billion rupees which is about
350 million dollars into the areas, giving hundred thousand rupees to each next
of kin of a casualty. Fifty thousand and twenty five thousand to serious and
less seriously wounded and twenty five thousand to every household with four
hundred thousand households.
          Therefore these twenty billion rupees when pumping through an area
of twenty eight thousand square kilometer, in the forward and remote areas of
NWFP and Kashmir - may be the poor areas of Frontier and Kashmir - I
think will generate business activity, economic activity and construction
activity will itself be generated because of this monetization of the areas. So
therefore ladies and gentlemen I would call the relief operation on the whole
satisfactory now with your, with world community’s assistance we are
extremely grateful. We want to sustain this effort for the next year and that is
where the funding is required as brought out by the Secretary General also and
I will come to it later.
          Now ladies and gentlemen, comes the main challenge - the main
challenge of reconstruction, the main challenge of rehabilitation.
Reconstruction deals with housing for the people, four hundred thousand
houses. It deals with social sector infrastructure, health and education
infrastructure. It deals with the physical infrastructure, the roads, the bridges
the utilities. It also deals with administrative infrastructure, the public sector
buildings which have all been collapsed. That is the reconstruction effort, the
rehabilitation effort deals with special affectees, giving protection to the special
affectees and that is the destitute women, orphaned Children and disabled
amputees which the government has undertaken to look after.
          The second rehabilitation aspect is to generate economic activity, the
small business that the people had. We need to rejuvenate that business
activity within those areas in those people and lastly to treat trauma cases and
psychological cases. That is the rehabilitation effort that is to be executed in
the future from now onwards. These demand, ladies and gentlemen, more
resources a better strategization and overarching well conceived strategy to
deal with the issue and demands more time in the implementation.
          I would like to say that for this we have created the Earthquake Relief
and Reconstruction Authority. The strategy has been worked out at the
government level, with me and the Prime Minister chairing all the meetings
46                                                                    IPRI Factfile

but the execution and implementation is left to this authority and we will keep
overseeing very very closely. I will like to take the reconstruction effort first of
          Ladies and gentlemen, the financial assessment and the cost of
reconstruction effort - and I am very glad to say that there is a consensus on
these figures, consensus between the United Nations Organizations, the World
Bank the Asian Development Bank and the government of Pakistan - and this
figure comes to a total of 5.2 billion dollars. Out of this 3.5 billion dollars is
for reconstruction, 1.6 billion dollars is to sustain the relief operation for
coming one next year and 100 million dollars is for rehabilitation effort.
          Pakistan cannot go alone and therefore ladies and gentlemen my
request for support from the world community. In this reconstruction, I
would like to take on the house construction part.
          As I said four hundred thousand houses, this figure is also a
consensus figure from everyone so there is no difference of opinion on the
figure that I am quoting. Ninety percent of these houses are in village clusters
in rural areas and only 10 percent in urban areas. We thought of a strategy to
implement and to look on this aspect of construction of house and came to
the conclusion that this should be owners driven and this is what the
experience of tsunami and other catastrophes of earthquakes in Turkey and
other countries shows.
          We cannot impose a solution on the people, therefore we would like it
to be the owners driven. And when I say owner driven, it has been decided to
give roughly 3300 dollars which comes to a maximum of two hundred
thousand rupees to each affected and that is four hundred thousand people.
And then would like to guide them to facilitate them to construct better
houses, earthquake proof, meet weather challenges in a much better way than
they lived in. We would like to create models of these houses in all those areas
and not only that but also send teams forward which would comprise of the
military engineers who are already there and divided in the teams of tens and
the national volunteer movement which people in thousands will be sent
forward to the military battalions areas for their administrative support and
from their base fan out, reach out to the people and guide them on how to
utilize the money that we are giving in a manner that their houses are better,
they are earthquake proof and improve their living standards.
          That is what I meant by owners driven and not imposed solution to
house construction. I think it would be the fastest method of ensuring house
construction. We have decided to move very fast and the fastest that we can
do. I believe in setting targets which are tough and we try to achieve them. I
personally think it is to be owners driven and we have delivered cash to the
people. We are delivering 20 billion rupees by the end of this month and the
process is going very well.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction       47

         If we start this within about six months which is the winter period, we
should be able to deliver this money to the people. And we do that, and if we
guide the construction and Re-erection of the houses, which should be able to
be done in the summer next. Which mean by December-January next year we
should be able to complete the construction to a large extent. This is a tall
order indeed, I do understand it myself but we will push it to meet this target
because we are shifting the people in one stage only, from temporary shelter in
the tents to the permanent accommodation, no intermediate step. The
problem that may arise, that which we are cognizant of is the availability of the
construction material which may not be adequate. But we are cognizant of that
we will import from anywhere.
         I know that India has promised 25 million dollars and we were
thinking of getting corrugated sheets - which is the main say of the
accommodation- entire from there. So that is how we will meet the challenge
of house construction. Let me come to education infrastructure. This we
thought will be based on a need based strategy, when I say need based strategy,
we intend universalizing education in Pakistan. So therefore much more than
reconstructing whatever has lost, we need to go for what is required by the
people there, what they should be having in the form of education
infrastructure, that will be a need based strategy and we are working and
calculating based on that.
         It may be much more than the reconstruction funds that will be given
to us or shared with us because that is based on the infrastructure that we have
lost. But we will meet the targets of the need based strategy as I am saying.
When this is need based and done by us by the rehabilitation authority that we
have formed, it will certainly be modern, it will be modular, it will fast track
construction and we are looking into various forms.
         Let me share some figures because ultimately when I come to the part
of donations and sponsorships these figures will hold handy. The figure that I
will come to in the future will be need based. One primary school in every
village cluster. One middle school in every four villages, one high school in
every 12 villages and one college in every 50 villages. That is three to four
colleges in each sub district or a tehsil. Now in accordance with the education
in Pakistan, this is very good. So therefore this is the basis of all our calculation
that I am going to come later.
         Let me come to the health infrastructure, this will again be based on
need based strategy.
         Therefore it will be modern, it will be modular, it will be fast, it will be
prefab, earthquake proof, fire proof etc. Again evaluation being done by the
authority that we have created. One word of caution, because a lot of people
are coming forward to sponsor two hundred and three hundred bed hospitals,
we must adhere to the health structure of Pakistan.
48                                                                   IPRI Factfile

         We cannot create facilities which are not in sync with our own health
structure. Our health structure says that basically there is a basic health unit in
a village and we will have a basic health unit in each village of hundred
household. We will then have the second structure that is the rural health
center and there will be one health center for each four villages. This was the
primary level of health care, then we have the secondary level of health care
which deals at tehsil level. It is a 75 bed hospital therefore there are 25 such
hospitals in each tehsil level.
         Then another tier of the health facility is at district level with 150 bed
hospital in all the 9 districts. And then there is a major hospital what we have
lost in Muzaffarabad, and that is a 200 bed hospital. Therefore, why I
highlighted this is, when we request for sponsorship and people come forward,
we will make sure that we adhere to this health structure that Pakistan follows
because otherwise it will be not in sync with our environment and may be it go
         Then is the issue of provision of utilities, we talked about houses,
schools, colleges, hospitals.
         The utilities, I am just going to highlight two aspects here. According
to millennium development goals, we have to give safe drinking water to the
world by 2015. We have already planed to provide safe drinking water in
Pakistan by 2007 and I am personally spearheading this, I and Prime Minister
are ensuring that we deliver. We will provide safe drinking water to these
quake-hit places, to every village there. The other issue is gas, we are looking at
provision of gas there- which has not been there at all- so that deforestation in
those areas is stopped which is a very big menace there. On the administrative
structure, I want to give you one issue only and that is, obviously all the
government infrastructure will be on modern town planning basis. We intend
shifting from Muzaffarabad that is the major town affected, major city
affected, taking the AJK government out of Muzaffarabad about at 20 minutes
drive , we have selected a place.
         We are going to take district government to another site and make
these modern government structures, planned properly. The space that is left
in Muzaffarabad, we will ensure that proper town planning is made on it in a
better way and in the future Muzaffarabad is a more attractive place than it is
at the moment.
         Ladies and gentlemen, this is the overall reconstruction plan. This
entire plan that I have spoken of, will be on a website, the data will be available
to each one to see. We will develop that because that data on the website will
be the transparent that we are talking about.
         Anyone will be able to track any element in the whole area, whether it
is a school or a college or a hospital or a BHU or RHC or a village. So,
therefore, the data will have information about what is being created and
where it is being created.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     49

          I will talk very shortly on the rehabilitation and that is, we are facing
the problem of destitute women, we have to look after them and orphan
children-I took the secretary general to a rehabilitation center that we have
created in Hattian, just about 40 miles from here this we are calling Ashyana
which means nest. It is being looked after by the ministry of social welfare- we
will hold all the destitute women, orphan children and disabled people in this
Ashyana. It is a beautiful place which was lying vacant from the Ghazi
Barhotha Power Project.
          We will subsequently create more Ashyanas or nests in the Frontier
and in Azad Kashmir to move these people in their own environment. That
will be done in reconstruction stage. Then we have to extend micro finance to
generate business and economic activity there. We will take forward the micro
finance facilities. We have already the Khushaali Bank of Pakistan been
activated. They will move forward to assist the people in generating business
activity there.
          We will also open skill training center and this is where the NGOs,
volunteer groups will assist us. So that was for reconstruction and
          Ladies and Gentlemen!
          I will now come finally to the point of donations and sponsorships.
Frankly asking for anything from anyone does not come too easy to me. But
for the country and for the sake of the people affected there, I will go to any
extent. And I will talk very frankly to you. We have tried to package the total
requirement into packages of houses , schools, colleges, hospitals at various
levels in an easy to understand form, transparency in sponsoring and suitability
to varying pockets, to an individual pocket within Pakistan or an individual
Pakistani sponsoring something or an organization or a state. So I tried to
packet it in that manner.
          I will take on housing first of all. To give you an estimate as I have
said there are 400,000 houses, each house will cost a maximum of 3300 dollars
or Rs 200,000 (two hundred thousand) - that is all. Any Pakistani can give Rs
200,000 lack rupees and I expect Pakistanis to give Rs 200,000. I expect
hundreds of them thousands of them. If anyone wants to build a village cluster
of 100 houses it will cost only US $ 0.33 million which is two crore rupees and
we intend naming that village, that cluster on the sponsor not for anything else
but for the assistance that the sponsor has given. And if you may be knowing
that in Pakistan we sill have names like Abbottabad and Jacobabad these are
places named after the people who created them. May those places were small
villages at the time when they were created. So if these villages are sponsored,
they will be named after the sponsors. If anybody wants to take a whole tahsil
that is a sub-district that will cost about $ 50 million and if a whole district is
taken-one of the nine districts - the cost will be $ 150 million. So this is the
housing and the assistance required in this and suiting various pockets, this is
50                                                                   IPRI Factfile

the requirements. Let me come on to education sector. In this we have three
shades of school; I will take each one of them in a fast manner. There are 9500
primary school required; each one costs 1500,000 rupees or 25 thousand
dollars. There are 2375 middle schools required; each one of them costs 50
thousand dollars or 3 million rupees. There are 792 high schools required,
which cost 83 thousand dollars or 5 million rupees each. There are 190
colleges required which cost 50 million rupees or 830 thousand dollars and
finally there is university which has been destroyed. That is the Muzaffarabad
University, it will cost two billion rupees or $ 33.3 million.
          If we were to convert into a sub-district/ tahsil level the entire
education system over a tahsil will cost 24 million dollars and entire education
system of a district will cost 65 million dollars and the entire education system
of the whole place will cost 614 million dollars. This is 30 percent higher than
the assessed value in accordance with reconstruction figures arrived at through
consensus, which was 472 million dollars. This is more because we are going
through a need based strategy.
          Then, let me take the health sector. ABHU, the primary health unit,
they are 1140 required, each one costing 0.17 million dollars which is one
crore rupees. Rural health centers are 285 each costing 0.33 million dollars 2
crore rupees. Tahsil headquarter hospital which is 75-bed and 25 of these are
required. Each one costing 3.3 million dollars or 20 crore rupees.' District
headquarter hospital with 150-200 beds, nine of them are required costing 4.1
million dollars or 25 crore rupees each.Muzaffarabad hospital is totally
destroyed, 200-bed and it could be bigger which involves an expenditure of 5.8
million dollars or 35 crore rupees. And there is a leprosy hospital which was at
Balakot, the totally destroyed area. This leprosy center is destroyed, its going to
take 1.1 million dollars to reconstruct this center there. So if you take the
whole tahsil in 15 million dollars the entire health structure of the sub-district
can be taken on and in 46 million dollars the health structure of the entire
district can be taken on. This will cost entirely 412 dollars in reconstructing the
health infrastructure in all the nine district and this is 36 percent higher then
the assessed value again because we are following the need based strategy. All
this data, ladies and gentlemen will be available on the website so that any
sponsor, any donor can track it and know where he has donated and he can go
and see it on ground. That is the transparency level that we want to create.
          Therefore, now ladies and gentlemen, I appeal to all Pakistanis in
Pakistan and expatriates to donate to sponsor generously. Those who have
been endowed by God, those have much more than their requirements, much
more than their need, owe it to the nation, owe it to the people there to
sponsor anything that they want, what I have said. I also appeal to the
international community to show generosity at this moment to help us. We
have even thought of adoption of villages, adoption of tahsil, adoption of
districts by other cities. I don't see any reason why the affluent cities of
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   51

Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad cannot adopt a tahsil .It is within their reach and I
would appeal to cities of the world to adopt a sub-district or a district.
         May I come to my views or our views on preferred sponsorships. One
would prefer sponsoring of health and education facilities rather than houses.
Why do I say that, because we have decided that houses to be owner-driven
and we are giving two hundred thousands in cash to the person. Now if some
donor comes with modern houses, better houses which are costing much
more, there will be a disparity and may be those houses are not suiting the
people. So therefore let it remain owners driven and that will be when we only
guide them what to make and let them make it themselves. I would like to say
that cash in the President Relief fund would be better than self construction by
any donor. The only thing I can guarantee to anyone here that there will be
transparency and there will be total accountability. Why do I say that and that
again is for standardization. But however, if at all there is some organization
who wants to self construct, they are more than welcome. But the only thing
to remain in line with our norms, with our procedure and with our own
system. Therefore, a line plan which the reconstruction and rehabilitation
authority will have, please coordinate with that line plan so that you create
something which is in sync with our own requirements. I said we will assure
transparency and accountability and this is our resolve and Prime Minister has
also mentioned it. Transparency will be assured through creation of a data on a
website available to anyone to see for himself. Accountability will be assured
through external auditing, through the tracking by the sponsors, through a
very transparent data base that I have set and we are also in process of creating
an oversight committee of eminent persons for monitoring or overseeing of all
the funds that we are receiving and using. This is maximum we could do. Even
on the distribution of cash, which is in very big number, we have ensured that
there is a committee of the local government, of the parliamentarians and a
military man to ensure that it is delivered to the right person in a transparent
manner. That is all for reconstruction and rehabilitation, ladies and gentlemen.
But I would like to take this opportunity to switch to a different but very
important subject. Knowing very well that an Indian delegate is sitting here.
And this is India- Pakistan relations.
         Ladies and gentlemen! The earthquake has created a unique feeling of
togetherness, of an urge to help each other within the people of Kashmir on
both sides of the Line of Control and more than that within the people of
India and the people of Pakistan. Therefore I sincerely and genuinely believe
that this earthquake, that challenge of this earthquake can be converted into an
opportunity of a life time which was never available to India and Pakistan to
improve their relations. Therefore I take this opportunity and this forum to
appeal to the President and the Prime Minister of India, I appeal also to the
entire government of India, I appeal also to the entire opposition in India, I
appeal to the people of India at large, I appeal to the business community of
52                                                                  IPRI Factfile

India and more than anybody else I appeal to media in India and also in
Pakistan, I also appeal to the government of Indian Held Kashmir, I also
appeal to the All Parties Hurriyat Conference and other Kashmiri groups, let
us together solve the Kashmir dispute once for all.
           Ladies and gentlemen fleeting opportunities do not come every day. If
leaders fail to grasp fleeting opportunities, they fail their nation and they fail
their people. Therefore let good, let success and let happiness emerge from the
ruins of this catastrophe, specially for the devastated people of Kashmir. Let
this be the Indian donation to Kashmir. Ladies and gentlemen when talking of
donations and assistance to each other I thought it is not a question of haves
and have nots. It’s not a question of who has more, who has less. We are a
world community, living in the common heritage of this global village. It is our
love for humanity and feeling for people in distress which motivated us all to
support and to donate for Katrina or Tsunami. I on behalf of Pakistan ask for
your support now for the quake victims and I would like to conclude with
verses from John Donne's, a famous poet and I will read it out:-
           'No man is in an Island entire of itself, every man is a piece of the
continent, a part of the main, any man's depth diminishes me because I am
involved in mankind. And therefore never send to know for whom the bell
tolls, it tolls for thee."
           So therefore ladies and gentlemen, help my people, help the people of
Pakistan. I thank you all, ladies and gentlemen.
                                                          19 November 2005

Honourable President of Pakistan General Prervez Musharraf Honourable
Secretary General, United Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan Excellencies, Ladies and
         It is a great pleasure for me to welcome delegates, and luminaries
representing countries, NGOs and the civil society on behalf of the
Government and the people of Pakistan.
         I also extend a very warm welcome to the UN Secretary General Kofi
Annan. Your presence this morning, Excellency, symbolizes the UN's
commitment to Pakistan as we move towards the reconstruction and
rehabilitation phase.
         We are greatly honoured by the presence of so many delegates in this
historic conference to support reconstruction and rehabilitation of the affected
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   53

areas. The broad participation of delegates from almost every continent
demonstrates that concern for the earthquake affecters is truly global.
          We meet today a little over a month after the cataclysmic earthquake
that struck Pakistan on October 8 leaving behind widespread devastation and
enormous loss of life and property with extensive damage to economic assets,
infrastructure and social service delivery. Towns and villages have been razed
to the ground. Hundreds of schools, hospitals, government offices, roads and
bridges have been destroyed. More than 73000 people have lost their lives.
Over 120,000 are injured and nearly 3 million are without shelter. Families
have lost their breadwinners; senior citizens have been left alone to fend for
themselves; children have lost their mothers and fathers; and parents are now
mourning lost and injured children. These grim statistics keep rising as many
difficult mountainous and remote areas become accessible. All this happened
in treacherous few minutes. What took 6 years to build; disappeared in 6
minutes. The misery did not end here. Hundreds of post-earthquake tremors
multiplied the shock and trauma.
          The administrative machinery that could help them survive in the
disaster itself collapsed and perished. The destruction of infrastructure made
communications and access impossible. The terrain made it more difficult.
The onset of harsh winter in the Himalayas now threatens the lives of the
survivors, already traumatized.
      Faced with this unprecedented and formidable challenge, our response
has been sharp and swift. We mounted our largest relief effort ever; guided by
a clear objective to turn this adversity into an opportunity for development
with the following priorities:
          Moving survivors from rubble to tents and decent transitional
          shelters as quickly as possible.
          Setting up institutions and mechanisms to regulate and coordinate
          relief in the impacted areas and to deal with reconstruction phase.
          Gearing up medical and trauma treatment providing psychological,
          psychiatric, and counseling services for the injured.
          Arranging for transitional tent schools, hospitals, and public offices
          to restore social services,, government structure and to help families
          to recover from the shack.
          Plan for permanent settlement of single parents, orphans and the
          Preparing "Transitioning from Tents to Communities Plan"
          entailing damage assessment, permanent shelter and housing
          programs, cash-for-work programs to help speed the move from
          tents to more permanent communities.
54                                                                IPRI Factfile

         Preparing reconstruction plan far the impacted areas on need basis,
         setting priorities, coordinating support, and its implementation in a
         transparent manner.
         Plan to restore the livelihoods of the survivors; to finance new
         economic activities for income generation; and to increase the
         capacity of local governments, nongovernmental organizations and
         businesses to undertake the reconstruction effort.
         Estimating financial resources needed and identify gaps while
         devising a reporting system to ensure transparency in utilization of
         Developing a joint action plan matrix detailing precisely who will do
         what, where and when, to avoid duplication of effort, ensure
         efficient use of resources and leave no person or community behind
         Prepare model action plan for disaster preparedness and
         coordinating a coherent response to future disasters including
         reinforced preventive measures and capacity for emergency
         While these actions were pursued by the government, equally
significant has been the spontaneous outpouring of compassion and
generosity by the people of Pakistan, both at home and abroad, on a scale
never witnessed before. The galvanized nation united as one people to
provide succor to their compatriots. The spirit of volunteerism is at its peak.
They stepped forward and reflected our Nation's highest values of caring and
sharing and our greatest hopes. From voluntary relief workers and
organizations to jawans of the Army, each stand to protect and nurture the
victims of earthquake. We have not been alone in this response. We are
overwhelmed by the enthusiasm of the world community and voluntary
organizations. You have been a great support for us.
         I take this opportunity to praise in the highest possible terms the
work of the volunteers, men and women, the aid workers, the NGOs, the
army, and the global civil society who worked tirelessly and selflessly to make
a difference to those who suffered. We are also deeply grateful for generous
support and initial assistance of the donors in providing the desperately
needed relief to the earthquake victims.
         Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen:
         Our strategy is delivering. We have managed the first six weeks well.
Our institutional framework including Cabinet Committee for the Relief and
Reconstruction and appointment of Federal Relief Commissioner at the very
early stages helped in effective rescue and relief effort and coordination. We
are now in a race against time. While the first wave of injures and trauma have
been taken care of, we recognize that the emergency relief assistance must
continue for a period longer than expected. We are now set to ensure to
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     55

protect survivors from severe winter, saving them from the risk of any
epidemic through immunization and preventive care, and to maintain supplies
of food provisions. We will not let anyone starve no matter what the cost, no
matter what the logistics demand.
         Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen:
         Today is not about saving lives, it is about building them as we
prepare ourselves for medium to long-term reconstruction and rehabilitation
program; taking care of all affectees of the earthquake including homeless,
injured, orphans, the disabled, the amputees, the paraplegics and the
quadriplegics. This conference is about making sure that the lives of the
children, the women, and the families that have been affected by the
earthquake can have a semblance of normalcy. It is about ensuring that those
children have safe schools to attend, that women have proper medical care,
and that the families have access to safe water and sanitation to make their
lives healthier and happier instead of disease and misery. It is about
empowering communities with control over the decision made for their uplift.
It is about rebuilding a society that is living under the trauma of loosing their
loved ones and their assets.
         We realize that the challenge is enormous. The vast spread of the
devastation includes over 85ofo rural and difficult terrain that makes the
challenge even more pronounced. It is a marathon and not a 100 meters dash.
It is a long term engagement and not one time transaction. It will require
concerted and continuous efforts of us all and massive resources. We are
determined to overcome this emergency and bring normalcy to the people
affected by the earthquake. And we are looking forward building partnerships
with the donors and sponsors to stay engaged through this reconstruction and
rehabilitation process.
         Towards this end, we have worked together with the World Bank, the
Asian Development Bank, bilateral partners, and the United Nations to
produce consensus damage and needs assessment in a record time of four
weeks. The preliminary cost associated with the recovery of the affected region
is estimated to be US $ 5.2 billion. It includes US $ 1.7 billion for relief, early
recovery, cash grants and restoration of livelihoods and US $ 3.5 billion for
rebuilding of social and physical infrastructure as well as restoration of
economic sectors.
         Major part of the reconstruction and recovery will be income
generation through microfinance to help people restart their business and
revive their livelihoods, especially the women and the disabled. The livelihood
support seeks to rejuvenate economic activity and create employment
opportunities in the affected through reviving businesses, establishing small
and medium enterprises, schemes for one village one product, handicrafts, and
so on.
56                                                                  IPRI Factfile

          We are also pushing the rehabilitation of environment and tourism up
in the north; a tourist paradise and a major source of employment and income
generation before the quake.
          Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen:
          $ 5.2 billion is a huge sum. We are prepared to do and are doing our
share, and committing our energies and available public funds to rebuilding the
lives of victims of this disaster. We are reordering our expenditure priorities so
as to create space for the recovery. We will also be introducing sponsorship
programs to encourage industrialists and corporate sector of Pakistan and
overseas to contribute to the rehabilitation phase.
          As you all know, Pakistan's remarkable economic turn around has
been due to prudent fiscal and debt strategy and wide-ranging structural
reforms implemented over the last six years. Our economic policies, dynamism
of the private sector, and good governance are paying off. We will continue to
follow this path of reform. In the last six years, despite several exogenous and
endogenous shocks, we were not detracted from the path of macroeconomic
stability and reforms. We shall not waver now, despite the magnitude of the
challenge we face.
          But the resources needed for reconstruction and rehabilitation are
massive. Financing this cost all by ourselves is not possible without putting a
major dent in our development plans meant to support the much needed
infrastructure and derailing our economic reforms.
          While we are committed to the twin objectives of providing relief and
rebuilding the earthquake affected areas, we plan to sustain implementation of
our poverty alleviation strategy and to meet the Millennium Development
Goals that we have singed on to. Pakistan is a challenged country and needs
not only to sustain but also to increase spending in key social sectors. And we
want to do it without compromising macroeconomic stability we worked hard
to achieve, and sustain the path of debt reduction, so we bequeath our next
generation a stronger and a rising Pakistan.
          Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen:
          The scale of the destruction in the earthquake affected areas is a
reminder of the fragility of humankind in the face of nature. It calls for greater
humility, respect and responsibility to deliver to the survivors the assistance
they desperately need. While each country has the primary responsibility for
taking measures for disaster management and reconstruction, it is essential to
support self-help with mutual help and partnership as no country, in particular
the developing countries, can cope with such challenges on a standalone basis.
We are looking forward to your support to help rebuild affected communities
and regions to mitigate the financial impact of the catastrophe on the economy
of Pakistan. Favourable market access to Pakistan by the developed world, in
addition to direct financing of the affected areas, will be a major step forward
in helping us to help ourselves at this critical hour of our history.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction    57

         Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen:
         We have set up Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation
Authority to undertake reconstruction work. To ensure that ERRA works
within the parameters of the system in a transparent and accountable manner,
we have made it subject to statutory audit, external audit and review by an
oversight committee having members from the civil society. In addition, we
have invited all major political parties to be part of a Parliamentary Committee
to oversee the entire relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation process.
         Transparency is one of the hallmarks of our government. These
arrangements will ensure the efficacy and adequacy of all moneys received and
spent for relief and reconstruction.
         Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen:
         Today's conference marks a crucial step in the commitment of the
international community to work together to assist rebuilding the devastated
areas. The victims of the earthquake have put their trust in us and we must be
able deliver. The Joint Damages Assessment Report provides for future
reconstruction and rehabilitation needs.
         We need your assistance in rebuilding; brick by brick; day by day. It is
a long journey. We are seeking long term partnership and multi-year
         Winter has already set in threatening the lives of the survivors. There
is a need to act; there is a need to act now. The time now is to reach out; to
show; to give; to help; to share the sufferings; to lessen the pain of the
traumatized people. The glaze and the emptiness in the eyes of the children
have to be converted into hope, excitement, and reason to live.
         Let us join hands to give home to the homeless; medical care to the
sick; food to the hungry; and above all, put their life back on track. Let us give
them a new life; new hope; a better future, and a better world. Let us give
them their smiles back. Let us show them that we care. After all we are all part
of the same race. This is what humanity is all about.
         Let us resolve to do our best for rebuilding the devastated areas and
rehabilitating the affected people; and give them a better tomorrow. We know
that together we can do it.
         Thank You
                                                             19 November 2005
58                                                                   IPRI Factfile

