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					Studies of Adenoviruses APC * in
Volunteers
JOSEPH A. BELL, M.D., Dr.P.H., F.A.P.H.A.; THOMAS G. WARD, M.D., Dr.P.H.;
ROBERT J. HUEBNER, M.D., F.A.P.H.A.; WALLACE P. ROWE, M.D.; R.
SUSKIND, M.D.; and RALPH S. PAFFENBARGER, Jr., M.D., Dr.P.H. GERALD

                                                     S-CC and CC inoculums and only
      An outstanding feature of this re-             homologous inmmunity  to illness from
      search that wiiU be of immediate               the ARD
      interest to aU in public health is                       inoculum. It was concluded
      the report on a field trial of APC             that at least two agents, presumably
      vaccine which furnishes the back-              viral,          causing
      ground data and the basic essen-                        were             acute   respiratory
      tials for the use of such a vaccine.diseases of unknown etiology.
                                             In 1953, Rowe, et al.,3 reported the
                                          discovery of adenoid degenerating
    In 1947, the U. S. Army Commission agents later classified 4' 5 as the ade-
on Acute Respiratory Diseases 2 re-       noidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival (APC)
ported experimental transmission to group of viruses and recently designated
human beings of etiologically undif- adenoviruses. This group of viruses is
ferentiated acute respiratory illnesses. characterized by production of unique
Volunteers were inoculated by spraying cytopathogenic changes in cultures of
the nasopharynx with 10 ml of bacteria- epithelial cells and by nonpathogenicity
free filtrates of nasopharyngeal excre- for ordinary laboratory animals. They
tions collected from (a) a donor ill with are heat labile, filterable, and resistant
an acute febrile respiratory disease to antibiotics and ether, and have
 (ARD), and (b) from donors ill with soluble, group-specific, complement-fix-
severe ("S-CC") and mild ("CC"), ing antigens which are not type-specific.
nasopharyngeal catarrh. Inoculation Twelve human and two simian immuno-
was followed by minor respiratory logically distinct serotypes have been
illnesses chiefly manifest by nasopharyn- delineated to date by type-specific
geal catarrh at from five to six days in neutralization tests.6 Types 1 through
the ARD group and from one to two 6 have been found in human tonsil and
days in the S-CC and CC groups. adenoid tissue removed surgically from
Reinoculation of both groups with persons without acute febrile illness.
homologous and heterologous materials Types 1 through 7 have been found on
showed no immunity to illness from the the pharynx or conjunctiva of human
                                                  beings      with acute,   febrile,
                                                                               respiratory
  *  On May 25, 1956, the investigators respon-   illness. A single strain of Type 8 has
sible for using the names Adenoid Degenera-
tive (AD) viruses, Adenoidal Pharyngeal
                                                  been recovered from the eye of a human
Conjunctival (APC) viruses, Respiratory Ill-      being
                                                 with epidemic keratoconjunctivi.
ness (RI) viruses, and Acute Respiratory          tis and
                                                   serologic evidence in 25 cases
Disease (ARD) viruses to designate a new  suggests an etiologic relationship.7 Only
group of respiratory viruses agreed to use
                                          single strains of other known types have
henceforth the term "adenovirus" in lieu of
former names.'                            been recovered to date.
  The Maryland Studies were supported in     In 1954, Hilleman, et al.,8 reported
part by grants from the Research Grants
Division, U. S. Public Health Service and that a newly isolated virus (RI 67) was
from the Common Cold Foundation.          associated with ARD in military re-
                                              1130
                                                      ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46             1131

 cruits. RI 67 virus was found to be          Types 1 through 6 were used. The
 Type 4 of the virus group previously         inoculums consisted of (a) human nasal
 reported by Rowe and Huebner and re-         washings known to contain Type 3 or 4
 cently designated adenovirus. In 1955,       virus; (b) Types 1, 2, 5, and 6 virus
 Ginsberg, et al.,9 reported that serums      grown in cultures of human embryos or
 from the donor and recipients of ARD         tonsil or adenoid cells; (c) Types 1, 2,
 inoculums used in Army Commission            3, and 4 virus grown in HeLa cells; (d)
 studies reported in 1947 showed a rise       Types 1, 4, and 5 virus grown in
 in neutralizing antibody titer against      monkey kidney cells; and (e) control
 RI 67 virus (APC Type 4) (Adenovirus         material consisting of virus-free tissue-
 Type 4).                                     culture maintenance fluid. Inoculums
    In August, 1953, the authors began a      were administered by intranasal instilla-
 series of studies in volunteers to deter-    tion by swabbing the oropharynx, by
 mine if, and under what conditions,          inhalation of atomized suspensions, by
 various types of adenovirus could in-        swabbing the palpebral conjunctiva, or
 duce human illness. To date 13 differ-       by dropping suspensions into the con-
 ent studies involving 654 volunteers        junctival fornix. Volunteers were also
 have been carried out. It was found          inoculated intramuscularly and intra-
 that the intranasal instillation of virus    dermally with heat- or formaldehyde-
 was followed occasionally by minor          inactivated Type 3 adenovirus grown in
 respiratory illness which could not be      monkey kidney cells.
 attributed to the virus inoculated. On         All inoculums contained penicillin
 the other hand, the swabbing of virus       and streptomycin, and were bacteriolog-
 on the conjunctiva induced readily          ically sterile when tested on blood agar
 recognizable illness.10 Such induced        and thioglycollate broth. Similarly, all
 illness was associated with infection as    monkey kidney culture inoculums and
 indicated by a rise in complement-fixing    the seed cultures used for preparing
 antibodies or by virus isolation on the     HeLa culture inoculums, were tested as
 fifth to ninth postinoculation day. Both    described previously in laboratory ani-
 induced infection and illness were asso-    mals 10 for possible contaminating, non-
ciated with susceptibility as indicated      bacterial pathogens. In order to insure
by the absence of preinoculation homol-      complete freedom from viable tissue
ogous neutralizing antibodies. It was        cells, fluids were removed after all cells
 also found that intramuscular inocula-      had demonstrated cytopathogenic ef-
tion of an inactivated virus vaccine         fects; these fluids were frozen at
would induce neutralizing antibodies,        - 200 C for at least two weeks, then
and persons with such induced anti-          thawed, centrifuged at 2,000 or 4,000
bodies were protected against challenge-     rpm for 20 minutes, filtered through a
induced infection and illness to the same
extent as persons with naturally ac-            Drs. Bell, Huebner, Rowe, Suskind, and
quired neutralizing antibodies.11 This       Paffenbarger are with the U. S. Department
report reviews these studies and details     of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
                                             Health Service, National Institute of Allergy
those not previously published.              and Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Infec-
                                             tious Diseases, Bethesda, Md. Dr. Ward is
                                             with the Lobund Laboratories, Notre Dame
Methods of Study                             University, Notre Dame, Ind. (formerly at
                                             Johns Hopkins University).
   Studies were carried out in the Fed-        This paper is an extension of the discussion
                                             presented before a Joint Session of the Epi-
eral Industrial Reformatory, Chillicothe,    demiology and Laboratory Sections of the
Ohio, and the Maryland State Reforma-        American Public Health Association at the
tory,   Breathedsville, Md. Adenovirus       Eighty-Third Annual Meeting in Kansas City,
                                             Mo., November 16, 1955.
1132    SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

