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Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

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					Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
        Karsten JEDAMZIK†

        †
            LPTA, Montpellier




                                Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
                       Outline of Talk


I. Theory of standard BBN
II. Observational determination of primordial light elements
abundances/comparison to standard BBN prediction

III. BBN as a probe of the early Universe and Physics
beyond the standard model

IV. Astrophysical/nuclear physics solutions to the
Lithium problem(s)

V. Beyond the standard model solutions to the lithium
problem(s)
                                              Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
        The standard BBN model at Ωb h2 ≈ 0.02273


           1

         0.01                                      4
                                                       He

        1e-04                                      2
                                                       H
                                                   3
        1e-06                                          He
ni/np




        1e-08                                          n
        1e-10                                      7
                                                       Be
                                                   7
        1e-12                                          Li
                                                   6
                                                       Li
        1e-14

            1000                100                              10
                              T (keV)

                                           Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
Assumptions underlying Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis


                                         general relativity


       equilibrium initial conditions
                                                               radiation energy density given only by
       with baryon−to−photon ratio
                                                              photons, electrons/positrons, neutrinos
               6.2x10e−10




vanishing lepton number                   standard                       no decaying or annihilating
  chemical potentials
                                            BBN                                relic particles




         no inhomogeneities in baryons                                no impurities like
          no small antimatter domains                         cosmic strings, primordial black holes




                                                                                Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
                  SBBN: A one parameter model
    Ò
                                                       Cyburt et al. 08
                                          ¿
                                              À À       ´½ ¼¼ ¦ ¼ ¼ µ ¢ ½¼                                                      ´ µ




    Á   º ¿   Ì    Ð   Ø   Ð Ñ ÒØ    ÙÒ       Ò
 × Ó         ¸
                                                                 ¿À   ¸   Ä    Ý ÒÙÑ     Ö Û Ø   Ö ×Ô 
Ø ØÓ À¸   Ò    Ø       Ñ ××

overconstrained → consistency checks possible
   Ö 
Ø ÓÒ Ó      À    ×    ÙÒ
Ø ÓÒ Ó         º Ì      Ø    
 Ò ×× Ó      Ø       Ò × Ö ÔÖ × ÒØ× ½      ÙÒ
 ÖØ   ÒØ       ×   Ò Ø


   
 Ð
ÙÐ Ø       ÙÒ     Ò
 º Ì     Ý ÐÐÓÛ      Ò          Ú × Ø      ÏÅ      È    ¿℄º




        Ì         Æ ÔÖ     
Ø ÓÒ× 
 Ò          
ÓÑÔ Ö                 Ö 
ØÐÝ Û Ø 
ÙÖÖ ÒØ Ó × ÖÚ Ø ÓÒ Ð                Ø ÖÑ Ò ¹
                                                                                                                                Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
   Ø ÓÒ× Ó Ø       Ð     Ø Ð Ñ ÒØ      ÙÒ Ò
 ׺ Ì                         ÆÐ      Ð ÓÓ     ÙÒ
Ø ÓÒ× 
 Ò          ¬Ò            Ý
II. Observational determination of primordial light elements
abundances/ comparison to standard BBN predictions




                                             Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
    Helium-4 from low-metallicity extragalactic HII regions



                                      systematic uncertainties
                                           atomic emissivities (changed Yp by
                                           +0.008 !)
                                           temperature variations
                                           ionisation corrections
                                           underlying stellar absorption


Yp = 0.2477 ± 0.0029, 0.2516 ± 0.0011 Peimbert it et. al07, Izotov it et. al07

more realistic error bars: Yp = 0.249 ± 0.009 Olive & Skillman 04




                                                             Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
                      Observational inferred Helium-4 with time



                      0.26
He mass fraction Yp




                      0.25
                                          WMAP

                      0.24


                      0.23
4




                      0.22
                         1990     1995      2000      2005                2010
                                            Year
                                                          Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
             D/H from Quasar Absorption Systems