                   8 O CTOBER E ARTHQUAKE
Thank you, Mr. Prime Minister.
Mr. President,
Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,
Let me start by paying homage to our hosts, the President, people and
Government of Pakistan, whose losses in this tragedy are greater than we can
         Mr. President, I am sure I speak for all us today in paying tribute to
the courage your country has displayed in the wake of the catastrophe. As you
have said, the entire nation has emerged as one. Today, we have gathered to
make common cause with you in the work ahead.
         The earthquake of 8 October was an unprecedented disaster. It
requires us to mount an unprecedented response. Yesterday I was able to visit
the disaster areas, and to see the valiant relief and recovery work taking place
there. Words and statistics fall terribly short as we seek to convey the human
suffering of countless families and communities.
         Clearly, the sheer magnitude of the impact of the quake is still
emerging. But one thing we do know already: we must be prepared to work
together in the long run. The people and Government of Pakistan will need
the enduring support of the international community.
         Let me thank the donors who have stepped forward already; the
international organizations that are providing invaluable support; and the
heroic NGOs, both national and international.
         Above all, let me recognize the excellent ongoing cooperation with
the Government of Pakistan, as well as the spontaneous and generous
contributions of the Pakistani people. The huge effort would not have been
possible without many organizations and individuals pulling together.
         There are no ready-made solutions to the many challenges this
catastrophe has brought with it. So the pooling of assets, resources and
expertise remains vital – bringing together in close collaboration the Federal
Relief Commission, provincial authorities, local communities, international
NGOs and UN agencies. I saw this at first hand in Muzaffarabad yesterday.
         I also saw that one of the greatest challenges facing us is the need to
work on three levels at once: the immediate, medium and long term. If
experience has taught us anything, it is that our efforts on all three must
happen in parallel: relief -- saving lives; early recovery – restoring livelihoods;
and reconstruction -- rebuilding economies.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   59

         How we fare on the first two will shape how well we achieve the
ultimate goal of successful reconstruction.
         Each level requires our sustained commitment. Each requires us to
come up with innovative solutions. Each requires cash matched by
         First, there are urgent human and humanitarian needs, which demand
our continuing attention. The difficult terrain makes this is one of the most
challenging relief operation ever undertaken. The pitiless Himalayan winter is
already upon us, and growing more severe with every day. We must sustain our
efforts to keep people as healthy and strong as possible, until we can rebuild.
         That means we must provide them with shelter and warmth. We must
provide them with food, clean water, and medical treatment. We must ensure
their safe transfer to camps if they so choose; we must do all we can to help
them stay safely in their home communities if they so choose. In sum, we
must ensure that the earthquake does not claim more lives than it already has.
         Second, we must act quickly to jumpstart recovery for those affected
by the disaster. That means restoring livelihoods through cash grants, small
loans, or cash for work programmes. It means helping to provide resources
and materials to repair houses, or to expand the housing of host families
taking in others.
         It means resuming school classes at all levels -- be it in tents or
temporary buildings. It means ensuring medical care to provide
immunizations, maternal and child health -- through whatever facilities we can.
It means re-opening roads to traffic, and ensuring water, sanitation and power
-- both to camps and damaged areas.
         And it means putting the conditions in place whereby temporary
solutions do not become a permanent makeshift reality.
         That must take us to the third level, that of reconstruction. The task
of rebuilding both lives and infrastructure will require a sustained effort on a
wide range of fronts -- from microfinance to vocational training, from re-
equipping health systems to restoring damaged schools. You will hear more
about that today from colleagues of the Asian Development Bank and the
World Bank.
         It is in this phase that we will find the opportunity to improve on
what was there before; to build better lives for the men, women and children
of the region. This is where we can and must strengthen health services,
upgrade water and sanitation, and build more and better schools. This is where
we can and must explore innovative business development funding to support
small enterprises. This is where we can and must train for safer construction
and improve preparedness for the next time a disaster strikes.
         This, in short, is where we can and must turn a challenge of inhuman
dimensions into an opportunity for human development. As you have said,
Mr. President: “Nobody can bring back those who died, but it is in our hands
60                                                                  IPRI Factfile

to change the lives of those who have survived, and that we will do --
          Today, I ask the international community to support all three stages of
the work towards that goal. It will require the generous support and
engagement of Governments, civil society and the private sector. It will require
all our energy and creativity. It will require us to work as one. I hope I can
count on all of you as we pursue that mission in the weeks, months and years
          Thank you very much.
                                                           19 November 2005

I would like to express my deepest appreciation and gratitude to the world
community for rising to this occasion and helping Pakistan in this hour of
need. I would like to reiterate what I had said earlier in my speech, my deep
appreciation and gratitude to the world leaders, who backed me up , who
backed Pakistan up for making this occasion of donor conference; a success. I
am extremely grateful to the all delegates who are sitting around here; who
have come from all parts of the world to show and prove that this world is a
global village indeed and that we exist together and it is this joint committee of
nations, it is a joint heritage of the mankind which really takes countries
forward. Pakistan does realize that we need to be important member in the
committee of nations to have position of respect in the world and therefore,
let me assure this gathering that whatever, cooperation, understanding and
assistances you have assured at this hour when Pakistan needs it; will never be
forgotten. Let me also assure you that money you have pledged and you are
giving it will be our utmost that it will be used in the most transparent manner
at exactly the places that you would wanted to be used. We are determined that
we will create this website which would be transparent and known to each one
of you and hopefully you will know that exactly where your money is being
put. Now I am extremely grateful to all of you but let me now take this
occasion and address the Pakistanis, while you must have seen that the world
community is with us to support our endeavours but as per the calculations
the amount require for the entire reconstruction and rehabilitation is 5.2
billion dollar and when we take of need based strategy I know that we are
going to spend 6 billion dollars now that is the shortfall which will be met
through the government efforts and this is where I feel that people of Pakistan
like Philanthropist, industrialist , business community and any body who can
afford it needs to come forward, expatriate Pakistani who I know can
contribute immensely and I know that have more patriotic zeal then the
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction    61

Pakistani living here will come forward in a big way. An idea has come to mind
to hold a similar kind of the convention restricted to Pakistani here in this hall
to how much generosity they can show their countrymen. So I hope and
expect from the Pakistani that they will come forward and sponsor the
packages that I have indicated in the education, health and even housing for
people and that is how Inshallah we will meet the target of helping the
earthquake affectees. I know with the resources available now, with the
support of the international community, NGOs and with the zeal, patriotism
and the determination of the people of Pakistan and by strategizing the whole
issue by the government of Pakistan I have no doubts in my mind whatsoever
that we will deliver and we will change the lives of the people in these
earthquake affected areas and we will convert the challenge into an
opportunity for helping the poor people of the areas Inshallah.
                                                          19 November 2005

European Union
Mr. Gareth Thomas (Deputy Minister for International Development UK on
behalf of the EU)
         Mr. President, Prime Minister, fellow Ministers Excellencies, Ladies
and Gentlemen I bring the condolences and deepest sympathies of the United
Kingdom to the government and the people of Pakistan at this difficult time.
It was only in March I visited Pakistan and witnessed the considerable and
commendable development progress been made, its therefore more sad that
my return visit this year is for such a tragic event. The President and the Prime
Minister of Pakistan have already said the disaster has brought out the best and
the finest in Pakistan and its friends. European Union and the United
Kingdom its current president is one of those friends and I make following
remarks on behalf of the European member states who have already
contributed 274 million US dollars to the relief operations. The 8th of October
earthquake in Pakistan is one of the serious natural disasters in recent memory.
The scale of lives lost and the injuries were massive and the EU its member
states and the commission send their heart felt condolences to the people of
Pakistan. We now pledge to strengthen the EU contribution over the coming
months and years to support Pakistan’s longer term reconstruction efforts.
The people of Europe with all political and religious persuasions have
responded generously to the immediate call for assistance.
         The European Union its member states and the Commission
provided immediate and substantial support to the emergency search and
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rescue operations in the first week after the tragedy and have pledged some
274 million US Dollars already for relief operations. This has included
immediate search and rescue efforts under taken in Pakistan Controlled
Kashmir the NWFP and Islamabad, Bilateral contribution of materials, expert
personals, military expertise and the contribution of many member states to
the NATO Air Bridge and wider relief operations. The European Union
stands ready to provide long term support to the government of Pakistan in its
reconstruction efforts. In response to clear plans and priorities I stood out by
the government and the earthquake reconstruction and rehabilitation
authority. The ten guiding principles set out in the ADB, World Bank the
Govt of Pakistan needs assessment report in particular the importance of
transparency and accountability and broad political ownership repeatedly
emphasize by the President and the Prime Minister of Pakistan serves as a
good basis for our future cooperation. We will encourage the government of
Pakistan Parliament to consider and endorse the propose limit and time bound
duration of the reconstruction and rehabilitation authority. We welcome the
President and Prime Minister’s commitment to ensure the progress made by
Pakistan in recent years through reforms such as decentralization will be
leverage to benefit the most vulnerable effected people. In particular EU
draws attention to the need for decentralization of decision making to local
and civil administration at provincial and district levels and the importance of
the continued progress of the poverty reduction. We anticipated that the
improving but still relatively modest social sector spending budgets will be
protected from the fiscal impact of this disaster by judicious reprioritization in
the budget; by improve revenue collection and efficiency gains in spending.
         The decision too to defer some military expenditure to future years is
also a step in the right direction. We pledged to continue to coordinate our
own assistance and to work for greater coordination with other donors. We
will continue to pursue all of our efforts bilateral and collective in cooperation
with the international financial institutions and other relevant agencies under
the overall direction of the government of Pakistan. We will contribute to the
strengthening of the civilian institutions that will need to coupe with the
aftermath of the earthquake over the coming years. We paid tributes to the
continuous efforts made by the people of Pakistan by its government, its
military services and all political parties to bring relief to the families of tens of
thousands of throes who have died in this tragic disaster and the millions
affected. The EU relationship with Pakistan is for the long term, in this time
of crisis the commitment we make to Pakistan’s reconstruction is immediate
and will be sustained. Finally as the UK mister for international development
with particular responsibilities for our programs in Asia I am please to
announce the United Kingdom will contribute an additional of 70 million
pounds a 120 million US dollars to the reconstruction efforts. The detail
mechanism of this support will be agreed between our office in Islamabad the
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   63

government of Pakistan and a range of other possible implementing agencies
including the UN, international and national NGOs and civil society. Prime
Minister Tony Blair has taken a keen personal interest in the earthquake
response and asks me to carry personal message of condolence and support to
the people of Pakistan.
Thank you.
European Commission
Mrs. Bannita Ferero Walner (European Commissioner for External Relations)
         Mr. President, Prime Minister, honorable Ministers, Excellencies,
Ladies and gentlemen. I would like to express on behalf of the European
Commission a profound sympathy to the people of Pakistan and in particular
the victims the families who suffered so much and continued to suffer from
this tragedy. We are here today in a spirit of solidarity and to offer concrete
help. Let me also express my sincere appreciation Mr. President for your
speech for the leadership you showed in it and for the needs based strategy
that you have out lined. I also think this is excellent that you have come up
with a voluntary corp. in your own country this will certainly help and I also
think that coordination of the emergency efforts is of high importance. Indeed
as many others I went out yesterday to Balakot and Muzaffarabad and of
course much more that any TV can show it is personal looking at things that
gives you the dimension of the disaster indeed the words are inadequate to
describe the magnitude of the destruction and the suffering of the population.
Having said this it is clear that the international community has to stand by
you and to help on the humanitarian assistance and also in rebuilding and
rehabilitating the effected regions therefore I must say the European
Commission was already in the assessment together with the World Bank and
ADB therefore we very well understand the needs that you have outlined.
         The European commission as my colleague from the EU speaking for
all of us has already said that we have reacted very swiftly. We immediately
activated our European community civil protection mechanism that we have
in order to immediately deploy civil protection assistance and also come up
with the first immediate help for humanitarian assistance of 13.6 million. I also
must say that all these funds have been allocated to humanitarian organizations
that are being used for health care, shelter, water and sanitation and also to
bring children back to school as soon as possible. It rapidly becomes also clear
that the dimension of this earthquake was enormous therefore we have tried
to put together a package only for this year at this moment and this is as I can
say now a contribution of 93.6 million Euro this approximately 110 million US
dollars all in grants ladies and gentlemen. The lives of million of people have
been shattered and therefore we think, we have to help the people to get back
on their feet and restore their lives in dignity. I would like to reiterate how
much I appreciate President Musharraf over all reconstruction plans and his
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suggestion that donors should concentrate for instance on education and
health care whereas the reconstruction and housing will be owner driven. The
European commission precisely intents to focus on education and health
because we have always thought that this is the fundamental for development.
Education also has been very clear to my heart and an area where we have
already been very active in Pakistan.
          We will also support the emergency education in the effected areas to
get children back to school as soon as possible and because the earlier they live
their regular life the better it will be for the traumatized children.
          The President rightly mention the importance of transparency and the
accountability in these management necessities of the reconstruction process it
is indeed a very crucial element for all of us and for the European citizen and
tax payer to whom we are accountable in short the commission stands ready
for help not only for the initial relief and rehabilitation phase but if necessary
also in the years to come our planning beyond 2007 for increase in funding for
Pakistan and we would be prepare to devote part of these funds towards
further support to reconstruction but we will only be able to discuss it in more
detail once we have reached agreement with our member states on the EU
budget. Now I also would like to share with you this feeling of togetherness
that you have mentioned and I agree with you that this is an opportunity not
to be missed to continue the efforts of reconciliation between India and
Pakistan and we encourage both sides to make full use of this chance. Finally I
can assure you that the European Commission and indeed the entire European
Union is prepared to what ever we can to help Pakistan over come this very
difficult period. Thank You.
Ebrar Ahmad (Minister for External Relations Govt of India):
         Mr. President, Mr. Prime Minister, Excellencies ladies and gentlemen.
It is about one and a half months since the devastating earthquake hit the
northern part of south Asia. Pakistan has suffered wide spread of destruction
in this natural calamity the worst in its history while natural calamities are
beyond our control the efforts can be mitigated through prompt and effective
assistance by the international community. It is in this spirit that India is taking
part in this conference more significantly as a neighbor India recognizes
special responsibility in contributing to this noble effort to support in aid to
Pakistan in its hour of need. The collective response to the appeal for the
assistance today will be a demonstration of the conscience of International
Community of its responsibility during such calamity and the solidarity with
the effected nation. I would like to take this opportunity to give in brief the
assistance in the highest is extended till date. The Prime Minister of India Dr
Manmohan Singh spoke with the President Musharraf on the day of the quake
to offer condolences and assistance so far about 1300 tones of relief goods
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction    65