 UF sintered glass or Selas 0.03 filter,     struction. In the early Maryland studies
 and refrozen until used.                    an arbitrary method of scoring clinical
    Usually, the study of a new virus        findings served as an index of acute
  type or a new route of inoculation was     illness.12 In the later studies, tabula-
 initiated in small groups at the Mary-      tions included any manifestation of ill-
 land Reformatory and these were fol-        ness that persisted for two or more
 lowed by confirmatory studies of larger     consecutive days and was noted inde-
 groups at the Federal Reformatory.          pendently by at least two observers.
  Study subjects were white and Negro
 male volunteers generally 21-29 years       Pescription of Individual
 of age. During the course of observa-       Studies and Results
 tion, neither the observers nor partici-
 pants knew which person received test        Early Maryland Studies M 8/53, M 1/18/54,
 or control inoculums, or which inocu-        M 1/25/54, M 5/54, and M 6/54-Infranasal
 lated site received infective material.      lnsfillation of Adenovirus Types 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6
 Test and control subjects were selected         Each study at the Maryland Reforma-
 by random sampling to insure compara-       tory (Study Series M) comprised 20
 bility among groups, except when sus-       volunteers who were often not isolated
 ceptibles were selected on the basis of     prior to inoculation but always kept un-
 preinoculation antibody titers. Blood       der hospital group isolation during the
 serums were collected just before inocu-    observation period. The five early
 lation and again some three weeks later.    Maryland studies were exploratory in
 The laboratory methods used for virus       nature and included only 20 controls,
 culture and identification and for sero-    since the chief objective was to observe
 logic complement-fixation and neutrali-     if recognizable illness or infection would
 zation tests have been described in         follow intranasal inoculation of a 1 ml
 previous papers.3.5 Prior to inocula-       dose of suspensions containing adeno-
 tion, participants were examined medi-      viruses. Table 1 summarizes the results
 cally to eliminate those with poor health   of these studies; it shows the number of
 or acute illness.                           volunteers receiving various types of
    After test and control materials were    inoculums and the number developing
 inoculated, participants were examined      illness and complement-fixing anti-
 and temperatures taken almost daily         bodies, together with their preinocula-
 throughout the period (usually ten          tion homologous neutralizing antibody
 days) when illness was anticipated.         status.
 Usually these examinations were made           Minor respiratory illness, classified
 independently by two or more of the         by   an arbitrary scoring method but
 authors. The procedure was to record        manifest chiefly by nasopharyngeal
 objective findings first and then elicit    catarrh, occurred from two to five days
subjective complaints and symptoms.          after virus inoculation in 35 per cent
The eyes were examined for conjunc-          and 36 per cent respectively, of volun-
tivitis; the nasal passages for inflamed     teers without or with preinoculation
or edematous mucosa, serous or puru-         neutralizing antibodies, and in a nearly
lent discharge, and airway obstruction;      equal 40 per cent of the 20 controls
and the mouth and throat for inflamma-       who received virus-free material. On
tion, exudate, and lymph follicle hyper-     the other hand, a postinoculation com-
trophy. Complaints were then elicited,       plement-fixing antibody rise to various
followed by inquiry as to headache,          homologous and heterologous antigens
cough, malaise, chilliness, feverishness,    occurred in 65 per cent, 47 per cent, and
sore throat, rhinorrhea, and nasal ob-       0 per cent of these respective groups. It
                                                                   ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46                      1133

  Table 1-Summary of Early Maryland Studies-Number of Volunteers with Illness
   by Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody Titer and Complement-Fixing Antibody
    Response According to Type and Source of Adenovirus Inoculated Intranasally
                                                            Preinoculation Homologous N. Ab. Titer
      Inoculum                Total No.      N.Tse o
                                             No. Tested For      < 1:4                  1:4
 Adenovirus                                    N. Ab. and
    Type Source *             Vol.      Ill.    C. F. Rise Vol. Il. C. F. Rise Vol. Ill. C. F. Rise
     1         Ad              10      7            9          4      3       2         5      3         2
     2         Em               9      4            7          2      2       2         5      1         3
  1 and 2      Ad              11      4            7          2      1       2         5      1         4
     4         NWN             10      0           10          4      0       2         6      0         2
     4         NWI             10      0            9          4      0       1         5      0         1
     5         Ad              13      5           13          5      1       5         8      4         1
  2 and 5      Ad              10      8            7          1      1       1         6      5         5
     6         Tn               7      2            6          1      0       0         5      2         3
     Subtotal                 80      30          68         23       8     15        45      16        21
       Per cent                      (38)                           (35) (65)                (36) (47)
  None Maint. Fluid           20       8          None (0/20) had a C. F. Rise
  (Per cent)                         (40)
   * Ad, Em, and Tn = virus inoculated direct from tissue culture of
                                                                     human adenoid, embryo and tonsil cells.
NWN = pooled human nasal washings known to contain naturally occurring Type 4 virus plus normal rabbit serum.
NWI = same as NWN except immune rather than normal rabbit serum added.