                                                                   Iocco et al. 09




      Tytler,Fan,& Burles 96



significant dispersion →
underestimated systematic
                                 º   º Ì   Ò Ò   Ñ   ×ÙÖ Ñ ÒØ× Ó      µ¹ ܵ ÉË   ³× Ù×      Ò ÓÙÖ     Ò ÐÝ× ×º Ì         ÓÖ ÞÓÒØ
                                                                          +0.29
errors ?                        Ò    Ö ÔÖ × ÒØ× Ø    Ú ÐÙ   D/H =
                                                             Ó Õº ´   2.98−0.23
                                                                       µº             ×    10−5
                               
 Ò    ¬Ò Ø ÓÐÐÓÛ Ò ÕÙ ÒØ Ø ×
                                          ··           ·   
                                                       ··                                                                      ´
                                           ¾
                                                                                 Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p.
                          The 7 Li Spite plateau


                                                            -10
                                                     4x10

                                              Li/H
                                                     3x10-10



                                                     2x10-10


                                                            -10
                                                     1x10

                                                                  observed Li/H by different groups




                                            Spite & Spite 82, Bonifacio & Molaro 97,
(almost) no variation with metallicity      Ryan et al 99, Melendez Ramirez 04, Char-
and stellar temperature                     bonnel & Primas 05, Asplund et al 06

(almost) no measurable star-to-star
scatter

Interpretation - the Primordial      7 Li

Abundance                                                                  Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
                              6
                                  Li/H observations


Asplund, Lambert, Nissen, Primas, & Smith

                   06




                                             6 Liand 7 Li absorption features blend
                                             together
                                             6 Li   from asymmetry of lines

                                             asymmetry of lines from convective
                                             Doppler shifts ?
  A second Lithium plateau ?
6                                            non-LTE hydrodynamic simulations of
  Li/H ≈ 6 × 10−12 compare to
                                             two groups reach opposite conclu-
 standard BBN 6 Li/H ∼ 10−14
                                             sions
                                                                Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
                                                         Are the 6 Li detections real ?


                                                   Steffen, Cayrel, Bonifacio, Ludwig, & Ö×
                                                              Ä Ò Ñ Ø Ð¹ÔÓÓÖ      ÐÓ ×Ø Caffau 09                                                                         ½¾¿

                             0.10 Mean : 0.0212
                                  Sigma: 0.0208                                                               0.10 Mean : 0.0059
                                                                                                                   Sigma: 0.0212
 6Li / 7Li isotopic ratio




                                                                                  6Li / 7Li isotopic ratio
                             0.05                                                                             0.05


                             0.00                                                                             0.00


                            −0.05                                                                            −0.05
                                         5800     6000              6200   6400                                      5800          6000              6200        6400
                                                         Teff [K]                                                                         Teff [K]

              Ä » Ä ×ÓØÓÔ 
 Ö Ø Ó¸ Ò ¦½ ÖÖÓÖ Ö׸ × ÙÒ
Ø ÓÒ Ó « 
Ø Ú Ø ÑÔ Ö ØÙÖ ×
                            ÙÖ      ¿º
           Ý ×ÔÐÙÒ
   Ö Úonly four ∼ 2σ´¾¼¼ µ ÓÖ ´Ð ص Ò Ø Ö ´Ö ص ×Ù ØÖ 
Ø ÓÒ Ó ¡Õ´Ä µ ØÓ 
ÓÖÖ 
Ø
                            detections            Ø   к
 ÓÖ Ø       × Ù ØÓ Ø ÒØÖ Ò× 
 Ð Ò ×ÝÑÑ ØÖݺ ÐÐ 
 Ö
Ð × ÒÓØ Ä Ø 
Ø ÓÒ× ÓÚ Ø
      Ú Ð¸ ÓÔ Ò 
 Ö
Ð distribution skewed towards positive 6 Li/H
¾ Ð however, × ÒÓØ ÒÓÒ¹ Ø 
Ø ÓÒ׺

                            a positive 6 Li/H detection in HD84937 by four(!) groups



                                                                                                                                      Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
                           Helium-3/D




3 He/D < 1.5 for solar system Geiss & Gloeckner 07 is secure and
       ∼
useful in constraing non-standard BBN Sigl et al. 06




