Essential Question:
 – How did Jefferson & his
   “agrarian republicanism” help
   forge a new national identity
   after the “Revolution of 1800”?
 America in 1800:
Society & Economy
  In 1800, North America in in North
           the USA was a territory
 Spain controlled the most new &1800
weak nation valuable cities like Mexico City,
America withsharing North America
   New Orleans, St Louis, & Los Angeles
   with other European powers
                    But, Spain’s hold on these
                     territories was slipping

 British Canada was sparsely populated, but
 Russia dominated the
 its control over the fur trade & Great Lakes
   fur trade in Alaska gained
                Haiti &
 France ruledwestward-boundLouisiana from
    frustrated                   Americans
  Spain in 1801 during the Napoleonic Wars
    From 1800 United States had major
                to Cincinnati
  Intense The like1810, the 1800
          migration to the
 …and cities,
population growth; Grew by 2 million people
  trans-Appalachian West
  which used the Mississippi
after 1790 led to new states
    & Ohio Rivers for trade
 Ohio (1803)
Kentucky (1792)
Many western settlers were
  concerned that
Tennessee (1796)Spain
 controlled New Orleans
       The U.S. became the in 1800
    Cotton quickly Economy dominant
      Southern crop of the 19th century
   By 1810, 84% of
Americans were directly entrenched the
     Cotton production
involvedSouth’s “need” for slaves &
         in agriculture
      expedited Northern industrialism
 The Southern economy
 was dominated by rice
  & tobacco cultivation
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin
  in 1793 allowed for a
cotton boom in the South
        By 1800, Economy in diverse
         The U.S.
   The Northern economy was more1800
industrialization was just Americans were
   than the South, but most
   involved in America
  beginning in cultivating livestock & grains
   By 1810, 84% of
Americans were directly
involved in agriculture
  Boston, NY, Philadelphia
relied on international trade,
  otherwise cities played a
 marginal role (only 5% of
 Americans designed cotton-spinning factories
Samuel Slaterlived in cities)
  in NE; but far more textiles were homemade
Jefferson as President
       Jefferson as President
Jefferson entered office after the
 “revolution of 1800” with a clear
 political ideology & with goals:
     However, Jefferson cost have to
  – To reduce size &would of gov’t &
   compromise many of his agrarianism
    promote republican president
  principles to be an effective
  – To repeal key Federalist policies
    (Alien & Sedition Acts & John
    Adams’ midnight appointments)
  – To maintain international peace
        The Silent Revolution
 At a time in world history when changes in
 political power were often accompanied by
 bloody revolutions, the election of 1800 is
 significant because the main power of the
 US government, the presidency, was
 shifted from the Federalist party to the
 Republican party with no violence and/or
 protests involved
  – Jefferson realized this significance and
    in his inaugural address he stated that
    “we are all Republicans, we are all
       Jeffersonian Reforms
Jefferson’s priority was to reduce
 the role of the national gov’t &
 But…Jefferson approved of the creation
  of the key Corps of Engineers & the
 return Armydecisions to the states
    US Military Academy at West Point
  – Repealed all excise taxes on
    Americans & relied on shipping
    taxes to generate revenue
  – Slashed military spending,
    reduced the army by 50%, &
    retired most naval ships
  – Eliminated all national debt
 Adams’ Midnight Appointments
Before leaving office, John Adams
 signed the Judiciary Act of 1801
 which created new circuit courts
           Who will become the
          greatest Federalists:
 filled with loyalSupreme Court
             chief justice ever!
  – These “midnight appointments”
    were an obvious attempt to fill
    the courts with partisan judges
  – The most important Adams’
    appointee was John Marshall as
    Chief Justice of Supreme Court
    Adams’ Midnight Appointments
    Federalists charged this was
       a violation Constitution
  In 1802, Republicans repealed the
           Can only be removed if commit
    Judiciary Act of 1801 & abolished
           “high crimes or misdemeanors”
    these new federal courts
 Marshall & the Supreme Court established
    the precedent of Judicial Review: the
     – William Marbury sued to the
Supreme Court has the authority to determine
       Supreme Court because he was
the constitutionality of Congressional actions
      denied his appointment
    – In Marbury v. Madison (1803),
      Marshall & the court ruled
      against Marbury that Congress
      could deny this appointment
     The Louisiana Purchase
In 1801, France gained Louisiana
 from Spain & seemed ready to
 create an empire in North America
  – But, the Haitian revolution & cost
    of European wars led Napoleon
    to lose interest in America
  – In 1803, Jefferson negotiated
    with France to buy New Orleans,
    but Napoleon offered to sell all
    of Louisiana for $15 million
       The Louisiana Purchase
Jeffersonian contradictions:
  – The Constitution was vague on
    which branch had the authority
   Republicans feared giving the mostly
    to purchase new lands
     French & Spanish residents of New
  – Jefferson abandoned “strict
 Orleans authority in a territorial assembly
    construction” to buy Louisiana
  – Jefferson signed the Louisiana
    Gov’t Act which denied self-rule
    to Louisiana residents
          The Louisiana Lewis & &
       The report from the PurchaseClark
        the Lewis & William Clark were
   Meriwether Lewis &Clark Expedition
    expedition reaffirmed faith in the future
commissioned to explore the Louisiana territory
        economic prosperity of the U.S.
                       Left St. Louis in May
                        1804 & reached the
                        Pacific in Nov 1805

