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  Teri Lynn
 English 10,
Heald College
        All Ready / Already
• All ready (two words) means "ready,"
  with the word all.
We were all ready to study grammar.

• Already, an adverb, means "by now,"
  "even now," or "by then."
The plane had already left when we arrived.

Tip: if 2 separate words then refers to All of
  us being ready.
                 Altar / Alter
• Altar means a platform where sacrifices are
  made to a god or a platform at the front of a
  house of worship.
  – When it was time for the bride to walk the aisle to
    the altar, she began to tremble as she was so
• Alter means to change or amend.
  – My new jeans were too long, so I took them to a
    seamstress who alters all my clothes.
            Amount / Number
• Amount words relate to quantities of things
  that are measured in bulk;
  – Do not use up too great an amount of space.

• Number to things that can be counted.
  – I have a number of cakes to eat!

• Tip: Numbers can be counted, amounts are
  measured in bulk.
• “Besides” can mean “in addition to”
  – Besides the puppy chow, Spot scarfed up my

• “Beside,” in contrast, usually means “next to.”
  – I sat beside the girl.
• Capitol is Always a building
   – Can remember this! COngress meets in the CapitOl

• Capital - Cities which serve as seats of
   – The big letter that start a sentence or common noun
• Accept – "to receive."
  – He accepted the gift. (He received it.)

• Except is usually a preposition meaning "but"
  or "leaving out." However, except can also be
  a verb meaning "to leave out."
  – He liked everyone except Jere.

  – Tip to remember – EX is like your EX that you want
    to LEAVE OUT!
• Access – a way to enter.
  – You can access the internet here. The main access
    point is the front door.
• Excess – too much/extra
  – We had an excess of food at our wedding.

• Tips to remember
  – EX = TOO MUCH Extra
• Adopt means "to take as one's own."
  – Marc and Judy adopted two orphans.

• Adapt means "to change."
  Usually we adapt to someone or something.
  – They adapted to the hot weather.

  – Tips to remember: Most often you don’t adapt
    orphans, you adopt them. So remember the O’s
• Advice is what is given.
  – Don’t trust her, she gives bad advice!

• Advise- the act of giving advice.
  – I would advise you to make the most of college.
• Affect– to influence or alter in some way.
   – We have been badly affected by heavy rain.
   – Smoking will affect your health.

• Effect – the result of being affected
   – The effect of the rain has been local flooding.
   – The effects of the hurricane were evident.

– Remember that "affect" is a verb, so if the subject is
  taking action, use affect. (Remember: Action =
–Remember that nouns usually are paired with "the."
 So remember "thE Effect" flows well together when
 said aloud.
• “Besides” can mean “in addition to”
  – Besides the puppy chow, Spot scarfed up my

• “Beside,” in contrast, usually means “next to.”
  – I sat beside the girl.
• Capitol is Always a building
   – Can remember this! COngress meets in the CapitOl

• Capital - Cities which serve as seats of
   – The big letter that start a sentence or common noun
• Close – to shut, end or conclude
  – The events are at a close.
  – We closed the door.

• Clothes – garments to be worn
  – I spilled and had to change clothes.

  Way to Remember: CLOTHES are made of Cloth.
  – You choose to take a Tylenol right now.

• Chose is PAST TENSE
  – You chose tequila last night.
• Cite – to quote, summon, commend or call.
        Cite the author in an endnote.
• Site – location, area, computer website, or to
  place something in an area
        You visit a Web site or the site of the
• Sight – the act of seeing, a view, a glimpse/
  observation, to look in a direction.
        You sight your beloved running toward
        you in slow motion on the beach (a sight
        for sore eyes!).
• compliment: nice things said about someone
  – "She paid me the compliment of admiring the way I
    shined my shoes.”
• complement- matching or completing.
  – Alice’s love for entertaining and Mike’s love for
    washing dishes complement each other.
  – the full number of something needed to make it
    complete: “My computer has a full complement of
    video-editing programs.” If it is preceded by “full” the
    word you want is almost certainly “complement.”
• If you’re “making nice” you might be “Li”ing
• Conscious – aware, having mental faculties, known.
   – If you are awake, you are conscious.
   – Although it is possible to speak of your “conscious mind,” you
     can’t use “conscious” all by itself to mean “consciousness.”