                                                 Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
 × Ò Ø ÅÓÒØ ÖÐÓ Ö ×ÙÐØ× ÖÓÑ Æ × ÙÒ
Ø ÓÒ Ó ØÓ Ú Ä Æ´ µ Ò Ø
                                                               SBBN Predictions against Observations
ÏÅ È Ú ÐÙ Ó ×ØÖ ÙØ × Ù×× Ò¸ ÄÏÅ È ´ µº Ì × Ö × ÓÛÒ Ò º Ý Ø
  Ö ´ ÐÙ µ ×   Ö ÓÒ׺ Ì ÓÙ Ø Ö Ö Ù× ÙÐ Ñ ×ÙÖ Ñ ÒØ× Ó Ø ¿À ÙÒ Ò

   ℄¸ Ø × Ö Æ
ÙÐØ ØÓ Ñ Ø
 ØÓ Ø ÔÖ ÑÓÖ Ð ÙÒ Ò
 ℄º Ï Û ÐÐ × ÓÛ Ø Æ
    Ð ÓÓ ÓÖ À Ò º ¸ ÙØ Û ÐÐ ÒÓØ ×
Ù×× À ÒÝ ÙÖØ Öº
             ¿                        ¿
                       Cyburt, Fields, & Olive 08

                                                                                                                                                   7x10-10

                                                                                                                                                   6x10-10

                                                                                                                                                   5x10-10          SBBN + WMAP predicted Li/H
                                                                                                                                                                       (2−σ -error bars)
                                                                                                                                                          -10
                                                                                                                                                   4x10
                                                                                                                                            Li/H
                                                                                                                                                          -10
                                                                                                                                                   3x10

                                                                                                                                                   2x10-10

                                                                                                                                                   1x10-10
                                                                                                                                                                observed Li/H by different groups



                                                                                                                                            7
                                                                                                                                                Li discrepancy 4.2 − 5.3σ

Á   º    Ì      Ø       ÓÖ Ø 
 Ð   Ò   Ó × ÖÚ Ø ÓÒ Ð Ð             Ð   ÓÓ    ÙÒ
Ø ÓÒ× ÓÖ         À   ¸     »À¸ ¿ À »À¸      Ò     Ä   »Àº

    Æ Ö ×ÙÐØ×       Ú        Ò 
ÓÒÚÓÐÚ     ÛØ       Ø     ÏÅ È              Ø ÖÑ Ò Ø ÓÒ Ó            Ò      Ö × ÓÛÒ    ×        Ö ´ ÐÙ µ

         Ö   º Ì          Ó × ÖÚ Ø ÓÒ Ð Ð       Ð       ÓÓ ×   Ö       × ÓÛÒ     × Ð       Ø ´Ý ÐÐÓÛµ ×          Ö    ÓÒ×   × Û ÐÐ      ×

 Ø ÖÒ Ø Ú       ÓØØ       
ÙÖÚ ×º Ì        Ø        Ò      ×Ø Ò
Ø ÓÒ×        Ö         Ø   Ð   Ò Ø       Ø Üغ
                                                                                                                                                                         Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
          Situation Summary


Element           Comparison
 4
     He               ok/inconclusiv
 2
     H                good
 3
     He               inconclusive
 7
     Li               disagreement
 6
     Li               ?
                              Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
III. BBN as a probe of the early Universe and Physics
beyond the standard model




                                            Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
                   The BBN early Universe Probe


the epoch of BBN is (one) of the furthest back reaching
precision probe of the early Universe
Almost all of the theoretical work in BBN the last three
decades has been done in exploring non-standard
models

changed expansion rate during BBN
lepton chemical potentials
neutrino oscillations, sterile neutrinos, exotic neutrino interactions
baryon inhomogeneous models, matter-antimatter inhomogeneous models
varying fundamental constants
decay and annihilation of relic paticles during BBN
catalysis of BBN


                                                                   Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
            BBN with decaying and annihilating particles
                                                                     Jedamzik 04,06
injection of energetic nucleons and mesons         103
                                                   102                          Bh = 0

     charge exchange reactions
                                                   101
     π− + p → π0 + n                               100                     -5
                                                                           -4.5
                                                      -1
                                                  10                       -4

     elastic- and inelastic scatterings           2                                 -3.5