 Goal #1: Determine if the        Goal #2:
 Missouri River flowed to     Collect data on
    the Pacific Ocean          flora & fauna
   Native American Resistance
The Louisiana Purchase
 increased tensions with Indians:
  – Americans rejected coexistence
    with Indians
  – Tecumseh swayed the Shawnee
    & other tribes to stop selling land
    & to avoid contact with whites
  – Jefferson hoped to “civilize”
    Indians into yeoman farmers &
    planned for a vast reservation
    west of the Mississippi River
      The Barbary War (1801-1805)
  In 1801, Jefferson dispatched the U.S. fleet
       to “negotiate through…a cannon”
   The North African “Barbary states”
     demanded blockade led to peace treaty
A successful naval tribute from trade ships
    & gained America international respect
     sailing in the Mediterranean Sea
Second Term
      Jefferson’s Reelection
Jefferson ended his 1st term as a
 very popular president:
  – He maintained internat’l peace
    with England & France despite
    continued denial of neutrality
  – Reduced taxes for Americans
  – Doubled the size of the U.S.
In 1804, Jefferson was reelected
 as president & the Republicans
 took the majority in Congress
Despite his electoral victory, serious
divisions divided Jefferson’s second
          term as president
     Division in the Republican Party
    The decline of theQuid factions
       The Jeffersonian &   Federalists
        became separate parties by system:
      suspended the two-party1824
      – Led to Republican dominance
 Jacksonians became National Republicansin
        national politics from 1800-1820
the Democratic Party were absorbed into
                          the Whig Party
      – But…without a clear party to
       oppose, many Republicans,
                      The “Virginia Dynasty”
       began attacking Jefferson
     Republicans       (Jefferson, Madison,
    controlled both Quids (“nothings”),
     – The Tertium Monroe) dominated the
       criticized Jefferson’s betrayal of
  houses of Congress     executive branch
       strict construction & sacrifice of
       virtue to get results as president
           The Yazoo Controversy
   Jefferson with Marbury v Madison,
       Together endured heavy criticism
      the to the Yazoo Land itself as
     due Supreme Court defined Fraud: a
           legitimate 3rd branch of gov’t
     – Corrupt GA politicians sold 35
                     The case established an
       million acres of land to insiders
Again, it’s the       important precedent:
       at ridiculously low prices
Marshall Court
                 Supreme Court can nullify any
     – Quids attacked Jefferson for
                   unconstitutional state laws
        allowing defrauded individuals to
        keep lands they bought
      – In Fletcher v. Peck (1810), the
        Supreme Court allowed
        purchasers to keep these lands
         The Slave Trade
At the Philadelphia Convention,
 slavery was tabled until 1808
In Dec 1806, Jefferson urged
 Congress to prepare a slave law:
  – Southerners furiously argued
    against any slavery legislation
  – Congress passed a law that
    ended the slave trade in 1808,
    but smugglers were to be turned
    over to local authorities
     war would Conflict Overseas
   ARenewed be too expensive &
   destroy his plans for a small gov’t
In 1803, England & France
  resumed hurt The embargo did not
The embargo their war & violated U.S.
the NE economy hurt England or France
  neutrality rights by seizing ships &
     Required American sailors:
  impressing huge gov’t oversight & an
    expensive army to suppress smuggling
  – Jefferson refused to declare war
    on either England or France
  – In 1807, Jefferson approved a
    very unpopular embargo that
    prohibited U.S. merchants from
    trading with England or France
•1806, Chesapeake was a US merchant ship 10 miles off the
coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop.
•British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered
•3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed
                             Regarding the Chesapeake
                              Affair, the Washington
                                Federalist reported,
                                 “We have never, on any
                             occasion, witnessed the spirit
                                of the people excited to so
                             great a degree of indignation,
                              or such a thirst for revenge,
                                 as on hearing of the late
                              unexampled outrage on the
                                Chesapeake. All parties,
                              ranks and professions were
                                    unanimous in their
                               detestation of the dastardly
                              deed, and all cried aloud for

Most Americans were angered over this incident and
 public opinion was to go to war with the British.
 During Jefferson’s two terms:
  – The U.S. doubled in size, saw huge
    population growth, & experienced
    western expansion
  – The role of government shrank
  – The Jefferson presidency led to a
    divisive, politically partisan era
  – The U.S. grew closer to
    international war due to failed
    attempts at reconciliation with

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