 may be noteworthy that illness followed                enced the results. Hence, investigations
 inoculation of all viruses except Type 4.              were begun at the Federal Reformatory
 The Type 4 inoculum differed from                      in Chillicothe, Ohio (Study Series C)
 others in that it consisted of pooled hu-              using larger groups of volunteers, in-
 man nasal washings known to contain                    cluding a noninoculated control group,
 naturally occurring virus plus rabbit                  and using better standardized doses of
 serum; other inoculums were culture-                   virus grown in HeLa and monkey kid-
 grown viruses without rabbit serum.                    ney cell cultures.
 Though not shown in the table, illness
 occurred in 15 (42 per cent) of 36                     Study C-3/54--Intranasal Instillation      of
volunteers with induced infection (four-                Adenovirus Types 1, 2, and 3
fold rise in CF antibodies) and in nine                    The first Chillicothe study (in Study
 (28 per cent) of 32 without evidence                    Series C) comprised 267 volunteers
 of infection. This difference is not                   made available by the reformatory staff.
statistically significant. Thus the minor               Participants were not isolated but con-
respiratory illnesses observed could not                tinued their routine activities except for
be attributed to the viruses inoculated,                daily visits to the hospital during the
despite serologic evidence of infection.                study. Forty volunteers, 18-20 years
   The number of volunteers observed in                 of age, served as a noninoculated con-
these early studies with group hospital                 trol group and were observed in the
isolation was comparatively small, and                  same manner as other participants. The
the relative amounts of virus inoculated                remaining 227 volunteers, 21-29 years
were not well standardized. Also, it                    of age, were distributed at random into
was recognized that psychological fac-                  five groups comprising 41, 44, 50, 50,
tors, allergies, or primary irritations                 and 44 individuals. The five groups
from the inoculums could have influ-                    were found to be nearly equal in distri-
 1134       SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

 bution of attributes such as age, race,                     tibodies. Rises were more frequent in
 work site, and histories of prior respira-                  volunteers receiving tissue-culture-grown
 tory illnesses, thus confirming their ran-                  virus than in those receiving nasal wash-
 dom selection. Aside from age, the                          ings; presumably the latter inoculum
 noninoculated group had a similar dis-                      contained smaller amounts of virus. No
 tribution of these attributes.                              biologic significance can be attributed
    Inoculated volunteers had 1 ml of                        to the difference in frequency of comple-
 inoculum instilled in their nostrils. The                   ment-fixing antibody rises in volunteers
 first, second, and third groups received                    receiving Types 1, 2, and 3 virus since
 HeLa-cell-grown adenovirus, Types 1,                        only Type 1 virus antigen was used in
 2, and 3, respectively. The fourth group,                   these tests. Previous studies 4 showed
 an inoculated control group, received                       that Type 1 antigen gave an > fourfold
 virus-free tissue-culture maintenance                       complement-fixing antibody response in
 fluid. The fifth group received a pool                      only 76 per cent of persons infected with
 of three human nasal washings known                         other virus types.
 to contain Type 3 adenovirus. The                              Tables 3 and 4 show the percentage
 sixth group was the noninoculated con-                      occurrence of various illness manifesta-
 trol group mentioned above.                                 tions by various attributes. The chief
    Table 2 indicates that infection fol-                    objective finding and subjective symp-
 lowed inoculation as there was a rise in                    tom was nasal obstruction or discharge.
 the postinoculation complement-fixing                       Illness began on the second to fifth day
 antibody titer. This infection correlated                   following inoculation and subsided on
 with susceptibility as it was more fre-                     the seventh to tenth day. A few of the
 quent in persons without than with de-                      volunteers had temperatures above
 tectable preinoculation neutralizing an-                    100° F and were hospitalized for close

  Table 2-Study C-3/54-Number of Volunteers with Complement-Fixing Antibody
   Response by Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody Titer According to Type and
          Source of Adenoviru Inoculated Intranasally (Number with C. F.
                         Response/Number of Volunteers)
                                          Preinoculation Homologous N. Ab. Titer
                                              < 1:4                 > 1:4          No Test                Total
                                                 Per                   Per                Per                     Per
Adenovirus               Study                  cent                  cent               cent                     cent
  Type *                 Group                  C. F.                 C. F.              C. F.                   C. F.
Inoculated                              No.     Rise         No.      Rise       No.     Rise          No.       Rise
1 (HeLa)                    I          9/9                 16/27                 0/0
2 (HeLa)                   II          8/9                                                          25/36         69
3 (HeLa)
                                                           12/28                 3/5                23/42         55
                          III          8/13                13/34                 1/3                22/50         44
    Subtotal                          25/31       81       41/89       46        4/8      50        70/128        55
3 (Nasal Wash.)             V          2/14       14        2/26        8        0/1      ..         4/41         10
None (Maint. Fl.)         IV                                                     1/81      1         1/81          1
     (Not Inoc.)          VI
Total                                 27/45       60       43/115      37       5/90       6        75/250 t      30

    * (HeLa) indicates virus grown in HeLa tissue-culture cells.   (Nasal washing) indicates   a pool of human   nasal
washings known to contain naturally occurring Type 3 virus.
    t Seventeen volunteers not tested for C. F. antibody rise.
                                                            ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46        1135