                                              ΩXh 10-2                              -3


     p + p → p(n) + (p)n + π’s                    10-3
                                                                                    -2.5
                                                                                    -2
                                                                                    -1.5
                                                      -4
                                                  10                                -1

     spallation reactions                         10  -5                        0
                                                                                    -0.5                   0




     p(n) + 4 He → 3 H, 3 He, 2 H + ....          10-6                     τ(sec)
                                                           -2    0    2
                                                       10       10   10   104              106   108     1010   1012
     Coulomb stopping of charged nuclei
     3 H + e± → 3 H ′ + e±
                                                            Kawasaki, Kohri, Moroi 04,06
injection of energetic photons and elec-
trons/positrons
     pair production on CMBR
     γ + γCMBR → e− + e+
     inverse Compton scattering
     e± + γCMBR → e± + γ
     Bethe-Heitler scattering
     γ + p → p + e− + e+
     photodisintegration γ + 4 He → 3 H + p
                                                                                             Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 1
               Example: Supersymmetry, BBN, and Trh


gravitino not LSP → Trh must be low to
avoid too many decays of thermally pro-
duced gravitinos during BBN


gravitino LSP → NLSP decays dangerous
unless τ < 5×103 sec → gravitino LSP some-
         ∼
what lighter than weak scale → reheat tem-
perature must be low




                                                 ÙÖ ½ Ì ÔÐ Ò ´Ñ½ ¾ Ѽ µ ÓÖ Ø Ò ¬ ½¼¸ Ñ                     Ѽ ´Ð
                                             ¼ ¾Ñ¼ ´Ö Ø Û Ò ÓÛµ Ò ÓÖ ¼ ¼¸               ¼º Ì Ð Ø ÖÓÛÒ Ö
                                             À × Ö Ü
ÐÙ         Ý ÙÒ×Ù

 ×× ÙÐ 
 Ö ÒÓ Ò À × × Ö
 ×
                                                 → supergravity and
                                             Û Ò ÓÛ Ø      Ö Ö ÖÓÛÒ Ö ÓÒ Ð Ð                    ×­ × Ü
ÐÙ
                                             Ì  leptogenesis (in most
                                                    Ö Ö Ý Ö ÓÒ ÐÓÛ Ø         ×     ÐÒ ×Ð Ð              Ì 
 ÝÓÒ 

                                               
ÓÑ Ò Ø 
 ÝÓÒ 
¸ Ò × Ð×Ó Ü
ÐÙ º ÁÒ Ø Ö ×Ø Ó Ø                    Ö Ý
                                                 cases) incompatible
                                             ×Ø Ù Ñ ×× ÓÙÒ Ñ ½           Î × Ú ÓÐ Ø º ÁÒ Ø Ö ÓÒ ÆÓ
                                              Ö ÒÓØ × Ø ×¬ º Ì   ÓØØ        ÓÒ Ð Ð Ò Ñ Ö × Ø             ÓÙÒ ÖÝ
                                                                       Ü
ÐÙ       Ý Ø Ú Ö ÓÙ×             Æ ‘09 – p.
                                             ×Ø Ù ´ µ ÆÄËȺ Ì Ö ÓÒ×Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd 
ÓÒ×ØÖ1
IV. Astrophysical/nuclear physics solutions to the
lithium problem(s)




                                             Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
           Nuclear reactions/stellar atmospheres ?




stellar temperature ∆T ∼ 900 K underestimated
seems impossible
narrow nuclear resonance in
7 Be +2 H→ 9 B∗        4
              5/2 + → 2 He + p

Cyburt & Pospelov 09, Angulo et al. 05
seems unlikely but not ruled out → need further
measurement




                                              Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
                 Depletion of Lithium in PopII stars ?


      7 Li
         is observed in the atmospheres of PopII stars
it may be destroyed via 7 Li+p →4 He + 4 He in the interieur of
                           the star
   atmospheric material transported into the star and 7 Li-depleted gas returned to the
                                      atmosphere


                      Spite plateau not primordial ?


Depletion of 7 Li by factor 2 − 4 in halo stars is not understood
 and may currently only be explained with fine-tuned stellar
                            conditions
                          Dispersion ?