have been sent to Pakistan by one aircraft, three trains and over 45 trucks. The
Pakistan High Commission in New Delhi has been allowed to open the bank
account to receive donation from Indians who wish to contribute to the relief
efforts. We have permitting the Pakistani helicopters to fly in the no fly zone
along the line of control to enable them accesses their villages close to the line
of control. We installed a special telephone shelters to enable families from
Jammu and Kashmir to talk to their families and friends here across the line of
control free of charge.
         Pakistan has agreed to open 5 crossing points on the LOC for the
movement of people and the relief material. We are also preparing to permit
the meetings of individuals of the divided families and relatives at these five
points. Excellencies Ladies and gentlemen may I also reaffirm India pledge of
25 million US dollars made at the International conference in Geneva
organized by the UN emergency relief coordinator on 26th of October 2005.
         The govt. of Pakistan would be welcome to use this fund for sourcing
supplies from India. It is our wish that India’s contribution should be
particularly use for the rebuilding of schools and hospitals and for rebuilding
the houses of the affected people. The technology available in India for pre-
fabricated earthquake resistant shelters can also be source from this fund. Mr
President we have noted your voluble suggestion about the housing
construction material which will be available in abundance from our country.
We have seen the report on preliminary damage and need assessment prepare
by the ADB and the World Bank. I would like to convey the willingness of the
govt. of India to take up the specific projects in sectors such as education and
health where India had wide expertise and experience besides the cultural
administrative and technological compatibility with the needs of Pakistan in
these areas made us two ideal partners to undertake these projects. We
appreciate the relief goods provided by Pakistan across the LOC. Mr.
President on Jammu and Kashmir our position is well-known. India is
prepared to resolve all the issues including the issues of Jammu and Kashmir
through dialogue between our two countries in an atmosphere free of
terrorism and violence. Once again I want to reaffirm the support from India
and full cooperation. Thank you.
United States
The United States on Saturday raised its pledge to $510 million to support
Pakistan in carrying out relief and construction work in the quake-stricken
areas. At the International Donors’ Conference, Andrew Natsolios, the
USAID administrator, said the pledge includes $300 million in cash.
         He said out of the total assistance, $110 million is planned to support
military relief operations and $100 million will be donated to private
organisations. The USAID administrator said the United States had also
pledged $156 million for Pakistan at the Geneva Conference.
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         “We reaffirm today our continuing support to our friend and ally
Pakistan,” he said and added that following the earthquake, the US
government immediately announced $50 million to provide shelter to the
survivors. He said the US military provided 24 helicopters for delivering relief
supplies, two US mobile emergency hospitals are providing treatment to the
injured and US engineers with heavy machinery are engaged in reopening
roads and removing debris.
         The whole operation is being supported by 1,200 US military
personnel, he said.
         Natsolios said President Bush has asked five of the most prominent
corporate Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) to lead private fundraising efforts
for the South Asian earthquake reconstruction and relief fund.
         These CEOs visited Pakistan as part of a US delegation earlier this
week, he said and hoped they would reach the $100 million set target. He
appreciated the Pakistan government for arranging the conference and also
commended the efforts of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan for drawing the
world’s attention to the crisis. Natsolios also praised the courage and resilience
of the Pakistani people in coping with such a huge disaster.
Netherlands’s Statement
1. The Netherlands delegation joins other delegations in expressing heartfelt
condolences to the people of Pakistan and especially to those directly hit by
one of the worst natural disasters in recent history.
2. For immediate support to the emergency search and rescue operations and
relief operations the Netherlands contributed already € 28 million (US$ 34
million)*. In the framework of the NATO contribution, Dutch medics have
set up and now operate a 60-bed field hospital in Bagh with a staff of 130
persons, providing medical services to the whole district. Dutch NGO’s with
their local partners are playing an important role in addressing the needs of
affected communities in remote areas. The Dutch society at large responded
generously to a nationwide call for financial contributions. With initiatives
such as a hockey match shown live on television and dedicated to Pakistan, €
24 million (US$ 29 million) has been raised so far.
         Dutch companies showed their corporate responsibility by providing
resources for relief and recovery.
3. As stated by the Presidency of the European Union, member states and the
European Commission are committed to assist in the long-term
reconstruction. The Netherlands for its part will consider further intensifying
its development cooperation initiatives by allocating funds for education and
water and sanitation. The Netherlands has committed € 10 million for the
short-term needs of emergency education.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   67

4. In all, the contribution provided by the Netherlands Government and the
Netherlands population to the victims of the earthquake amounts to over € 60
million (US$ 72 million).
5. We admire the enormous efforts by all layers of Pakistan society to help
those affected in this tragic disaster. We believe that the resilience of the
affected communities will create a strong base for recovery.
6. The Netherlands remains strongly committed to assisting Pakistan in this
time of crisis by a sustained effort to make things better than before. In two
weeks the Netherlands Minister for Development Cooperation will visit
Pakistan to underline further our commitment to assisting the disaster stricken
The Netherlands Government contribution in Kind:
Deployment of a (military) field in Bagh, WORTH EURO 4.0 MLN
          Donation of 500 tents 5,000 blankets, 500 heaters, 125 mattresses and
120 stretchers, worth euro 4.0 mln.
In Cash:
UNICEF (emergency education) euro 10.0mln
UNICEF (nutrition) 3.0 mln
WFP 3.0 mln
UN-OCHA 0.5 mln
ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) 1.5 mln
IFRC (International Federation of the Red Cross) 1.0 mln
Urban Search and Rescue Team (October 2005) 1.0 mln
4 Dutch NGOs 2.0 mln
Contribution to Dutch TV campaign to raise money 2.0 mln
Transport field hospital 3.5 mln
Transport tents and other emergency goods (300 tons) 0.5 mln
Total euro 28 mln (US $ 34 mln)
Contribution of the Dutch public
The Dutch public raised an amount of euro 24 million ($ 29 mln) for the
South Asia earthquake, excl. € 2 million from the Minister for Development
Cooperation. This money will be allocated via Dutch NGOs to emergency
assistance and recovery activities.
The French government on Saturday pledged $94 million assistance for the
reconstruction of the earthquake-affected areas.
         “France is in a position to support some of the measures announced
and will donate $94 million on concession conditions,” said Philippe Douste
Blazy, the French minister for Foreign Affairs, at the International Donors’
Conference. He said out of this amount, $35 million will be mobilised for
projects being implemented in 2006 and $1.5 million for carrying out research
and assessment on undertaking more projects.
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         Douste expressed sympathy with the Pakistani people and
government in their suffering in the wake of a “terrible catastrophe” and called
upon the international community to express solidarity with the earthquake hit
people and the Pakistan government.
         He said French civil safety teams and doctors were participating in the
relief activities, adding that France had also sent 150 tonnes of emergency
humanitarian aid. He said the assistance promised by his government will be
spent on health, water and sanitation projects and rehabilitation of the basic
         Douste said his government is also committed to sparing no effort to
help Pakistan in her hour of need and translating France’s pledges into tangible
Statement of Mr. Matti Pullinen, Deputy Director-General, Ministry for
Foreign Affairs of Finland
1. In line with the previous statements, notably that of the European
presidency, I should like to convey to the government and the people of
Pakistan the deepest condolences of the government of Finland.
         The scale of the disaster has shocked all of us. We are firmly
committed to participation in the relief and reconstruction effort in an
effective and coordinated manner.
2. So far Finland has contributed € 9.1 million (i.e. approximately USD 10.6
million) to the immediate relief purposes, i.e. for providing a field hospital,
purchasing tents and other urgently needed equipment. We wanted to act as
quickly as possible, and it is our understanding that these contributions have
reached their recipients or will do so in the very near future. The total figure I
mentioned includes a recently decided contribution of € 4 million (i.e. USD 4.7
million) to be channeled through the UN system, more specifically the WFP,
the UNHCR and the UNDP.
3. The rehabilitation and reconstruction phase will be tough, complicated and
time consuming.
         I am happy to note that the Government of Pakistan has immediately
shown the kind of leadership and ownership necessary to get the work started.
The national priorities have been well and rightly redefined and the
Government of Pakistan has committed itself to the multilaterally endorsed
guiding principles for rehabilitation and reconstruction. Also the civil society
in Pakistan has made a tremendous and highly commendable effort to alleviate
the effects of the disaster.
4. The international community has now a moral obligation to take its part of
the burden. We want to do it in a coordinated and harmonized way, making
the best use of the resources available. Finland is willing to participate in this
common effort by an additional contribution of € 10 million (i.e. USD 11.7
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   69

million) to the future, depending on the structure to be set up at the
multilateral level. Of course, we will also participate in the common
contribution of the European Union.
South Korea
The South Korean government announced $3 million in aid for the
reconstruction and rehabilitation of the earthquake affected areas. Speaking at
the International Donors’ Conference on Saturday, Ambassador Park Joon
Woo, special envoy of the minister of Trade, said Korean government
appreciates the donor agencies for extending generous assistance to the quake
victims in Pakistan.
         He said the Korean government, non-governmental organisations
(NGO) and business community had been actively involved in the relief
efforts in the quake-affected areas.
         Around 250 medical and relief workers were dispatched to the
affected areas, he said.
         Moreover, the Korean envoy said, $3.7 million relief aid had also been
pledged by the NGOs and business groups.In addition, he said, Korean
government would shortly decide on further assistance in the reconstruction
process after consultation with the Pakistani government.
H.E. Mehmct Au Sallin, Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey
at Donors Conference on 19th November 2005 — Islamabad
His Excellency Mr. President
His Excellency Mr. Prime Minister
His Excellency Mr. Secretary General of UN,
Their Excellencies the Ministers,
Distinguished Guests
Already 41 days has been past since the devastating earthquake which hit
South Asia, mainly Pakistan and left the people with grief and difficulties.
         We know by experience that tragedies give more pain as time passes. ..
and only those who lived through it know the real meaning of sufferings. With
a view to alleviate the sufferings, To repair damages, And for reconstruction
and rehabilitation of the earthquake stricken areas we. As international
community, have common responsibility to help.
         This conference is organized to this end. It is the second meeting on
the same subject.
         Indeed, shortly before this meeting, I participated in the conference
which took place in Geneva on 26th October. I would like to extend my
gratitude and appreciation to Mr. Annan, Secretary General of UN and Mr.
Egeland, UN Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs and
Emergency Relief Coordinator for their sincere support and leading role. As
soon as the news of the earthquake heard in Turkey we immediately mobilized
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our efforts to assist Pakistan through the Government of Pakistan and also
through UN Agencies which deal with humanitarian assistance. We have
immediately dispatched 3 million US dollars to the 6 Agencies of UN, which
we had announced during Geneva conference of 26th October. Since the first
day of the tragedy till today Turkey holds hands of their Pakistani brothers
together with the official as well as voluntary organizations and is determined
to continue these efforts.
          As for today, the total amount of our humanitarian assistance is
around 660 tones consisting of food, medical equipment, tents and blankets.
The total coast of this aid is 14 million 597 thousand US dollars.
          At present our mobile hospital gives medical treatment to the needed
ones in Muzaffarabad.
          On the other hand, apart from the Government assistance Turkish
voluntary organizations and local administrations continue to assist in large
amounts. But the real important point is to accomplish permanent
reconstruction works as soon as possible. Building of houses, offices,
government buildings and infrastructure is the primary requirement.
          In this framework, we have our experts from the Turkish Housing
Development Administration still working in the earthquake stricken areas.
They are carrying out seismological survey with a view to locate new housing
areas. It is being conducted in collaboration with Pakistani authorities.
          The Turkish people have donated approximately 87 million US dollars
to build permanent houses, offices and government buildings in Pakistan. We
have prolonged the duration of our aid campaign in order to raise further
          As soon as examination of the area has been completed we would like
to start the construction of permanent houses. We have already allocated
necessary amount in this regard.
          I would like to express that we are ready to support decisions and
recommendations which will come out as a result of this conference. I am
confident that this meeting bears fruitful conclusions.
          Before I conclude, I would like to reiterate my best regards to you:
Thank you.
Mr. Mohsin Khan (Director IMF):
         Your Excellencies President Pervez Musharraf, Prime Minister
Shaukat Aziz, honorable delegates. On behalf of the IMF and myself I want to
offer my condolences and sympathies to those who lost families or hurt in this
tragic event. Being a Pakistani my self the earthquake deeply affected me
personally. The loss of lives and suffering caused by the earthquake has been
truly enormous. The government of Pakistan and the Pakistani people who
have responded quickly aided by the international community through the
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   71