• Conscience – inner sense of right and wrong.
   – Your conscience makes you feel guilty when you do bad things.

   “Science” makes you feel guilty!
• Council– an assembly, a body of people
  – I went to the city council meeting. It was boring.

• Counsel– advice, to give advice
  – I could counsel you not to speak to him anymore.

  – You go to visit a COUNSELOR for help, and a city has a
• Continually means "repeated again and again."
  – I was continually interrupted by the telephone.

• Continuously means "uninterrupted."
  – It rained continuously for forty-eight hours.

  – When you think –ually, think USUALLY. When you see -
    ously, think without interruption (uninterrupted).
• Coarse is always an adjective meaning “rough,
  – Don’t use that coarse language in here!
• Course – N. or v. many meanings! Path, track,
  procedure, mode of conduct, to hunt or chase,
  etc. ALSO used in many idioms
  – Of course, we do charge a fee for that.
• Disburse – to distribute, give out
   – You disburse money by taking it out of your purse
     (French “bourse”) and distributing it.

• Disperse – scatter, drive off, dispell
   – If you refuse to hand out any money, the eager
     mob of beggars before you may disperse.
• Eligible – available, qualified, fit or proper
   – He was quite the eligible bachelor.

• Illegible not readable, impossible to read, bad
   – I cannot take this paper, your writing is illegible!
• Eminent - prominent, famous, most important.
  – The government exercises eminent domain.
  – WTR: Some people call the Queen “your EMINENCE”

• Imminent – threatening, facing immediate
  disaster. From Latin minere, meaning “to project
  or overhang.”
  – The cave in was imminent, as was the movie
• Ensure- to secure or guarantee: to make sure or
  certain: measures to ensure the success of an
  to make secure or safe, as from harm
  – This letter will ensure you a hearing.
  – Old people drink Ensure to ensure good health.

• Insure – to guarantee against loss or harm, to
  secure indemnity to or on, in case of loss,
  damage, or death, to issue or procure an
  insurance policy on or for.
  – Some INSURANCE can Insure you for less.
           Everyday / Every day
• Everyday is an adjective that means
  commonplace, ordinary, or normal.
  – These shoes are great for everyday wear
  – You shouldn't wear an everyday outfit to the wedding
  – Don't use the everyday dishes - it's a special occasion

  Every day
• Every day means "each day.“ WTR if you can
  replace it with “each day” use two separate
  – I go to the park every day
  – I have to work every day this week except Friday
  – Every day I feel a little better
                Farther / Further
• Farther refers to length or distance. It is the
  comparative form of the word far when referring
  to distance.
   – London is farther north than Juneau.
      • WTR: FAR refers to distance
• Further means "to a greater degree,"
  "additional," or "additionally." It refers to time or
  amount. It is the comparative form of the word
  far when meaning "much."
   – This plan requires further study.
      • (Meaning "additional study," refers to amount)
   – According to my timetable, we should be further
      • (Refers to time)
• Formerly means earlier, or previously (adv.)
  – Formerly, I was a farmer.
  – I formerly weighed 200 pounds.

• Formally means properly or officially (adv.)
  – My attendance was formally requested.
  – I quit my job formally through a letter.

  – WTR you’d wear your FORMAL to a formal.
• It's is a contraction for it is or it has.
   – It's been good to know you. Contraction: it has
   – It's a bird! It's a plane! Contraction: it is

• Its is a possessive pronoun meaning, more or
  less, of it or belonging to it.
   – The dodo bird is known for its inability to fly.

• A simple test
   – If you can replace it[']s in your sentence with it is or it
     has, then your word is it's; otherwise, your word is its.
                Later / Latter
• Later -refers to time.
  – Though Amy said that she would join me later, I
    never saw her again.