                                                                   Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
          7
              Li depletion by atomic diffusion in PopII stars ?
         Korn et al., Richards et al.
                                                atomic diffusion
                                                turbulent mixing
                                                    7x10-10
                                                                     with depletion factor 1.8
                                                           -10
                                                    6x10

                                                    5x10-10          SBBN + WMAP predicted Li/H
                                                                        (2−σ -error bars)
                                                           -10
                                                    4x10
                                             Li/H
                                                           -10
                                                    3x10

                                                    2x10-10

                                                    1x10-10
                                                                 observed Li/H by different groups




fine-tuned     turbulent  diffusion  coeffi-   → factor 1.8 7 Li depletion
                        gs   ` ρ ´−3
cient DT       =    400D4He ρ(T )       at    but stellar models ad hoc and tuned
                                  0
log(T0 ) = 6.0 ± 0.1 → ±25%

                                                                          Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
          6
              Li production by early cosmic rays: Energetics ?



6 Lioriginates in galactic cosmic ray nucle-     standard cosmic rays may provide
osynthesis (along, with 9 Be, and B)              5 eV/nucleon (up to [Z] ∼ −2.7
       via p, α + CNO → LiBeB
       and some α + α → Li
                                           only very efficient accretion on central black
                                               hole, or large fraction of baryons in
                                           supermassive ∼ 100M⊙ stars may provide
need 100 eV/nucleon          to synthesize
6 Li/H∼ 5 × 10−12
                                                     the required cosmic rays
                                               Suzuki & Inoue 00 Rollinde et al. 05,
                                                  Prantzos et al. 05 Nath et al. 05




                                                                   Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
V. Beyond the standard model solutions to the lithium
problem(s)




                                            Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
  Destruction of 7 Li during BBN due to injection of neutrons



                                K.J. 04


    7
        Li destruction: 7 Be +n → 7 Li +p; 7 Li + p →4 He + 4 He
                            at T ≈ 30 keV

           need only  10−5  extra neutrons per baryon
             some extra 2 H will be also synthesized


→ possible bydecay/annihilation or relic particles, evaporation
                        of defects



                                                   Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
         Production of 6 Li in cascade nucleosynthesis

6
 Li is very easily produced by small "perturbations" of the
standard model Dimopoulos et al. 88, K.J. 00


                         Electromagnetic:
                           γ+4 He→ 3 H +p
                        3
                          H + 4 He → 6 Li + n
                            at T < 0.1 keV
                                 ∼
                            Hadronic:
                       n+4 He→ 3 H +p + n
                       3
                         H + 4 He → 6 Li + n
                           at T < 10 keV
                                ∼

                                                Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
       charged relic - nuclei bound states during/after BBN


Pospelov 06,07, Kohri & Takayama 06, Kaplinghat & Rajaraman 06, Cyburt et al 06, Pradler &
    Steffen 06, Hamaguchi et al. 07, Bird, Koopmans, & Pospelov 07, Kawasaki et al. 07,
                       Takayama 07, Jittoh et al. 07, Jedamzik 07,08



binding energy between nuclei and electrically charged weak
               mass scale relics appreciable:

        7
            Be + τ → (7 Be˜) + γ, 4 He + τ → (7 He˜) + γ, etc.
                 ˜        τ              ˜        τ

        Bohr radius of bound nuclei between 2 − 4 Fermis

      → formation of bound states towards the end of BBN


                                                                  Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
              Fraction of nuclei bound to X −


                            2
                        Oh = 0.41, Mx = 1 TeV
         1
fi
        0.1
       0.01      7
                 Be
                        6
      0.001              Li                           p
                                    7
                                    Li
     0.0001
      1e-05
                                4
                                 He
      1e-06
                                time (sec)
      1e-07
           100       1000 100001000001e+06 1e+07 1e+08
                                                Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 2
            Production of 6 Li in catalytic nucleosynthesis


negatively charged weak
                                                                Pospelov 06,07
mass scale particles X −                          ½¼ 
                                                                          
                                                  ½¼ 
                                                                         Ö
                                                                                            
     ¢ ½¼ 
during BBN →                                                                                      ¢ ½¼¿ ×
                                                  ½¼      ´ À    µ