 Table 3-Study C43/54-Pereentage of Volunteers Tested Having Various Indexes of
    Illness According to Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody Titer and According
               to Postinoculation Complement-Fixing Antibody Response
                           Virus Inoculated Groups I, II, III, and V
                        Preinoculation Homologous      Rise C. F. Anti-
                               N. Ab. Titer           bodies > 4 Fold       Nonvirus Inocu-
      Illness                                                                lated Control
     Indexes              < 1:4         > 1:4          Yes          No     Groups IV and VI
 Volunteer's Opinion        41           35            32           38           27
 Subjective Symptoms        43           39            32           43           24
   Cough                     4            2             3            3            4
   Nasal Discharge
     or Obstruction         41           35            30           40           22
   Sore Throat               2            5             5            3            1
 Objective Findings         39           34            41           31           32
   Nasal Discharge
     or Obstruction         33           28            34           25           31
   Nasal Inflammation       13            9            11            9            3
   Throat Signs              7            3             7              3          4
Number of Volunteers       46           122            74           95           90
Total Tested                      168                         169


  observation. All participants had chest       mediately preceding, during, or follow-
 roentgenograms before and after virus          ing the period of observation.
 challenge; these showed no evidence of           The Chillicothe study, utilizing larger
 acute pathology attributable to the            groups of volunteers, including inocu-
 inoculum. Tables 3 and 4 show that             lated and noninoculated controls, larger,
 illness occurred in each study group,          better standardized doses of virus, and
 but the frequencies of manifestations          more meticulous clinical observation,
 were not significantly related to prein-       led to the same conclusions as the early
 oculation neutralizing antibody status,        Maryland studies. Minor respiratory
 to rises in complement-fixing antibody         illness followed inoculation, but could
 titer, to type of virus inoculated, or even    not be attributed to the viruses inocu-
 to whether virus was inoculated. This          lated, despite serologic evidence of in-
surprising finding prompts reiteration          fection.
that the illness manifestations tabulated
represented only those persisting for two       Study C-7/54-Insfillation of Atomized
or more days as recorded by two or              Suspension of Adenovirus Types 3 and 5
more investigators examining independ-             Failure to produce definite illness at-
ently. Furthermore, each investigator           tributable to inoculation of virus by the
recorded objective findings before elicit-      intranasal route in all previous studies
ing subjective symptoms, and without            led to a study in which virus was in-
reference to his findings at previous           haled. Each volunteer inhaled 1 ml of
examinations. The volunteer was never           an atomized suspension of HeLa-cell-
informed of the examiners' findings.            grown virus or control material. A total
There was no respiratory disease out-           of 50 volunteers were distributed into
break among the 1,500 or more other             four groups according to their neutraliz-
persons at the Chillicothe institution im-      ing antibody status. Group I, compris-
1136       SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

   Table 4-Study C-3/54-Percentage of Volunteers in Each Study Group Having
                          Various Indexes of Illness
                                                                                                    Total
          Study Group             I        II        III         IV       V        VI                 Number
                                                No Virus Type 3                                             of
Illness      Adenovirus     Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Maint. Nasal                                Per       Volun-
Indexes         Type Inoc.* HeLa HeLa HeLa Fluid Wash. Uninoc.                               cent       teers
Volunteer's Opinion               39        21        38         28        43       25        33            87
Subjective Symptoms               39        21        38         26        52       22        33            89
  Cough                            5         2         2          6         2        2         3             9
  Nasal Discharge
    or Obstruction                37        21        32         22        50       22        31            82
  Sore Throat                      2         2         6          2         5        0         3             8
Objective Findings                37        33        28         34        43       30        34            91
  Nasal Discharge
    or Obstruction                32        33        20         34        34       28        30         80
  Nasal Inflammation               7         5        12          4        14        2         7         20
  Throat Signs                     7         5         4          6         2        2         4         12
Number of Volunteers              41        42        50         50        44       40                  267
   * HeLa indicates virus grown in HeLa tissue-culture cells.    Nasal washins indicates human nama wa&hinns
known to contain virus.



 ing 17 volunteers without neutralizing                    ficiently ill for hospital observation. Pre-
 antibodies to Type 3 adenovirus, re-                  and postinoculation chest roentgeno-
 ceived Type 3 virus. Group II, com-                   grams showed no changes. Similar to
 prising 14 volunteers with neutralizing               previous studies where virus was inocu-
 antibodies to Type 3 virus, similarly                 lated into the nose, illness followed
 received an aliquot of the Type 3                     inoculation but could not be attributed
 inoculum. Group III, comprising seven                 to the virus inoculated as it was not
 individuals without neutralizing anti-                significantly related to the presence or
 bodies to Type 5 virus, similarly re-                 absence of preinoculation neutralizing
 ceived Type 5 virus. Group IV,                        antibodies. In contrast to previous
comprising 12 volunteers with unknown                  studies, this study showed practically no
neutralizing antibody status, received                 serologic evidence of infection.
virus-free tissue-culture maintenance
fluid.                                                 Studies M 2/14/55 and M 2/28/55-Conjunc-
   This method did not produce substan-                tival Swabbing of Adenovirus Types 3 and 4
tial evidence of infection as only one                    When the conjunctival component of
volunteer who received virus (Group 1)                 naturally acquired illness from Type 3
showed a rise in complement-fixing anti-               adenovirus had been established,13
bodies. Two to five days after inocula-                another study was undertaken at the
tion, mild respiratory illness chiefly                 Maryland Reformatory, using the con-
manifest by nasal obstruction and dis-                 junctival route of inoculation. As pre-
charge occurred with near equal fre-                   viously reported 10 40 volunteers had
quency in all study groups, including                  adenovirus (20 received Type 3 and 20,
the control group. It tended to be less                Type 4), grown in monkey kidney cells,
frequent and less severe than in the                   swabbed on the palpebral conjunctiva
former study as no volunteers were suf-                of one eye and virus-free tissue-culture
                                                                  ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46              1137