• latter -refers to the second of two persons or
  things mentioned previously.
  – "There are two kinds of worries: those you can do
    something about and those you can't. Don't spend
    any time on the latter." (Duke Ellington)
                           Lay / Lie
• •The reason lay and lie aresomething their past tenses.
  Lay means "to place confusing is down." It is
     •The past you of to laid.
  somethingtense dolay issomething else. It is a
  transitive verb. yesterday.
     I laid it down here
   – Lay the book onto something else.)
     (It is being done the table.
       • (It is being done to something else.)
• Lie•The past "to Irecline"lay. bed. placed." It does not
                      of lie is
      means tenselay awakeor "be
        Last night              in
        (It is not being done to anything It is
  act on anything or anyone else. else.)an
  intransitive verb.
   – Lie down on the couch.
       • (It is not being done to anything else.)
                        Less / Fewer
• Use fewer with objects that can be counted one-by-one.
    – Incorrect: There were less freezing last winter.
   There were fewer days below days below freezing last winter.
   (Days can be counted.)

• Use less with qualities or quantities that cannot be
  individually counted.
   – Correct: I drank less water than she did.
       • (Water cannot be counted individually here.)

• When referring to time or money, less is normally used
  even with numbers. Specific units of time or money use
  fewer only in cases where individual items are referred to (I
  have fewer dollar coins in my collection than you).
• liable (a three-syllable word) (adj) means subject
  to, obligated to, or responsible for something.
   – The court ruled that school officials cannot be held
     financially liable for the improper search.

• libel (a two-syllable word) (n. or v.) refers to a
  false publication that damages a person's
   – Because of rising legal costs, regional newspapers may
     not be able to defend themselves in libel actions.
              Maybe / May be
• Maybe, the compound word, is an adverb
  meaning "perhaps" or "possibly."
  – Maybe I will go out tonight.

• May be is a verb phrase meaning "might be"
  or "could be."
  – I may be going out tonight.
• Past: previously. a period of time before now or a
   – The team performed well in the past.
   – The police car drove past the suspect’s house.

• Passed, is an action. The past tense is “passed“:
   – When John passed the gravy, he spilled it on his lap.
   – The teacher was astonished that none of the students
     had passed the test.
   – After a brief illness, he passed away.

Ways to Remember: however you have ”passed the time”
 you have never “past the time,” not even in the distant
• Prosecute means "to begin or carry out a legal claim
  against someone, usually for a crime" or "to carry or
  accomplish.“ The side carrying out the legal claim is
  also referred to as the prosecution.
  – Shoplifters will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the

• Persecute means "to harass, or pursue in order to
  injure or afflict.”
  – Many early Christians were persecuted.

• Way to Remember: You can prosecute a prostitute,
  but you persecute the religious. OR the o represents
            Personal / Personnel
• personal (adj) (with the accent on the first
  syllable) means "private" or "individual.“
   – "The true teacher defends his pupils against his own
     personal influence." (Amos Bronson)

• personnel (n) (accent on the last syllable) refers
  to the people employed in an organization,
  business, or service.
   – "Outstanding leaders go out of their way to boost the
     self-esteem of their personnel." (Sam Walton)

   Way to Remember: if its PERSONAL its one N, if its for
    other people its
            Principal / Principle
• Principal usually refers to a person. Remember that
  it ends in ‘pal’, which is a person. A principal can be:
   – the head of a school, the head of an organization
   – the main person involved in a contract or financial
   – Monday’s class should see the principal immediately!

• Principle - a standard, a law or a rule. This means
  you can have:
   – the principles of economics, which are the laws that
     govern economic theory
   – moral principles, which are the rules and standards that
     govern your behavior
   – Your mom should have taught you principles and morals.
               Quiet, Quite, Quit
• Quiet (adj) “of little activity,” (n.) meaning “tranquility”
  or “silence.”
  (v.) “to cause to be quiet.”
   – After lunch the children enjoyed an hour of quiet play.
   – We enjoyed the quiet of the countryside. (noun)
   – The man behind us shouted “Quiet down, can’t you?”
   – The leader quieted the protesters so the mayor could be

• Quite (adv) - “totally” or “completely.”
   – She was quite exhausted after the warm-up exercise.
      Respectfully , Respectively
• Respectively "one by one in the order
  designated or mentioned."
  – The central roles of ghost and detective are played
    respectively by comedians Vic Reeves and Bob

• Respectfully "with respect.“
  – "My cat does not talk as respectfully to me as I do
    to her." (Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette)
         Stationary / stationery
• Stationary (adj) not moving, still.
  (n) unmoving or staying in one place.
  – He stood stationary, waiting for the fight.