                                                  ½¼ 

formation of bound states                         ½¼                 Ò




                                           Ò ÒÔ
                                                  ½¼ ½¼          µ
with nuclei                                       ½¼ ½½
                                                          ´
                                                                                                   Ä



7 Be + X − → (7 BeX − ) + γ at ≈ 30 keV           ½¼ ½¾

4 He + X − → (4 HeX − ) + γ, at ≈ 10 keV          ½¼ ½¿

                                                  ½¼ ½

                                                  ½¼ ½
                                                                ¼½                                          ¼ ¼¾
   −
X acts as catalysator for re-                                                  Ì

actions
(4 HeX − ) + D → 6 Li + X −                important when Bh < 10−2 as
                                                             ∼
(4 HeX − ) + 4 He → (8 BeX − ) + γ;
(8 BeX − ) + n → 9 Be + X −
                                           with supersymmetric stau !

                                                                             Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3
           Catalysis and 6 Li, 7 Li, and 7 Be




                      Catalysis:

main production mechanism for 6 Li if Bh < 10−2
                                         ∼
may not solve the 7 Li problem, unless Bh < 10−5 rather
                                          ∼
small and ΩX > 10 rather large
              ∼
not clear if may lead to some 9 Be production




                                                Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3
The lithium friendly parameter space in cascade nucleosynthesis
               K.J. 04

     D/H
    3e-05

                                                   Bailly, K.J., Moultaka 08
                                              -1          Yp>0.258
   7                                      10
    Li/H




                                     ΩXh2Bh
                                          10-2


    1e-10                                 10-3

                                              -4
                                                                                   D/H>4x10-5
                                          10
       10
                                          10-5
 6 7
  Li/ Li 1
                                          10-6
      0.1                                           2
                                                   10         10
                                                                 3
                                                                      τ (sec) 10
                                                                                    4
                                                                                                    10
                                                                                                       5


    1e-02
              2    3     4   5   6
             10 10 10 10 10
                  τ (sec)
                                                           Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3
                    Signatures at the LHC !




       A metastable particle X with life time between
   100 − 1000 sec, if not too massive, could be potentially
produced at the LHC (since having at least some hadronic
  interactions), and ...., if electromagnetically or strongly
   interacting stopped in the detector → smoking gun for
   non-standard BBN → possible connection to the dark
                              matter

                             Examples:
                     Gluino in split supersymmetry
            supersymmetric stau Next-to-LSP with gravitino LSP




                                                          Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3
Example: Gravitino dark matter in the CMSSM
         K.J., Choi, Roszkowski, Ruiz de Austri 06




                                                     Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3
Solving the 6 Li and 7 Li problems by neutralino annihilation ?


      1e-22


      1e-23


      1e-24


      1e-25


      1e-26

                 uu-quark, 6Li/7Li = 0.01-0.09,0.024-0.68; D/H=3.5,4.4,5.3e-5; 7Li/H = 1.5,2,3,4.e-10
      1e-27
                10                            100                             1000


                                                                            Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3
                   Varying fundamental constants and 7 Li




Dmitriev, Flambaum, & Webb 04, Dent,
Stern, & Wetterich 07, Berengut, Flambaum,
& Dmitriev 09

7 Li   depends strongly on Bd and B7 Be

∆Bd /Bd ≈ −0.019 ± 0.005 → reduce 7 Li
(and 4 He)
∆mq /mq ≈ 0.013 ± 0.002 → reduce 7 Li




                                                     Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3
                                 Conclusions


the by standard BBN at ηWMAP predicted D (and 4 He) are in good agreement with
those observed
in contrast, there is a factor 3-4 discrepancy between SBBN predicted and
observationally inferred 7 Li
this discrepancy could possibly be removed if 7 Li is destroyed in Pop II stars, though
how this is done exactly is not understood
alternatively BBN could have been non-standard, e.g. including the decay of a relic
particle → potentially testable at the LHC
observations of the existence of a 6 Li plateau (similiar to the 7 Li Spite plateau) are
currently controversial
BBN continous to be a powerful probe of the early Universe and physics beyond the
standard model




                                                                  Karsten Jedamzik, Brussels, December 3rd ‘09 – p. 3

				
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