maintenance fluid swabbed on the con-    adenovirus Types 1 and 5, also grown
junctiva of the other (control) eye,     in monkey kidney cells, would produce
without the volunteer knowing which      illness similar to that produced by Types
eye received virus. Twenty volunteers    3 and 4 virus in the previous study; (b)
were without detectable preinoculation   if Type 4 virus grown in HeLa cells
homologous neutralizing antibodies, and  would produce illness to the same extent
in two to seven days each developed      as that grown in monkey kidney cells;
definite conjunctivitis in the eye       and (c) if Type 4 virus grown in
swabbed with virus. Virus was isolated   monkey kidney cells would produce ill-
from the inoculated eye in each of the   ness when swabbed only on the oro-
20 volunteers, and all 20 showed a four- pharynx. A total of 91 volunteers were
fold neutralizing antibody response in   distributed at random into five study
their convalescent serums. In contrast,  groups. Each volunteer was swabbed
only six of the other 20 volunteers, who on the lower palpebral conjunctiva of
had detectable neutralizing antibodies   each eye and on the posterior oro-
in their preinoculation serums, devel-   pharynx with either live virus or virus-
oped conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis oc-  free maintenance fluid. Virus was
curred in the eye inoculated with        swabbed onto one eye and the throat
virus-free inoculum in only two of the   of volunteers in study Groups I and
40 volunteers, and these two instances   II, onto one eye only in study Groups
were secondary to conjunctivitis in the  III and IV, and onto the throat only in
eye receiving virus. It was concluded    study Group V. During the observation
that swabbing Types 3 and 4 adenovirus   period neither the observers nor recipi-
on the conjunctiva of susceptible volun- ents knew which site received virus.
teers produced definite easily recogniz- Specimens were collected from each eye
able illness resembling pharyngocon-     and the throat from 78 volunteers on
junctival fever.                         the fifth, and from all volunteers on the
                                         ninth postinoculation day and cultured
Study C-3/55-Conjunctival and/or Throat for virus isolation.
Swabbing of Adenovirus Types 1, 4, and 5    The inoculums produced infection as
  These results prompted another study indicated by postinoculation comple-
at Chillicothe to determine (a) if ment-fixing antibody responses to

 Table 5-Study C-3/55-Number of Volunteers with Complement-Fixing Antibody
       Response According to Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody Titer and
                 Postinoculation Virus Isolation and Conjunctivitis
                                       Preinoculation               Postinoculation
                                                           Virus Isolation        Conjunctivitis
                             Homologous N. Ab. Titer 5th or 9th Day
                              < 1:4         1:4    > 1:4
                                                                                      Ques-
                                                             +       -       Def. tionable No Totals
Complement 24 fold              28          13       4      36       9       38        5       2   45
  Fixing    2 fold               5           5       6      *7       9        8        3       5   16
Response     None                5          15      10     t7       23        9        6      15   30
                  'ICr _ 1      enet
                                            63
                                            %
                                                    A1      50      41       55       14      22   91
Per cent           cnIa
                  Per
  Response    > 4 fold          74         39      20       72      22       69       36       9   50
   *Two Type 4's showed homologous N. Ab. rise; two Type 5's and one Type I showed no such rise.
  t Four Type 4's showed homologous N. Ab. rise; three Type 5's showed no such rise.
 1138       SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

    Table 6-Study C-3/55-Number of Volunteers with Fifth or Ninth Day Virus
      Isolation by Study Group According to Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody
              Titer (Number with Virus Isolation/Number of Volunteers)

                                                                                             Throat
     Site Inoculated                     Eye and Throat                  Eye Only             Only
                                 1         5                      4        4                   4          Total
   Virus Type Inoc.*           (MK) (MK)            Total      (MK) (HeLa) Total             (MK)          I-V
                                                        Per                         Per                       Per
         Study Group                 I     II     No. cent       III     IV     No. cent       V        No. cent
 Preinoculation <1:4            6/9       7/7 13/16 81           8/8     8/8 16/16 100        0/6 29/38 76
 Homologous
 Neutralizing     1:4           3/6       3/5    6/11 54         4/6    5/8     9/14 64 0/8           15/33 45
 Antibody
 Titer               > 1:4      0/1       5/11 5/12 42           0/1     1/3    1/4 25        0/4      6/20 30
        Total                   9/16 15/23 24/39 62             12/15 14/19 26/34 76          0/18 50/91 55
    *  MK indicates virus grown in   monkey kidney tissue-culture cells. HeLa indicates virus grown in HeLa tissue-
 culture cells.



 homologous or heterologous Type 2                          pharynx, and only four of these had a
 antigen and by successful virus recov-                     complement-fixing antibody response. It
 eries on the fifth or ninth postinocula-                   is noteworthy that 29 (91 per cent) of
 tion day when virus would be expected                      32 susceptible volunteers were infected
 only if proliferation had occurred.                        by swabbing Types 1, 4, or 5 virus on
 Table 5 shows significant correlation                      their palpebral conjunctiva.
 between the complement-fixing antibody                        Table 7 shows the percentage of vol-
 response and (a) susceptibility as indi-                   unteers with various clinical mani-
 cated by no detectable preinoculation                       festations according to preinoculation
 neutralizing antibodies, (b) infection as                  neutralizing antibody status and to post-
 indicated by virus recovery, and (c)                       inoculation virus isolation on the fifth
 illness as indicated by the occurrence of                  or ninth day. In general, the frequency
 conjunctivitis. As shown in Tables 6                       of each manifestation in volunteers
 and 7 virus recovery was significantly                     without detectable neutralizing anti-
correlated with various indexes of sus-                     bodies was higher than in those with
ceptibility and illness.                                    such antibodies. Also the frequency in
    Table 6 shows that infection as indi-                   volunteers who shed virus was higher
cated by postinoculation virus recovery                     than in those from whom virus was not
varied inversely with increasing prein-                     recovered. Though not shown in the
oculation neutralizing antibody titer.                      table, the frequency of illness manifes-
Postinoculation virus recovery occurred                     tations was higher in volunteers with a
to a nearly equal extent in each of study                   complement-fixing antibody response
Groups I-IV. Not shown in the table,                        than in those without. Thus all the
volunteers with infection as indicated                      manifestations listed are considered to
by a complement-fixing antibody re-                         be associated to a greater or lesser ex-
sponse had a similar distribution in                        tent with the virus received. Since con-
Groups I-IV. No virus was recovered                         junctivitis was the most definitive mani-
from the 18 volunteers in Group V who                       festation, was the most frequent in
received Type 4 virus only on the oro-                      occurrence, and was strikingly associated
                                                             ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46               1139