• Stationery (n) paper on which one writes or to
  other related items. (let the E in envelope
  remind you)
  – Pass me the flowery stationery?
                    Than / Then
• Than is a conjunction used with comparisons. It
  rhymes with pan.
   – He likes you more than me.

• Then is an adverb that refers to time. It rhymes
  with pen.
   – First you take a cup of flour, and then you sift it.

Way to Remember: Than has an a and compares
               There, Their, They’re
• There is an adverb meaning "that location." It is sometimes used
  with the verb to be as an idiom. It is spelled like here which means
  "this location."
    – I put the collar right there. (that location)
    – There are five prime numbers less than ten. (with to be)

• Their is a possessive pronoun. It always describes a noun.
    – Note the spelling of their. It comes from the word they, so the e comes
      before the i.
    – Their dog has fleas. (possessive of they)

• They're is a contraction of they are.
    – Note the spelling: The a from are is replaced by an apostrophe.
    – They're number 1! (contraction of they are)

Ways to remember. If you see HERE it is a place! (Where, There, Here)
                        To, Too, Two
• To is a preposition which begins a prepositional phrase
  or an infinitive.
   – We went to a baseball game. (preposition)
   – We like to watch a good ball game. (infinitive)

• Too is an adverb meaning "excessively" or "also." Way
  to remember: TOO is extra, also, excessive. It has
  excessive O’s
   – We ate too much. (meaning "excessively")
   – I like baseball, too. (meaning "also")

• Two is a number. Way to remember: Words which
  reflect the number two are spelled with tw: twin,
  twice, between, tweezers, etc.
   – Six divided by three is two. (number)
   – They own two Brittany spaniels. (number)
• Waste: (n) discarded objects, (v) to use
  – He wasted too much time.
  – The waste was toxic!

• Waist – middle portion of the body
  – His waist is 36” around!

  Way to remember: if its on my body, it needs an i.
          We’re, Were, Where
• We’re – contraction of we + are.
  – We’re going to the beach.

• Were – past tense of are.
  – We were happy playing in the sand.

• Where is at or in what place.
  – Where is the lotion?
• Remember – when you see HERE it is a place!
              Whether, Weather
• Weather is usually a noun, can also be verb that means
  "to be affected by the weather” or "to get/live through”
    –   How's the weather?
    –   The weather is always great this time of year
    –   That house is really weathered
    –   I know we can weather this crisis

    Whether is a conjunction that introduces possibilities or
    – You'll do it whether you like it or not
    – Whether you win or lose, you'll have done your best
    Ways to remember: whether is more or less
    interchangeable with "if," while weather indicates the
    temperature and atmospheric conditions.
                  Whole/ hole
• Whole (adj) complete
   – He ate the whole pie

• Hole – (n) opening, (v) to crawl into an
  – I found a hole in the sock.
  – Bears hole up for the winter.
Way to remember: if it refers to a complete it needs
 the whole W.
               Whose / Who’s
• Whose is a possessive pronoun (shows
  – Jake, whose responsibility it was to lead the
    expedition, mislaid the map.

• Who's is a contraction of who (pron.) and is
  – I am confused; (who's/whose) supposed to
    retrieve the kids from daycare?

• WTR: If you can replace with “Who Is” use the ‘
              Write, Right, Rite
• Write (v): to form letters/words, to compose
  – I will write this paper, I guess.

• Right (adj) correct, conforming to justice/law
  (n) power or privilege, direction opposite of left.
  – What is the right answer???!

• Rite (n): traditional (often religious) ceremony.
  – A bridal shower is a rite of passage.
                    Your, You’re
• your is a possessive adjective, indicating
  ownership of something
      • That is your sock.
      • Where is your potato?
• you're is a contraction (combination) of you and
      • Do you know what you're doing?
      • You're stupid.

• WTR: if you own it, it is yours. If you can replace
  it with You Are, then it is you’re

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