agencies of the United Nations and directly but the challenges posed by the
sheer magnitude of the suffering and devastation combined with the
remoteness of the area as the winter setting in are huge. The earthquake is
expected to have some adverse impact on Pakistan’s overall economy in the
short run at least. It is true that the effected region accounts a fairly small
fraction of the countries out put Pakistan’s mainly economic infrastructure,
factories, ports, financial centers mostly unaffected the other parts of the
country. Still with the economic activity having been virtually wiped out in the
directly hit areas there will be some dampening impact on the growth.
Together with the some of what less harvest of crops like cotton growth in
2005-2006 could be some half to one percent lower than the 7 percent
projected prior to the earthquake.
          As rebuilding activity gets underway growth may strengthens natural
disasters destroy assets and the process of restoring assets results in growth.
Relief and reconstruction efforts may result in price increases as well. These
could particularly occur in the sectors where demand is already strong such as
construction and to the extent to the additional demand cannot be met
through higher imports. Most of the burden to maintain the macro economic
stability falls upon monitory policy the state bank of Pakistan will have to
remain vigilant to contain inflation and support the external position as public
spending has raised obviously relief and reconstruction efforts will affect the
government’s budget. The relief and reconstruction efforts in our judgment
translate into an average cost of about 1 to 1.5 percent of GDP per year in a
next few years. Much will depend of course on the size of the international
support and whether this support will come in the form of grants or in loans.
          As the Prime Minister said earlier Pakistan’s debt burden has been
greatly reduced over the past five years but at about 60 percent of GDP the
debt ratio is still high. For the current and the next few years however the
reconstruction efforts will surely put pressure on the fiscal position and could
widen the budget deficit on average by about a half percent of GDP per year.
Fortunately given the budgetary achievements of the past five years this should
not threaten the fiscal sustainability. A possible widening of the trade deficit
due to the import of the relief and reconstruction goods should largely be
balanced by additional grants and loans and possibly also by higher remittances
however given the scale of operations some pressure on international reserves
could emerge depending also on the availability and timing of new grants and
loans. The Managing Director of IMF stated during his visit to Pakistan a
week following the earthquake the IMF is ready to provide financial resources
through the emergency national disaster assistance. This facility is aimed at
meeting foreign exchange, financing needs of a country hit by a natural
disasters. It is quick dispersing and the government only needs to present a
statement on the general economic policies they proposed to follow. A balance
of payments has to be demonstrated. This IMF facility can provide about 375
72                                                                  IPRI Factfile

million dollars to Pakistan. The maturity of loans is about 3 to 5 years but
Pakistan being PRGF eligible country can request that the interest rates can be
subsidized down to 0.5 percent subject to the availability of subsidy resource.
In conclusion I would like to emphasize that Pakistan’s economic future can
continuous to look bright despite the recent tragedy but right now the
authorities faces a daunting task to address the needs of those affected by the
earthquake most urgently in the short run by providing shelter, food and
medical care but also in the longer run by helping survivors to rebuild their
Statement on behalf of Norway
The Government of Norway has through the recent visit to Pakistan of the
Minister for International Development, expressed our deepest sympathies
with the people and Government of Pakistan after the October 8th,
earthquake. Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg will add his voice
when he arrives here in two weeks time. This unique natural disaster presents
tremendous needs both of humanitarian and reconstruction character.
          The Government of Pakistan and cooperating agencies have our full
support in seeing the relief effort and the reconstruction efforts as two aspects
of the same seamless effort for recovery and growth. This response requires of
course full Pakistani commitment, but also international commitment. It is
vital that the commitments we make are honoured and applied in full.
          Norway has so far spent more than USD 35 million on emergency
relief after the earthquake in Pakistan. People to people aid is also significant,
and adds to this (Telenor in Pakistan and Norway illustrates this commitment
by donating US $ 1 million in cash and several tons of relief goods in kind). It
is the intent of my Government to propose to Parliament next week to more
than double this support to early relief activities, in response i.e. to the UN
appeals. We thus commit more than USD 70 million as total relief grant to
Pakistan through UN, Red Cross and Red Crescent, and other agencies’ and
organisations’ efforts in the field.
          Effective and efficient coordination of the relief work at every level
and every stage is vital, and we recognise the efforts of UN-OCHA and the
Government of Pakistan in this regard. Nongovernmental organizations play a
vital role in the field, but they need to play their part in a coordinated way.
          The Government of Norway will come back to the question of grants
specifically towards reconstruction and rehabilitation. My Government is also
urgently studying and considering a request from Pakistan to conduct a debt
swap in order to release funds for reconstruction.
          Norway will also remain a partner with Pakistan for regular
development cooperation. It is vitally important that the recovery after the
earthquake does not come at the expense of Pakistan’s development efforts at
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   73

reaching the Millennium Development Goals. The efforts of Pakistan over the
recent years to increase the fiscal space are also at risk, and it is therefore
important for the international community to be as supportive as possible not
only in making funding available but also in making it free. Transparency and
accountability reinforce the commitment of the Government of Pakistan to
avoid corruption at all cost.
         We welcome the emphasis that President Musharraf places on the
importance of taking local needs as the point of departure for reconstruction.
Elected local bodies have a decisive role to play in this regard. Taking the
victims’ views into account is a sine qua non in such circumstances, and I
would be amiss if I did not point to the vital participation of women in this
process and the particular needs of children in the recovery process.
         Finally, let me point to the special challenge faced by all those who
lost limbs or became infirm in other ways; enabling them as well as all affected
people to face a meaningful future can illustrate the very essence of the task
before us at this Conference today.
Statement by H.E. Yasuhisa Shiozaki, Senior Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs
of Japan (Check against delivery.)
H.E. Mr. Pervez Musharraf, President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,
H.E. Mr. Shaukat Aziz, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,
H.E. Mr. Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations,
Distinguished delegates of participating countries and international
organizations, Ladies and gentlemen,
1. I wish to extend my deepest condolences to those who lost their lives in the
recent large scale earthquake in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and
surrounding areas, as well as my sympathies to all the affected people of this
disaster. I also wish to express my sincere respect for the Government of
Pakistan and aid workers from various countries, United Nations and other
international organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who
have been making tireless efforts immediately following the earthquake and
2. Japan has its own experience of being struck by a major earthquake in the
Kobe-Hyogo region ten years ago, when a great number of precious lives were
lost. Last year, another major earthquake hit Niigata, Japan, which also caused
serious damages. Having undergone a series of natural disasters ourselves, we
in Japan feel deepest sympathy for, and solidarity with, the people of Pakistan.
3. With these special sentiments and as a long-term friend of Pakistan, Japan
has been extending its utmost assistance and cooperation, both on a
governmental and private level, since immediately after the earthquake. The
Government of Japan dispatched a Rescue Team, Medical Teams and, six
helicopters of Ground Self Defence Force (SDF) along with more than 100
74                                                                 IPRI Factfile

personnel. The Government of Japan also extended grant aid totalling 20
million US dollars, as well as emergency assistance in kind.
4. In addition to these efforts by the Government of Japan, Japan’s political
parties and private sector have also been involved actively.
(1) Personnel from a number of Japanese NGOs entered the affected areas as
early as the day following the earthquake, and have since been providing
emergency humanitarian assistance.
          To support the NGOs’ activities, the Government of Japan granted
about 4 million US dollars through the Japan Platform (JPF). We intend to
continue to strengthen its partnership with those NGOs in an attempt to assist
them in their emergency humanitarian relief activities.
(2) 10 million yen was donated to Japan Red Cross Society by Japanese private
companies and citizens. The fund has been used for the activities of
International Red Cross Society.
(3) 130 million yen in cash and many relief materials including blankets and
tents were donated to the Embassy of Pakistan, Tokyo.
(4) Last but not least, the ruling parties of Japan, one of which I belong to,
sent their delegation to Pakistan by a chartered flight, delivering about 20 tons
of tents, blankets, winter clothes, and other equipment to Pakistan.
5. These firm actions taken by Japan as a whole, through close partnership
between the public and private sectors, show that our friendship with Pakistan
is not limited to a governmental level but has also become ties between
6, Japan is concentrating its public and private assistance to Batgram and its
surroundings in the North-West Frontier Province. In that region, the
Japanese Rescue Team, Medical Team, Self Defence Force (SDF) units, and
NGOs, along with the Government of Pakistan, and international
organizations, are coordinating their respective efforts in order to assist those
in need in an effective and efficient manner. I believe all those dedicated
efforts represent another good example of international emergency assistance
7. Given the devastating damage caused by the recent earthquake, we face a
tremendous challenge. In addition to the emergency assistance extended so far,
it is urgently necessary to rebuild the completely destroyed roads, bridges,
hospitals, schools, and other infrastructure and houses, improve health and
hygiene conditions, and restore other foundations of people’s lives. Also, it is
important for us to provide considerate care for women and children, and
other vulnerable people. Moreover, many people in mountainous areas are still
in need of assistance as winter approaches. To recover from this difficult
situation, the Government of Pakistan and the international community
should continue their united and concerted efforts.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   75

8. Taking these needs into account, the Government of Japan announces its
decision to extend the following additional assistance for rehabilitation and
(1) To meet the financial demand for emergency reconstruction, we have
decided to provide yen loan amounting to 100 million dollars to the
Government of Pakistan.
(2) As a part of assistance for reconstruction, we have also decided to respond
to appeals from the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank by
extending 5 million dollars to each organization, with a total of 10 million
dollars through the Japanese trust funds in these organizations.
(3) Based on the joint Needs Assessment conducted by the World Bank, the
Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Japan Bank for International
Cooperation (JBIC) and other organizations, and the survey findings of the
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), we intend to continue
extending our cooperation in the reconstruction efforts of infrastructural
development by using yen loans and grant aid. The areas targeted will include
Muzaffarabad and other areas of the Kashmir region, where the damage is
particularly severe, along with Batgram and its surroundings. We will thus
identify the local needs and readiness, then consider the specifics of the
assistance we will extend. To facilitate the aid workers in starting their
reconstruction efforts swiftly, we will also consider conducting quick
development studies to enable the rebuilding of infrastructure in the areas
accessible in the winter.
(4) As I mentioned earlier, Japan has suffered many earthquake disasters, and
thus has accrued expertise and experience regarding earthquake response. To
capitalize on the technology accumulated from such experiences for the
benefit of Pakistan, we are ready to dispatch experts to enhance disaster-
prevention skills for building earthquake-proof houses and other projects.
9. With a view to effectively using the assistance from the international society
including Japan for reconstruction, Japan hopes that the Government of
Pakistan will continue to work closely with donor community and hopes its
finance would be run efficiently and rigidly, taking measures to assure macro-
economic stability.
10. Since the establishment of our diplomatic relations, the Japanese
Government and the people have always stood by Pakistan. In response to this
unprecedented sufferings caused to the Pakistani people, we intend to
continue to focus our energy both on a public and private level, and do our
utmost to extend assistance in order to bring courage and hope to the
Pakistanis striving to overcome the enormous challenges ahead.
Thank you very much.
Denmark has increased Emergency Relief Assistance to Danish Kroner 115
mio. (USD 18.5 mio). In light of the severe situation in the earth quake
76                                                                 IPRI Factfile

affected areas and the need to respond rapidly before snowfall, the
Government of Denmark has increased the relief assistance for the victims of
the earthquake from DKR 85 mio. (Approx. USD 13, 7 mio.) to DKR 115
million (approx. USD 18.5 million).
         The additional Danish relief assistance has been allocated to the relief
efforts of UNHCR and WFP. The funds will be used for establishment of 30
UNHCR camps giving shelter to 150,000 displaced victims and contribute to
WFP’s logistical activities (transport of relief goods by air and land). The
previous DKR 85 mio has been disbursed to the relief efforts of United
Nations agencies in Pakistan, i.e. UNICEF, WFP and WHO and international
NGOs including the international Federation of the Red Cross and Red
         Furthermore, the Government of Denmark has supplied a
communication centre and camp.
         The camp is the coordination centre for the activities of WFP. The
camp is set up and run by a team from the Danish Emergency Management
Agency. The Government of Denmark has also contributed a C-130 Hercules
transport aircraft and two civilian transport ships to the NATO Response
Saudi Kingdom
Saudi Arabia on Saturday announced 500 million Saudi Rials in grants and
another 700 Rials in concession loans to help Pakistan in its reconstruction
and rehabilitation efforts.
         Speaking at the donors’ conference, the Saudi representative said the
new grant assistance, through the Saudi Fund for Development, would be
mainly used for reconstruction of hospitals, roads and schools.
         The concession loan of 700 million Rials would go towards the
development programme in Pakistan. A public campaign is already underway
in Saudi Arabia to collect financial and material donations, which the envoy
said have reached 450 million Rials.
         The envoy said the Saudi Development Fund was also willing to
allocate 500 million Rials to finance export of non-oil Saudi products such as
housing material, agriculture equipment and steel structures transmission lines.
He said Saudi Arabia donated food, tents, blankets and other relief goods
immediately after the October 8 earthquake. He expressed his country’s
commitment to supporting the development and reconstruction efforts in
The Chinese deputy foreign minister said China will construct a hospital in
Balakot besides providing other relief materials. Renovation of Korakorum
High Way will also be carried out, he said. “We will also establish seismic
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   77

centres in Pakistan and provide soft terms loans in dollars,” he said and added
that Chinese companies will participate in the reconstruction work.
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom on Saturday announced an additional assistance of £70
million for the reconstruction of quake-affected areas.
         Addressing the Donors’ Conference, the UK under secretary of state
said that Prime Minister Tony Blair has taken keen interest in supporting
Pakistan in the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the affected areas. He said
the aid would pay for long-term reconstruction work.
M Essa, Moroccan minister, said his country will extend assistance of $5
million for rehabilitation of quake survivors.
Prince Rashid ul Hasan of Jordan said field hospitals set up by his country in
quake hit areas have administered treatment to thousands of people and that
these hospitals will be handed over to Pakistan.
Aga Khan
Prince Amin Aga Khan of Aga Khan Foundation said aid valuing $50 million
will be provided for the next three years. The Aga Khan Foundation will stand
by Pakistan in this hour of crisis, he said.
M Saeedi, the Iranian minister for Housing, said Iran will set up rehabilitation
centres and a factory for manufacturing artificial limbs. “We will open credit
line amounting to $200 million,” he said.
Swedish minister for International Development said Sweden will extend $20
million in grants for the next three years. “We have already provided $25
million,” she said.
Kamal Ibne Yousaf, the Bangladeshi minister for Disaster and Relief,
announced a donation of $2 million in cash. He said his country has not lagged
behind in helping their Pakistani brethren after the October 8 tragedy.
Dato Sri Ahmed, minister of Malaysia, said Malaysia would donate $1 million
more for the reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts. The minister said, “We
have already donated $1 million to the President Relief Fund and a number of
our medical teams are working in the affected areas”.
Dr Gunter Mulack, the German ambassador, and Dr Rainer Görner, the joint
secretary for Asia of the German Ministry for International Cooperation and
Development, on behalf of the German caretaker Government pledged $111.6
million for relief and reconstruction.
78                                                                  IPRI Factfile