with both the absence of prechallenge              less   severe   than in the eye receiving
neutralizing antibodies and virus recov-           virus.
ery, and since all other manifestations               Table 8 shows the      occurrence    of   con-
occurred more commonly in persons                  junctivitis in volunteers by study group
with conjunctivitis than in those with-            according to preinoculation homologous
out, conjunctivitis was used as an index           neutralizing antibody titer and postin-
of illness.                                        oculation virus isolation on the fifth or
   Additional evidence that the inocu-             ninth day. As with infection, the fre-
lated viruses induced illness was found            quency of conjunctivitis varied inversely
through comparing local manifestations             with increasing titer of neutralizing
at the site of virus inoculation and at            antibodies and was uniform in each of
the site of inoculation of the virus-free          study Groups I-IV. No conjunctivitis
maintenance fluid. Using the paired eye            occurred in volunteers in Group V who
as a control minimizes the influence of            received virus only on the oropharynx;
psychologic, irritant, or allergic factors         however, six of the 18 developed naso-
which may exist when different indi-               pharyngeal catarrh. Conjunctivitis was
viduals are used as controls. Fifty-five           more frequent in volunteers from whom
of 73 volunteers inoculated with virus             virus was recovered.
onto the conjunctiva of one eye devel-                Clinically the conjunctivitis was non-
oped definite conjunctivitis in that eye.          purulent and follicular, frequently in-
Only five persons developed conjunc-               volved both the palpebral and bulbar
tivitis in the eye which received virus-           conjunctiva, and was often accompanied
free inoculum. Each of these five had              by blepharospasm. It was first notice-
bilateral conjunctivitis, which was                able from three to seven days after
probably due to a secondary spread,                inoculation, lasted from two to ten days,
since the finding occurred in the control          and was indistinguishable from that
eye at a later date and was definitely             previously described for naturally oc-

Table 7-Study C-3/55-Percentage of Volunteers Having Various Indexes of Illness
    According to Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody Titer and According to
                         Postinoculation Virus Isolation
                                                          Postinoculation
                                                                Virus
                          Preinoculation Homologous            Isolation             Totals
                                   N. Ab. Titer           (5th or 9th Day)    Per       Number of
  Illness Indexes           < 1:4     1:4     > 1:4         Yes      No       cent      Volunteers
Investigators' Opinions      63       33      20            68       15        44          40
Subjective Symptoms          76       52      30            72       39        57          52
  Headache                   32        3      10            22       10        16          15
  Cough                      26       33       0            28       15        22          20
  Nasal Discharge or
     Obstruction             50      36       20            44       32        38          18
  Sore Throat                24      15       20            30        7        20          18
  Eye Complaints             37      21        5            44        0        24          22
Objective Findings           79      61       35            88       32        63          57
  Throat Signs               21      15        5            24        5        26          14
 Conjunctivitis              79      58       30            88       27        60          55
Number of Volunteers         38      33       20            50       41                    91
1140       SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

Table 8-Study C-3/55-Number of Volunteers Having Conjunctivitis by Study Group
  According to Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody Titer and According to Virus
       Isolation on Fifth or Ninth Day (Number with Conjunctivitis/Number
                                   of Volunteers)

                                                                                            Throat
    Site Inoculation                  Eye and Throat                    Eye Only             Only
                                1    5                     4     4                            4          Total
  Virus Type Inoc.*            (MK) (MK)           Total (MK) (HeLa) Total                  (MK)          I-V
                                                       Per               Per                                 Per
       Study Group                I      II      No. cent III IV No. cent                      V       No. cent
Preinoculation <1:4             7/9     7/7 14/16 87            8/8     8/8 16/16 100        0/6     30/38 79
Homologous
Neutralizing     1:4            5/6     3/5     8/11 73         4/6     7/8 11/14 78         0/8     19/33 58
Antibody
Titer          > 1:4            0/1     5/11 5/12 42           0/1      1/3     1/4    25    0/4      6/20 30
       Total                   12/16 15/23 27/39 69           12/15 16/19 28/34 82           0/18 55/91 60
       Virus           Yes      8/9 12/15 20/24 83            11/12 13/14 24/26 92           0/0     44/50 88
       Isolation
                       No       4/7     3/8     7/15 47         1/3     3/5    4/8     50    0/18 11/41 27
    * MK indicates virus grown in monkey kidney tissue-culture cells.   HeLa indicates virus grown in HeLa tissue-
culture cells.




curring pharyngoconjunctival fever.13                      volunteers, including those inoculated
 No keratitis developed in any of the                      only on the pharynx.
 volunteers. The preauricular lymph                           Cytological examination was made of
 node on the involved side was frequently                  smears taken from both eyes of 16 vol-
 enlarged. Pharyngitis developed in 26                     unteers, each having conjunctivitis in
 (36 per cent) of the 73 volunteers who                    one eye. The smears were stained with
 received virus on the conjunctiva, but it                 Papanicolaou stain. There were no ap-
occurred in only one of the 18 who re-                     preciable differences in  smears taken
ceived virus only on the pharynx. The                     from the affected and the paired unaf-
posterior pharynx generally showed                        fected eyes, and no definite cytoplasmic
vascular injection and lymph follicle                     or nuclear inclusions were found. Seven
hypertrophy. In a few instances, acute                    conjunctival and 18 palatine-tonsil bi-
unilateral tonsil hypertrophy with vas-                   opsy specimens were collected from ill
cular injection and unilateral submaxil-                  persons.* Dr. Louis B. Thomas t re-
lary lymphadenopathy occurred on the                      ported that histopathological examina-
same side as the uniocular conjunctivi-                   tion of the conjunctival specimens
tis. Since temperatures were taken only                   showed a conjunctivitis of moderate
during the morning examination, fevers
at other times would have been missed.                       * Appreciation is extended to Dr. James
Twelve volunteers were hospitalized for                   Stanbaugh, Dr. Donald J. Lyle, and Dr.
                                                          Stephen P. Hogg of Cincinnati, who visited
observation and nine of these (in                         the Federal Reformatory, performed the
Groups II-V) had temperatures over                        biopsies, and concurred with the clinical
                                                          observations.
1000 F. Rhinorrhea and nasal obstruc-                       t Head, Surgical Pathology and Post
tion occurred in about one-third of the                   Mortem Service, Pathologic Anatomy Branch,
                                                          National Cancer Institute.
                                                      ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46             1141

intensity characterized predominantly         assuring that each group received the
by migration of lymphocytes into the          same  quantity of virus, it seems prob-
submucosal connective tissue. Examina-        able that the drops placed a greater
tion of the tonsil specimens indicated        quantity of virus in the conjunctival sac
that the clinical enlargement was due to      than the swabs. It was concluded that
hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the            the irritation of swabbing enhanced oc-
tonsillar lymphoid tissue augmented to        currence of conjunctivitis. By analogy,
a slight extent by congestion of vessels      conjunctival irritation from swimming
and edema of the peritonsillar connec-        may increase the frequency of conjunc-
tive tissue.                                  tivitis in naturally acquired infection
   This study, C-3/55, and the earlier        and may offer a vulnerable route for
Maryland study M-2/55, showed that            virus invasion, thus abetting the likeli-
adenovirus Types 1, 3, 4, and 5 grown         hood of epidemics of pharyngoconjunc-
in monkey kidney cells and Type 4 virus       tival fever.
grown in HeLa cells produced conjunc-
tivitis and infection when swabbed on         Studies C and M, 4/55-Intramuscular Inocula-
the conjunctiva. No conjunctivitis oc-        tion of Inactivated Vaccine and Subsequent
curred when Type 4 virus grown in             Challenge with Adenovirus Type 3
monkey kidney cells was swabbed only             The procedures wherein a readily
on the oropharynx.                            recognizable conjunctivitis was con-
                                              sistently induced in some 90 per cent of
 Study M-9/55-Conjunctival Swabbing or        susceptible volunteers presented a
 Instillation into Conjunctival Fornix of     method for evaluating an adenovirus
 Adenovirus Type 4
                                              vaccine. Heat- and formaldehyde-
    The data on naturally occurring           inactivated virus vaccines were prepared
 pharyngoconjunctival fever 13 indicated      and their prophylactic value studied.1"
 that swimming may have enhanced the          Such vaccines were prepared from Type
 occurrence of conjunctivitis. Since in-     3 virus suspensions and given intramus-
 fection and conjunctivitis resulted from    cularly * in one or three doses to volun-
 swabbing various types of adenovirus        teers with no detectable neutralizing
 on the lower palpebral conjunctiva,         antibodies against Type 3 virus. No
 another study was set up to determine       untoward reaction of any kind occurred.
 whether dropping the virus into the         Thirty-five out of 45 vaccinated volun-
 conjunctival fornix would similarly         teers developed neutralizing antibodies.
 produce conjunctivitis. Nine volunteers     These 35, together with 17 volunteers
 had Type 4 virus swabbed on the con-        having naturally acquired antibodies
 junctiva of one eye, and virus-free main-   and 31 volunteers having no detectable
 tenance fluid dropped into the other eye.   antibodies, were challenged by swab-
 Fourteen volunteers had an aliquot of       bing Type 3 virus on their conjunctiva.
the same virus dropped into one eye             On the seventh day after challenge.
and the control material swabbed onto        virus was isolated from 77 per cent of
the conjunctiva of the other eye. None       volunteers without prior antibody and
of these 23 participants had detectable      from 29 per cent and 35 per cent of the
preinoculation neutralizing antibodies       two groups with vaccine-induced and
against Type 4 virus. Eight of the nine
swabbed with virus developed conjunc-           * One-tenth ml of vaccine also was given
tivitis, but only three of the 14 receiv-    intradermally as a skin test together with a
ing virus drops developed conjunctivitis.    control injection of maintenance fluid. Local
No conjunctivitis occurred in control        edema of > 5 mm occurred 24-48 hours after
eyes. Although there was no way of           injection, predominantly in persons with pre-
                                             existing neutralizing antibodies.
 1142       SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

           Figure 1-Percentage of Volunteers Developing Illness Following Type 3
             APC Virus Challenge According to Prevaccine and Prechallenge
             Neutralizing Antibody (N. Ab. Titers)
           Prevoccine Prechollenge No.                      Percentage of Volunteers Developing Illness
           NAb. Titer NAb. Titer   Vol.                     0         20        40         60         80                                                                  100


           NO VACCINE                1:8        21          I   .*   *.*          *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *       *    *       *.::::::::.:.:.:.      :.
                                                                                                                                                                     II


           c- 1:8                e   1:8        10
                                                 0
                                                                 l   ~        ~       ~ ~         ~       ~       ~            ~     ~   ~   ~   ~    ~        .......   ..


                                                                         -.