Doto Sari Molani, the Indonesian minister for International Development,
said Indonesia would donate $1million to the rehabilitation and reconstruction
Yato Bioof, the first vice external minister of Azerbaijan, said that Azerbaijan
will present $1.5 million and added that it will participate in all possible means
in the rehabilitation activities.
The chief of the Kuwait fund said that they will give aid worth $100 million
for the rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts.
Anwar-ul-Haq Ahadi (Finance Minister Afghanistan) We offer deepest
condolences to the people and the govt of Pakistan from the people and the
govt of Afghanistan. Govt of Afghanistan has already provided 500,000 dollars
in cash to the govt of Pakistan to contribute to its relief operations. Today I
would like to commit and additional 500,000 dollars to help the
reconstruction. Afghanistan govt would like to help in rebuilding the schools
in Pakistan. Our means are limited as we are ourselves the recipients of the
humanitarian aid for our returning refugees. We have our own constraints but
I hope the people and the govt of Pakistan attach greater importance to the
symbolic aspect of this gesture that expresses grief for the victims and
solidarity with the people.
                                                           19 November 2005

        D URING D ONORS ’ C ONFERENCE ON 19.11.2005
     US $ million
         Country/Organization           Total                     Loan
         Asian Development Bank         1000.000                  920.000
          Islamic Development Bank      501.000                   500.000
          World Bank                    1000.000                  1,000.000
         IMF                            375.000                   375.000
          China                         326.200                   300.000
          France                        124.000                   94.000
          Germany                       100.000
          USA                           510.000
         European Commission            110.000
          UK                            120.000
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction    79

          Japan                           120.000                   100.000
          Sweden                          45.000                    20.000
          Morocco                         1.500
          Agha Khan Foundation            55.000
          Bangladesh                      2.000
          Afghanistan                     1.000
          India                           25.000
          Italy                           27.710
          Malaysia                        1.000
          Indonesia                       1.000
         Azerbaijan                       1.500
         Saudi Arabia                     573.000                   320.000
         Norway                           60.000
         Denmark                          18.500
         Switzerland                      40.000
          Finland                         20.600
          Bhutan                          0.100
         Greece                           0.400
         Singapore                        0.400
         Thailand                         0.300
         Canada                           57.000
         Mexico                           0.300
         Turkey                           150.000
         Iran                             200.000                   20.000
         Korea                            3.000
         UAE                              100.000
         Kuwait                           100.000
         IFAD                             60.000
         Total Pledges                    5827.200                  3939.000

Total $ 5.827 Billion
                                                            19 November 2005


Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz Saturday [19 November 2005] said pledges of
$5.82 billion by the donors reflected confidence of the international
community in the government and the Pakistani leadership.
80                                                                  IPRI Factfile

          Briefing newsmen after the donors' conference, the Prime Minister
said he was confident that the funds would increase and likely to cross six
billion dollars.
          "The world's support has made every Pakistani proud that the
international community has helped us in our hour of need," he added.
          Prime Minister Aziz said the overwhelming response was the result of
Pakistan's growing importance in the comity of nations, the stature of
President General Pervez Musharraf as a world leader and the country's
successful foreign policy.
          "I want to thank all the countries and institutions for participating in
the conference, specially those who pledged and leaders who supported to
make the event a success," the Prime Minister said.
          Both President Musharraf and Prime Minister Aziz sat through the
six-hour long conference that was attended by delegates from 75 countries and
international organizations including UN Secretary General Kofi Annan.
          Giving break-up of the pledges, he said Asian Development Bank
(ADB) and the World Bank have pledged one billion dollars each, followed by
Saudi Arabia with $573 million and the United States contributing $510
million. The Islamic Development Bank announced $500 million assistance
and the IMF has also offered $375 million.
          Other major pledges include $326 million by China, $200 million
dollars by Iran, $150 million by Turkey, $124 million by France, $120 million
by Britain, $120 million by Japan, $110 million by European Commission,
$100 million by UAE, $100 million by Kuwait and $100 million dollars by
          Prime Minister Aziz said out of the total $5.8 billion dollars, $3.9
billion dollars were in the form of soft loans while remaining 1.9 billion dollars
were to be provided as grants. On soft loans, the Prime Minister said these
were highly concessional and interest-free loans Prime Minister Aziz said that
the government would ensure complete transparency in the utilization of
          "There will be complete integrity, transparency and accountability in
the utilization of these funds for the rehabilitation and reconstruction in the
affected areas," he said. The United Nations, he added, would establish a
website to provide all the details of the collection and disbursement of funds
and its utilization.
          Besides, he said, there will be an audit by Ford-Rhodes and a
oversight committee headed by Governor State Bank will supervise the
          Prime Minister Aziz said he has already offered to form a committee
of parliamentary leaders in the National Assembly to review the whole
process. He said the people within the country have also contributed more
than Rs. 6 billion to the President Earthquake Relief Fund.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   81

         Referring to the sponsorship scheme, unveiled by President
Musharraf at the conference, the Prime Minister said it would be launched all
around the world for getting support for sponsoring schools, colleges,
hospitals, families etc. He said US President George W. Bush has also formed
a group of American business leaders and given them the target of $100
million to help the quake-hit people.
         Prime Minister Aziz said the real task ahead was the implementation
of the reconstruction plan which will start very soon. "The real success will be
when the life of the affected people will improve and their problems will be
solved," he added.
         Responding to a question, Prime Minister Aziz said the government
had invited all the political leaders, including the leader of the opposition in
the National Assembly. "We want to take the Opposition along and involve
them in this reconstruction process," he said. The Prime Minister ruled out
any new taxes in the wake of the October 8 earthquake.
         The Prime Minister said the real task now was to turn the pledges into
reality and the Economic Affairs Division had been assigned to hold bilateral
negotiations with donor countries
and agencies.
         To a question, he said the Earthquake Rehabilitation and
Reconstruction Authority (ERRA) had engaged NESPAK as consultant to
conduct the survey for construction in the affected areas.
         "The plan is to shift people from temporary shelters to permanent
structures as soon as possible," he added.
         Responding to a question, the Prime Minister said India has
reaffirmed its pledges of $25 million to be utilized through the buying of
Indian material. He said the government required CGI sheets and, as the
domestic production was running to its capacity, Pakistan might consider
buying these sheets from India.
         To a question, he said, there was a need to find a solution of the
decades-old dispute of Kashmir for a durable peace in the region. He referred
to the proposal by President Musharraf to open crossing points on the Line of
Control (LoC), to which India agreed and these routes were now being used
for movement of people and relief goods.
         Prime Minister Aziz said that these points could even be used for
trade across the LoC that will help create linkages between the people living
on either side. He said Pakistan has already proposed the self-governance and
demilitarization of Kashmir which will help in improving atmospherics in the
region. The solution of the Kashmir has to be found by Pakistan, India and
Kashmiri leaders in line with the wishes of the people of the region, he added.
         He said Pakistan's stand on Kashmir has been consistent that the issue
should be resolved in accordance with the aspirations of the Kashmiri people.
82                                                                  IPRI Factfile

The Prime Minister underlined the need of making progress on the Kashmir
issue and said, President Musharraf has also urged the Indian business leaders
to realize the importance of the resolution of the Kashmir issue that would
lead to a durable peace in South Asia.
         Prime Minister Aziz said the government would acquire loans within
the parameter of the Fiscal Responsibility Law. He said it would have a very
marginal effects on the deficit and the GDP.
         Replying to a question, Prime Minister Aziz explained that foreign
reserves were not the budgetary assets and had nothing to do with the
expenditure. The country spends from its earnings while the forex reserves
maintains by the State Bank of Pakistan helps in maintaining the stable
exchange rates.
         Replying to a question, the Prime Minister said Pakistan Army was
part of the government and played a vital role in rescue, relief and
rehabilitation work in the quake hit areas. He said on the first day of the quake,
the helicopters of Pakistan Army evacuated over 700 patients to the hospitals
of Islamabad.
                                                               19 November 2005

                           S ERIOUS
ISLAMABAD: The UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan has described the
situation in quake affected areas of Pakistan as serious and enormous and
appealed to the donors community to respond generously for reconstruction
and recovery.
         He was addressing a news conference at Thori Camp near
Muzaffarabad Friday along with President Pervez Musharraf after meeting the
affected people and inspecting the arrangements made there.
         He expressed the hope that the international community will support
the affected people in a big way regardless of the distance as he said no one
should be indifferent to the sufferings of these people.
         The UN Secretary General described the earthquake as one of the
largest humanitarian tragedies that the UN and the international community
have to deal with. He said house after house has been destroyed while large
number of people are still in the mountains when the winter is approaching.
He said it is really a tragic situation and needed urgent action.
         He said while looking at the earthquake disaster, it is really gigantic
than the Tsunami and the task ahead for recovery and reconstruction is even
more bigger.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   83

         He lauded the role played by the Pakistan Army by working with the
civilian humanitarian teams for the assistance of the affectees. He said lifting
of heavy logistics was only possible through the military.
President Thank
The President thanked the Secretary General and his wife for travelling so far
to see on the ground what is happening and contributing their bit in generating
their support for the earthquake victims. He expressed his gratitude to all the
UN organizations and NGOs for their cooperation with the Government of
Pakistan, and cooperation between the military, civil government, NGOs and
           To a question, General Pervez Musharraf said the government is
cognisant of the creation of transparency and accountability and said this will
be ensured. The government has made committees of the officials of Revenue
Department, local governments, Parliament and military to ensure that the
relief is given to the right persons.
           It will be ensured that the money coming to the government will be
distributed transparency. He said he would declare the transparency and
accountability measures that the government has adopted including audit by
the foreigners at the Donors Conference.
           Earlier, the UN Secretary General, Mrs. Kofi Annan, the President
and Begum Sehba Musharraf were given detailed briefing about the scale of
disaster and requirements. They also had an aerial view of the affected areas of
Azad Kashmir.
           The Secretary General and Mrs Annan administered polio drops to
the children at the camp.
           Addressing the earthquake affectees, the UN Secretary General said
the international community is working to help them rebuild their houses. He
described as heroes for facing this catastrophe. He said the international
community will help them but the destiny was in the hands of the affectees.
He said he realises their sufferings and fully shares their grief.
           He asked women that they have a greater responsibility to help their
men and lookafter their children to give them a better life and future. He said
he was impressed by the wonderful cooperation given by the Government of
Pakistan to the UN, NGOs and other agencies, saying Government of
Pakistan and people responded very generously to help the affectees.
At a briefing for media in Islamabad, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said
much more is required by Pakistan for emergency relief, reconstruction and
recovery in the aftermath of the October 8 devastated earthquake.
         He said that the United Nations has prepared a comprehensive plan
for the assistance of Pakistan in its relief and rehabilitation efforts in the
affected areas will be put up in tomorrow’s International Donors Conference.
84                                                                 IPRI Factfile

He said the UN is actively engaged to provide the assistance to strengthen the
Pakistan’s efforts for the rehabilitation.
         He said the international community has responded positively to the
UN appeal for aid to Pakistan and called on the Community and International
Donors to donate generously to meet the challenges and the long term
reconstruction plans. Annan said UN has also put forward a plan to ensure the
primary health and education in the devastated areas to facilitate the displaced
         He expressed the hope that more donations will be announced in the
Conference to meet the target of the reconstruction costs and the results will
be respectable. He said the International community will help Pakistan to
intensify its relief activities to save further losses.
         Annan said he visited the affected areas and impressed by the relief
operation being carried out by the Government of Pakistan. He said various
international and Pakistani NGOs are also working there for the rehabilitation
with zeal.
Of LoC
To a question, the UN Secretary General welcomed the opening of various
points on Line of Control and said the two governments have reacted in a
positive manner in the crisis and assured UN’s full support in this regard. To
another question he said the United Nations supports the ongoing dialogue
process between Pakistan and India for the peaceful resolution of their
disputes including Kashmir.
         "If we do not hit our target tomorrow, we need to keep trying, keep
pressing donor governments, private sector and individual to try harder, we
just can’t sit back and relax...I hope the results will be respectable," Annan
said. The UN Secretary General is in Pakistan on a three-day visit to attend the
International Donors Conference, seeking funds for the reconstruction of the
quake affected areas.
         Annan said he would appoint a special envoy to work with him on
recovery and reconstruction in AJK and NWFP. The Secretary General had
appointed the former US President Bill Clinton to work with him on the
tsunami affected countries.
Response of International Community
About the response of international community, he said, "there is no doubt
that donor response has been weak and tardy." He said within ten days of the
tsunami, the UN got 80 per cent of the pledges as compared to mere 12 per
cent in case of Pakistan. Similarly after a month the pledges for tsunami were
oversubscribed, while for the Oct 8 earthquake that devastated people living in
an inaccessible area of 30,000 sq km, only 30 per cent have been monetized.
         Annan attributed the trend to "donor fatigue" who have been through
a series of natural disasters, tourists from 50 countries were affected and their
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction     85

governments responded. Besides, he said, it was Christmas and the people
were quite generous. About his visit to the devastated areas, he said "it was
unimaginable, one has to see it to understand what has happened" He said
lives could have been saved with better preparedness, however there were also
logistical challenges.
Meets Musharraf
Earlier, in Islamabad, the UN Secretary General had a meeting with the
President, General Pervez Musharraf Friday [18 November] and discussed in
detail devastation by the massive earthquake in Azad Kashmir and the NWFP.
The two leaders also reviewed the reconstruction and rehabilitation
requirements as well as measures needed to mitigate the sufferings of the
         The President said the entire Pakistani nation is grateful to the Untied
Nations and the Secretary General in particular for the way the world
responded to the humanitarian tragedy which struck Pakistan. He said the
support of the Secretary General and different organs of the United Nations
was timely and a source of satisfaction.
         General Pervez Musharraf briefed the Secretary General about the
losses suffered, rescue, relief and rehabilitation plans of the government. He
said Pakistan expected whole-hearted support of the international community
to meet this challenge.
         Kofi Annan said they at the United Nations were moved over the
sufferings of the people as the result of this earthquake. He assured that
whatever they can do, will do and the United Nations intends to remain
engaged with Pakistan in the long term from relief to reconstruction and
rehabilitation phases. He said we wish to join forces with Pakistan and assured
the President that Pakistan can count on the world body for all possible
         The UN Secretary General said that much more is required for
emergency relief, reconstruction and recovery in the aftermath of the
earthquake. He hoped that the international community, private sector and the
individual will donate generously at the Donors Conference to meet the
                                                   Pakistan Times, 20 November 2005

    E ARTHQUAKE C OMPENSATION I NCREASED                       TO   R S 80 BN
RAWALPINDI: The government Monday increased the compensation
amount for earthquake-hit areas of the NWFP and Azad Jammu and Kashmir
from Rs 20 billion to Rs 80 billion.
86                                                                 IPRI Factfile

          The decision to this effect was taken on the recommendations of
NWFP Chief Minister Muhammad Akram Durrani and AJK Prime Minister
Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan in a meeting of Earthquake Reconstruction and
Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) and Federal Relief Commission.
          The meeting, which was chaired by President Pervez Musharraf and
Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, discussed the revival of income opportunities,
creation of industry and also improving the life of people in the earthquake-hit
areas, which ultimately would lead to the conversion of this challenge into
          During the meeting it was decided that an amount of Rs 125,000
would be distributed to each affected house in NWFP and AJK. This amount
would be in addition to already announced Rs 25,000 which is being
distributed to each affected house in earthquake-hit areas.
          It was also decided that an additional amount of Rs 25,000 would be
paid as an incentive to those affected houses that would adopt the earthquake
resistant standards, laid down by the government. Thus every affected house
will ultimately get a total amount of Rs 175,000.
          The matters about detailed follow-up actions for the realisation of
pledges and maintaining a database were also discussed in the meeting.
Musharraf said the data would be placed on the website and would be available
to all for study and follow-up.
          As regards sponsorship programmes, the data would be maintained
on the website of ERRA. This is to ensure proper organization and
transparency. It would enable donors and sponsors to track their donations
right up to the user level.
          During the meeting, it was decided that all this databasing
administrative and organizational aspects would be completed during the lean
period of winters so that reconstruction can commence in top gear in the
coming spring and the affected people settle down before the onset of the
next winter.
          Talking about the ongoing relief activities, Musharraf laid emphasis on
the governments of AJK and the NWFP for the quick disbursement of money
and helping the affected people in the outlying areas in the construction of
their houses for which National Voluntary Movement programme is also
being launched.
          At the end, the president expressed satisfaction over the achievements
of the conference, saying that the pledges of the world community show its
trust and confidence in the Government of Pakistan.
          Brushing aside the criticism from certain quarters within the country,
the president said that actions speak louder than words and the results of the
donors conference are its clear manifestation. Meanwhile, reconstruction work
will begin in Azad Kashmir next week, said AJK Prime Minister Sardar
Sikandar Hayat on Monday, to rebuild the quake-shattered region.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   87

         "New villages, towns and cities will emerge from the rubble, and you
will see it soon," the AJK prime minister said. "We will start reconstruction
work next week." Sikandar said he has already asked officials to submit
reconstruction plans and that he hopes to have them in hand soon.
                                                      The News, 22 November 2005

   19-M EMBER P ARLIAMENTARY B ODY                    TO   R EVIEW Q UAKE
                        R ELIEF
ISLAMABAD: Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz on Monday constituted a 19-
member Parliamentary Committee to review the earthquake relief and
rehabilitation process. The committee, to be headed by the prime minister, has
equal number of representation from both the opposition and the
         According to an official announcement of the government on
Monday, the prime minister has summoned the first meeting of the committee
at his chamber in the Parliament House on Wednesday.
         The committee members from the opposition include leader of the
opposition in the National Assembly Maulana Fazlur Rehman, Makhdoom
Amin Fahim, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, Imran Khan,
Mehmood Khan Achakzai, Abdul Rauf Mengal, Leader of the Opposition in
the Senate Mian Raza Rabbani and ANP President Asfandyar Wali. From the
government side, the committee members are Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain,
Defence Minister Rao Sikandar Iqbal, Dr Farooq Sattar, Justice (retd) Abdul
Razzaq Tahim, Munir Khan Orakzai, Sardar Farooq Leghari, Hamid Nasir
Chattha, leader of the House in the Senate Wasim Sajjad and Naseer Mengal.
The prime minister while winding up the debate in the National Assembly last
month proposed constitution of a parliamentary committee having powers to
monitor the relief and rehabilitation process for the earthquake affected
people. However, the opposition will respond to the government invitation by
Wednesday after holding a formal joint meeting to decide whether or not to
attend the meeting.
         When contacted leader of the opposition in the Senate Mian Raza
Rabbani said he had received an invitation from the government. At the same
time, he said the opposition would collectively take a decision whether or not
to participate in the meeting.
         "A session of the Alliance for Restoration of Democracy is being held
in Karachi on Wednesday. It will hold extensive discussion on the issue beside
other matters to reach a joint decision," he added.
         He said the foremost priority is to maintain unity among the
opposition ranks and all the decisions would be taken collectively rather than
88                                                                IPRI Factfile

going for individual decisions. "We will also hold an extensive discussion on
Tuesday to formulate a joint stance on the issue," he said.
         Deputy Secretary-General of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Liaquat
Baloch said the opposition parties would meet on Wednesday to devise a joint
strategy with regard to participation in the committee meeting.
         He said though the constitution of the parliamentary committee is the
need of the hour yet there are many issues that need to be reviewed before
attending the meeting. First, he said it is to be looked whether the
parliamentary committee would be empowered to take any decision or review
all those decisions taken by President Pervez Musharraf without taking the
parliament into confidence. "Parliament did not enjoy any powers so how this
committee would be powerful," he added.
         PML(N) Information Secretary Saiddiqul Farooque also called for a
joint strategy of the opposition to take a decision in this regard. He said the
opposition had put very objective condition to the government to make the
parliamentary committee powerful and strong by asking all institutions to
remain subservient to the parliament. "Once this condition is met the
opposition would probably have no objection to attend the meeting," he
added. However, he said a final decision would be taken after mutual
consultation at the joint forum.
                                                   The News, 22 November 2005

In the last of four reports from the Neelum valley, our correspondent
reflects on whether there is a "dependency culture" among quake
          Not far from here is the populous Jhelum valley. The contrast with
the Neelum valley is acute, as aid got into Jhelum valley towns such as
Komikot quite early on.
          Komikot's residents have earned themselves notoriety and rebuke for
hoarding foodstuffs and doing little to help themselves recover from the
          Military and private relief camps are a mere 35 minutes drive away on
a metalled road which buses ply from early morning to late evening.
          Yet the residents continue to complain that they have not been fed by
the helicopters delivering aid in the region.
Their story is not atypical in the vast areas of Pakistan-administered Kashmir
affected by the 8 October earthquake.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction      89

         In most parts of this devastated region, military officials, relief
workers and NGOs are heard complaining about people stubbornly refusing
to try to stand on their own feet.
         International relief agencies - having worked in many disaster areas
around the world - are particularly concerned about what they call a "growing
culture of dependence."
         About a month after the earthquake, when the world's focus was
beginning to shift from crisis management to rehabilitation, many relief
agencies tried to hire local help.
         The idea was to lure idle youngsters away from their meaningless days
under tents while creating a little bit of employment in the affected zone.
         Most were surprised and disappointed to find locals unwilling to
work, preferring instead to remain in their tent villages where official and
private agencies are serving three hot meals a day.
         The Australian military hospital at Dhanni in the Neelum valley, for
example, is still struggling to find 10 people willing to be employed - out of the
hundreds that mill around in the fields next to it.
         It is not uncommon to hear relief workers arguing that such
tendencies are common to most Kashmiris.
         But it may be a serious misperception on their part.
Rural life
Away from the NGO-driven hustle and bustle of the major towns, Kashmiris
have reacted to the tragedy with courage and determination.
          In the six weeks since 8 October, most of the estimated 23,000 houses
destroyed by the quake in Neelum valley have been replaced by small shelters
made from materials pulled out of the rubble.
          The further away from the road one moves, the more resilient the
          Liaquat Hussain lost seven members of his family including his wife,
two children, two sisters and their kids.
          Their graves can be seen from the accommodation he is rebuilding.
          But it isn't for the surviving members of his family, who have already
built a makeshift shelter. It is for the cattle he is now trying to protect from the
          "It is going to take a long time for this place to return to normality,"
he says.
          Not because of the extensive damage though, he adds.
          "Once the road opens, relief agencies will flock in and even those who
have been taking care of themselves will stop working," he says ruefully.
          Elder Kashmiris in Neelum valley say that to some extent, the delay in
policy formulation is responsible for encouraging a "wait and see" attitude
among those affected.
90                                                                 IPRI Factfile

         "The longer they delay making a firm rehabilitation policy, the longer
they will have to continue feeding the people," says Haji Kaif Nawaz.
         "And our own politicians are to be blamed for it."
'More and more tents'
Indeed, the failure of local politicians to rise to the occasion is being debated
everywhere in Neelum valley.
          Haji Nawaz expects little of them, even when the roads open.
          "For over 50 years, they have earned favours by playing Pakistan
against India and vice-versa," he says.
          "They are now looking to cash in on the earthquake to their
maximum advantage."
          His son is a construction labourer in Mansehra.
          "He told me that those in the northern areas and the North West
Frontier Province had rebuilt some kind of a shelter for themselves within two
weeks after the quake," he says.
          "But walk away from here and as you get closer to the road, you will
see more and more living under tents.
          "They know they will be the first ones to be spotted when the relief
agencies move in, so they have just let everything be."
          It is indeed as Haji Nawaz says.
          Perhaps the real misfortunes of the residents of Neelum valley do not
lie in the fault lines underneath.
          As he takes out his prayer mat, I prepare to leave.
          "We are an unfortunate lot because of our choice of leadership," he
says as he bids farewell.
          "We simply emulate what our leaders do."
                                                  BBC News, 23 November 2005
                   < >

          H OWARD P LEDGES $37 M ORE               IN   Q UAKE A ID
DHANNI, Pakistan: Australia’s prime minister pledged $37 million in new aid
to help Pakistan recover from the massive Oct 8 earthquake as he toured
devastated areas on Wednesday, while the head of Britain’s Anglican Church
visited quake refugees at a tent camp in the capital.
         Australian Prime Minister John Howard flew over the quake zone in a
helicopter and visited a field hospital set up last week by a 140-member
Australian team in the Neelum Valley town of Dhanni in the mountains of
Azad Kashmir.
         "It is a mammoth disaster," Howard said in Dhanni. "Australia is
pleased to announce a further 50 million (Australian) dollars (US$37 million)
in immediate relief and for reconstruction." Of that figure, 10 million
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   91

Australian dollars (US$7.4 million) would be for immediate relief through aid
agencies, including Unicef, he said.
         Howard, who met Pakistani leaders on Tuesday, said the pledge
brought Australia’s total offer to 70 million Australian dollars (US$52 million),
not including the cost of the hospital operation.
         "In Australia’s fresh assistance which I am announcing today, we will
be coordinating with the other donors to ensure it addresses the needs of
those most affected by the earthquake," Howard added.
         Howard said he welcomed the outcome of last weekend’s
international donors’ conference in Islamabad, at which Pakistan received
pledges of more than $5.8 billion.
         Howard also stopped at a cricket ground in Dhanni to bowl and bat
with students from a temporary school that has replaced one of the thousands
of small schools destroyed by the quake. Howard said international agencies
were "doing well" in the quake zone but that massive challenges remain. "The
task will be very difficult and challenging in the winter, as the people have to
be provided with shelter and food," he said.
         On the outskirts of Islamabad, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan
Williams toured a tent camp set up by the city government housing about
9,000 people. Williams, who looked in on a community center and a kitchen at
the camp, praised "the efficiency and speed" of relief efforts.
         Williams thanked Pakistani leaders for the opportunity to discuss
"very sharp tensions" between Christians and Muslims in an eastern town
where Muslim crowds torched churches earlier this month. He cited "great
willingness" among Pakistan’s leaders to deal "positively with the agenda of
relations between the great faiths of the world."
                                                              24 November 2005

           US N AVY      TO   R EBUILD M IANIBANDI A REA             OF
                              M UZAFFARABAD
MUZAFFARABAD: US Navy engineers would reconstruct the quake hit
Mianibandi village of Azad Kashmir.
         Spokesman of US forces public relation office in Pakistan
Commander Nick Balice stated that according to reconstruction program
announced by government of Pakistan, US Navy engineers would reconstruct
the Mianbandi village of Azad Kashmir. The village situated near Azad
Kashmir airport comprises of population of 5,000 people.
         Last week, President Musharraf had urged the Pakistani people and
international community to take reconstruction responsibility of quake hit
areas for swift completion of reconstruction process. He said that 115 seabees
92                                                                 IPRI Factfile

engineers of US Navy would rebuilt the houses, schools and sanitary projects
in the area.
                                                            24 November 2005

                         M USHARRAF

ISLAMABAD: President Musharraf said that $4 billion would be spent within
two years for reconstruction of quake hit areas.
          President Pervez Musharraf launched a national movement on
Wednesday to make a coherent use of the countrywide spirit of volunteerism
in rebuilding quake-damaged areas as world pledges for reconstruction
assistance rose to $6.1 billion.
          "I am confident that with organised participation of volunteers, the
government and the armed forces, we will improve lives of quake survivors
and demonstrate our commitment to transparency and organisation through
effective implementation of reconstruction strategy," said the president.
          Addressing participants of the National Volunteers Movement
(NVM), Musharraf said the world response at the weekend’s donors
conference reflected international trust in Pakistan’s commitment to
transparency and honesty as well as its elevated status in the comity of nations.
          "All information about execution of the strategy and utilisation of
funds would be available on the website, which is to go online shortly—the
entire process would be transparent and coherently," he said after Prime
Minister Shaukat Aziz announced that international donations had touched
$6.1 billion.
          Pakistan, in unison with the World Bank, the United Nations and the
Asian Development Bank had estimated the reconstruction cost at $5.2 billion.
The donors conference, attended by 85 countries surpassed the estimates,
which the president said would be used for bolstering the quality of life as
according to him the government did not want to restore the devastated
infrastructure but pursue a need-based strategy.
          President Musharraf said the injection of a hefty amount of Rs 250
billion as part of reconstruction efforts would help kick up economic activity
and announced Rs 150,000 for each of the over 400,000 quake-destroyed
houses for their rebuilding.
          "This will surely be helpful in mitigating the sufferings of people in
the 28000 sq km mountainous region of the NWFP and Azad Jammu and
Kashmir," he added.
          He said that under the owner-based strategy for reconstruction of
houses the government would extend Rs 25,000 additional amount to the
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   93

owners raising houses in conformity with the set standards of quake-proof
         Commenting on a suggestion about the use of loans being offered to
the country, he said these would be for a period of 40 years with minimal
service charges. "In terms of loans, we will never do anything that slides
Pakistan back to pre-1999 financial straits — we will be very careful in using
all financial resources," he vowed.
         The president said the donors conference saw unprecedented
participation of the international community, with 85 countries attending it but
regretted that the opposition parties stayed away from the event held for the
national cause.
         On extension of Rs 150,000 for reconstruction of each house
destroyed in October 8 calamity, Musharraf observed that 90 per cent of the
destroyed houses were in rural areas and the government had fixed the amount
keeping in view that fact. "We shall look after all people, particularly the poor
in the quake zone." he said.
         Dilating on tasks needing volunteers’ participation, the president said
carrying out relief operations through the next year was a major area. He
particularly outlined that the volunteers would have to assist those people
opting to stay on hilltops to re-erect their houses, help maintain hygiene
environment at the camps set up in valleys and later assist people descending
from mountains to settle in the valleys.
         The girl guides, he said, would be more effective in terms of imparting
education to children in makeshift schools and extending help in medical relief
to women and children. President Musharraf — who is patron-in-chief of the
NVM a — also administered oath to the volunteers and favoured that each
one of them should render services for at least one month as the nation
needed them at this difficult hour.
         He saluted the widespread spirit of selfless services witnessed around
the country immediately after Pakistan’s worst natural disaster, which claimed
more than 74,000 lives and left 3.5 million people homeless.
         "The entire nation is united in overcoming the catastrophe — I salute
all volunteers, the armed forces and all foreign volunteers also, who rendered
invaluable services in rescue and relief activities," Musharraf said.
                                                              24 November 2005

GENEVA: UN relief chief Jan Egeland has said school buildings in Pakistan
quake zone proved death wells due to defective construction. The UN official
94                                                                   IPRI Factfile

called for establishment of an international emergency fund to meet relief
needs during natural disasters.
          He vowed to scale up international efforts to protect people from
natural disasters, saying hundreds of thousands of deaths in earthquakes and
tsunamis in Asia could have been prevented.
          "This is one of the biggest challenges of our time and age, we need to
make vulnerable people living in developing nations more resilient to natural
hazards," Egeland told journalists during a meeting of a task force on disaster
          Slack or non-existent prevention or mitigation efforts were a major
problem, he added.
          About 95 percent of deaths caused by natural disasters occur in
developing countries, according to the United Nations, while losses as a
proportion of national income were 20 times greater than in wealthy nations.
          The task force highlighted the threat to "mega cities" housing millions
of people each in the developing world, if multi-storey housing was not
adequately quake-proofed.
          "We have seen 2004 and 2005 as the years of disaster," Egeland said,
citing the earthquake in Pakistan, the Indian Ocean tsunami and hurricanes in
the Caribbean.
          "It's like nature strikes back on people who have treated nature badly
and we see hundreds of thousands dead after these last two years and
hundreds of millions of livelihoods lost." "These people did not need to lose
their lives," he added.
          Egeland reiterated that quake-proof schools and hospital buildings in
Pakistan, early warning systems in the Indian Ocean -- which are now being
set up -- and better levees in New Orleans would have saved lives and
          "I hope we will learn from these experiences and re-launch a more
effective humanitarian system of effective prevention and preparedness," the
UN relief chief added.
          The UN wants 10 percent of humanitarian aid to be invested in
disaster prevention measures.
                                                            24 November 2005

     G OVT . - O PPOSITION M EETING G IVES B IRTH               TO   H OPE
ISLAMABAD: The government has assured the opposition that the reports
pertaining to expenditures on earthquake relief and reconstructions submitted
by the three-tier auditing and checking system would be put up to the joint
Parliamentary Committee in due course.
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   95

          The three tiers will consist of auditor-general, Ford-Rhode auditors
and over-sighting committee of elites. The reports will also be placed in
parliament. Both the divides of parliament have agreed to draw a mutually
acceptable terms of reference for the committee within a week. Prime Minister
Shaukat Aziz announced this at a news conference immediately after the
maiden meeting of the committee here Wednesday evening.
          The invitation was extended to leader of the opposition in the
National Assembly Maulana Fazlur Rehman, leader of the opposition in the
Senate Mian Raza Rabbani, Qazi Hussain Ahmad, Makhdoom Amin Fahim,
Asfandyar Wali Khan, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, Imran Khan, Mahmood
Khan Achakzai, Abdul Rauf Mengal and Maulana Sami-ul-Haq from the
opposition while from the treasury Chaudhary Shujaat Hussain, Rao Sikandar
Iqbal, Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari, Muneer Khan Orakzai, Justice
(retd) Abdul Razzaq Thaheem, Hamid Nasir Chattha, Farooq Sattar, Waseem
Sajjad and Muhammad Nasir Mengal were invited. Prime Minister Shaukat
Aziz chaired the meeting.
          The prime minister said the government had been assuring that it
would like to have the Parliamentary Committee to monitor and oversight the
policy initiatives taken by the government in the wake of October 8
earthquake. Since the government has an executive role, it takes step under
that authority. It would be a positive role on the part of the opposition if it
agrees to such system that would also helpful in creating congenial
atmosphere, he added.
          He said committee was constituted to monitor and oversee relief and
reconstruction activities but it also could put forward recommendations to
improve the system more effective. "It is a very welcoming day for Pakistan’s
democratic and parliamentary history that the opposition has taken part in the
talks with the government. All the members of the committee except Imran
Khan and Abdul Rauf Mengal attended the meeting as Imran was out of the
country and only today he has returned, while Mengal was in Balochistan. The
meeting lasted for more than two hours, he added. "We had extensive
discussions and it had helped a lot in improving atmosphere of understanding,
he added. The members attended the meeting with open heart and they made
it clear that they had attended the meeting as the opposition members and not
as the members of the committee.
          Every member took part in the discussions. Maulana Fazalur Rehman
was the first while Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain was the last speaker. "I have told
them that this would continue for a long time. We are to develop a framework
for it and then it could be institutionalised. The role of parliament would be
evident in it," the prime minister said.
          "I have given them the whole picture of the assessment about the
income and spending so far. I told them about the donors conference
proceedings", he said. I have given them the figures of pledged amount and
96                                                                 IPRI Factfile

told them that the government has received the pledging of $6.152 billion. Out
of it $3.984 are the soft loans while $2.2 billions are grant. The amount is
bound to enhance further, he said.
         The government and the opposition both were of the view that we
should evolve some method through consultations so that the national duty of
provision of assistance to the victims should be looked after properly, he
added. It would certainly be helpful to those suffered due to earthquake.
         Persisting differences could harm the process of forward move. The
prime minister thanked the opposition for its sincerity and large heartedness.
         Responding to a question, the prime minister said the opposition did
take up the remarks of President Pervez Musharraf but he (the prime minister)
explained them about the perspective in which the president offered his
comments in volunteers convention today (Wednesday). The prime minister
said the armed forces played an important role in the process of relief and
rehabilitation of the affected of earthquake. The members were asked to put
up their reservations in the full fledge meeting of the committee when it will
         Replying to another question, Shuakat Aziz said the opposition has
conceded that the government has majority in parliament and it has the right
to exercise administrative and executive powers to deal with the situation. In
emergency action are taken without consulting others but the monitoring is
the element to be seen, he said.
         The prime minister explained that international banks do not offer
grants. They can give soft loans and they have given it. The opposition
welcomed the gesture of constitution of the committee and said that it could
have been much better if it was formed earlier. "My impression is that the
opposition is interested in developing a TOR that could not hinder the
executive working of the government but there must be a supervisory
umbrella that could help in making every institution of relief and rehabilitation
answerable. I think atmosphere on the both sides is very positive and pleasant
and now we have to take it along. Once we reach an agreement by next week
on TOR, I am hopeful that then the things would be geared up", the Prime
Minister added.
         Shaukat said the government would welcome constructive criticism
but criticism for the sack of criticism is not acceptable. "Nobody has exclusive
on wisdom", he said. When quizzed on the F-16s, the prime minister said the
decision has been deferred and the decision to buy or not buy them would be
taken when the matter would be reviewed. For the time being the purchase has
been deferred, he said. He said the government would dispel the reservations
and objections of the opposition publicly whenever raised.
         Replying to yet another query, the prime minister brushed aside the
objections about the construction of new general headquarters (GHQ) of the
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   97

armed forces. The GHQ’s building is necessary in the national interest. He
said the government was wheeling back to normal functioning.
         To another question the prime minister said the federal government
would not ask the provinces to slash developmental or non-developmental
expenditures. He made it clear that Nato’s doctors and engineers have come
here in one thousand number and they are not posing any threat to the
security of the country. He said that the government has broken the chains
and torn apart the handcuffs of the IMF. The begging bowl was broken and
the government has no plan to pick it up again. The loans will be taken after
due consideration and country’s interest will be jealously safeguarded in the
process, he assured.
         On the other hand, making it clear that the opposition legislators
attended the meeting not as members but to convey their reservations, the
opposition leaders told a joint press conference: "If the government accepts
combined opposition’s terms of reference for the working mechanism of the
parliamentary committee, then we would decide to sit in the committee."
         The remarks of President Pervez Musharraf about opposition few
hours before the meeting compounded the atmosphere during the meeting for
some time, as the opposition termed it as an effort to "sabotage" the meeting
but abrupt denial by the prime minister and Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain kept
the opposition satisfied for a while.
         "We attended the meeting to convey reservations of the combined
opposition but not as members of the committee," said Makhdoom Amin
         "We have conveyed our reservations about terms of reference of the
committee to the prime minister and it is necessary that time is given to us to
prepare a draft of the terms of reference," Maulana Fazl said.
         The Maulana said the opposition would meet today to prepare draft
terms of reference, which would be sent to the prime minister’s office through
messenger, and wait for reply. "The fate of any formal meeting of the
parliamentary committee depends upon the government," he said.
         Rehman said the prime minister took note of opposition’s
reservations and explained that the terms of reference prepared by the
government were not of final and could be modified in consultation with the
         "Our demand was simple all the working mechanism of the
parliamentary committee should be subservient to the parliament and all the
decisions should be taken after getting approval from the parliament," he said.
"The opposition also demanded that all the institutions engaged in the relief
and rehabilitation process should be headed by civilians rather than any
serving general."
         Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan said the opposition went into meeting with
one-point agenda, which was presented to the prime minister. "We have no
98                                                                 IPRI Factfile

demand but objective is simple that we all wanted to help the affected people
of earthquake disaster and rehabilitate them and it needs joint effort while
focusing the parliament," he said.
         "The opposition made it clear during the meeting that the joint efforts
of the government and opposition would be successful only if supremacy of
the parliament is accepted." On President Musharraf’s remarks about the
opposition during the oath-taking ceremony of National Volunteers
Movement, Chaudhry Nisar said the issue was raised and Prime Minister
Shaukat Aziz and Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain categorically denied the remarks.
"On the one hand they invited the opposition and on other hand they passed
remarks against opposition and nation will decide who is on the right path," he
         Qazi Hussain Ahmed said it was conveyed to the government during
the meeting that when all major decisions had already been taken ignoring the
parliament, then what powers were left with the committee to review all the
decisions. "We have conveyed that it was giving an impression of the
presidential form of government as all the major decisions are being
announced by an individual," he added.
         Raza Rabbani said the financial transparency is must through
parliament and it should be made part and parcel of the terms of reference of
the committee. When asked about specifying the terms of reference prepared
by the government, Makhdoom Amin Fahim said it did not specify any role of
the parliament.
                                                            24 November 2005

ISLAMABAD: A special directorate general audit for relief and reconstruction
of earthquake-hit areas will be constituted shortly under the auditor general of
         To be constituted under orders of President General Pervez
Musharraf and Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, the proposed directorate general
will audit the incoming foreign assistance and the donations from home for
the uplift of more than three million quake-affected people.
         All the foreign donations would be channelled through the State Bank
of Pakistan. Any amount that comes in the State Bank of Pakistan will be
transferred to the public account. Under the constitution, the office of the
auditor general of Pakistan is bound to audit the expenditure made from the
public account.
         The proposed directorate general will be consisted of three directors
and one director general, who will be responsible for the transparent audit of
Pakistan Earthquake 2005: Rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction   99

the relief and reconstruction efforts being made by the Earthquake
Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Authority.
         The three directors of audit will start working in Muzaffarabad,
Abbottabad and Islamabad shortly. For the new directorate general, the
services of several professional experts will be hired from the private sector. A
third party will validate the audit report prepared by the proposed directorate
                                                              24 November 2005

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