           NO VACCINE                1 :8        |
                                                17 7


                                 11:8 35                    r ..                                                                                             I'll'
            [        'Definite"llLness                 "Questionoble" /llness                                                                No Illness
                                  (Reprinted in Essence-J.A.M.A. 159:988 (Nov. 5), 1955.)



naturally   acquired antibodies. Further-                                                 disease to the same extent as volunteers
more,   90 per cent of volunteers without                                                 with naturally acquired antibodies. The
prechallenge antibodies developed con-                                                    percentage of volunteers in each group
junctivitis, as contrasted with 29 per                                                    developing definite and questionable ill-
cent and 24 per cent of the two groups                                                    ness is shown in Figure 1.
with vaccine-induced and naturally ac-                                                      Table 9 summarizes the occurrence
quired antibodies. It was clearly evi-                                                    of conjunctivitis in 205 volunteers who
dent that volunteers with vaccine-in-                                                     have had one eye swabbed with adeno-
duced antibodies were protected against                                                   virus and the other eye similarly
the artificially induced infection and                                                    swabbed with virus-free maintenance

Table 9-Summary of Conjunctivitis Occurrence in Volunteers Having the Con-
  junctiva of One Eye Swabbed with Virus-Free Maintenance Fluid and the Other
     Eye Similarly Swabbed with Various Types of Adenovirus According to
            Preinoculation Neutralizing Antibody Titer (Number of Eyes
                Developing Conjunctivitis/Number of Eyes Swabbed)
      Preinoculation
       Homologous                One Eye Swabbed with       Other Eye Swabbed with Adenovirus
       Neutralizing                Virus-Free Mainte-                    Types
         Antibody                     nance Fluid
           Titer *                 (Secondary Spread) Total           1      3         4                                                                                          5

  < 1:4 HeLa or < 1:8
Monkey Kidney Cell Test                              8/92                                 86/92                                      7/9             40/43        32/33          7/7
   Per cent                                                                               (93)
  > 1:4 HeLa or > 1:8
Monkey Kidney Cell Test                              2/113                                45/113                                     5/7             17/60        15/30         8/16
   Per cent                                                                                (40)
        Total                                   10/205                                131/205                                       12/16            57/103       47/63         15/23

  *   Monkey kidney cell test    more       sensitive for antibody determination                                          at       low dilutions.18
                                                        ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46         1143

 fluid. It shows that in the absence of        groups     depends basically upon the
 detectable neutralizing antibodies at the     amount    of respiratory illness caused by
 1:4 (or 1:8 dilution in monkey kidney         adenovirus and on the duration of vac-
 cells), 86 (93 per cent) of 92 virus-         cine protection. This should be studied
 inoculated eyes developed definite con-       particularly in children who have a high
 junctivitis. In contrast, conjunctivitis      incidence of acute febrile respiratory
 developed in 45 (40 per cent) of 113          illness. Nursery studies now in progress
 volunteers with detectable antibodies at      indicate a high prevalence of adenovirus
 this low level. This titer level appears      infection. Nine children less than three
 to indicate the level of 90 per cent sus-     years of age have been given the Type 3
 ceptibility to a challenge-induced illness    vaccine. Seven had no detectable pre-
 which was the chief concern in these          vaccine Type 3 neutralizing antibodies
 studies. The serums were not titered          and all seven developed such antibodies
 high enough to establish the antibody         in their postvaccine serums. Although
 level necessary for a high degree of im-      further studies are indicated, this sug-
 munity. In 10 instances conjunctivitis        gests that the vaccine served as a
 in control eyes followed that in contra-      primary antigenic stimulus and may
 lateral, virus-inoculated eyes, and these     have prophylactic value in children.
 instances were considered secondary in-          A live virus vaccine also deserves
 fections. Adenovirus Types 1, 3, 4, and       exploration since the studies reported
 5, all that have been tested to date, pro-   here indicate that nasopharyngeal inocu-
 duced conjunctivitis in similar fre-         lation of adenovirus resulted in anti-
 quency, nature and intensity.                body formation without illness which
                                              could definitely be attributed to the
 Discussion                                   viruses used. In addition, live adeno-
                                              viruses have been inoculated in large
    Swabbing the conjunctiva with adeno-      quantities intra-arterially and into
 virus consistently produced laboratory       malignant tumors of persons without
 evidence of infection and produced a         apparent ill effect.'5 Live virus vac-
 readily recognized clinical illness in 94    cines, however, present a problem in
 per cent of volunteers when they were        assuring absence of other live virus con-
 susceptible as indicated by absence of       taminants which may be dangerous.'6' 17
 neutralizing antibodies. An inactivated         The nasopharyngeal route of adeno-
 Type 3 adenovirus vaccine was prepared       virus inoculation did not produce con-
which artificially induced antibody for-      j unctivitis; however, nasopharyngeal
 mation and was accompanied by a con-         catarrh characterized by rhinorrhea,
version from susceptibility to immunity.      nasal obstruction, and throat discomfort
The demonstration that a monovalent           occurred 2-4 days following inoculation
vaccine would protect against a chal-          in some 30 per cent of volunteers. This
lenge-induced illness stimulated the          symptom complex was usually called a
preparation of a polyvalent Type 3, 4,        "cold" and seemed similar to many ill-
and 7 adenovirus vaccine. Field studies       nesses occurring in volunteer studies re-
are under way to determine whether this       ported by others.2 12, 18, 19 In the
vaccine will protect against naturally        present studies, these "colds" tended to
occurring adenovirus disease.                 occur more frequently in volunteers
   A suitable vaccine would appear to         without homologous neutralizing anti-
be especially useful in military recruits     bodies and in volunteers who had a
who are reported to have a high inci-         complement-fixing antibody response,
dence of disease due to adenovirus.14         but the differences were not statistically
The value of such a vaccine in other          significant and the "colds" could not
 1144    SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

  definitely be attributed to the viruses "colds." The possible influence of irri-
  inoculated. In addition, similar "colds" tant, psychologic, allergic, and other fac-
  occurred within 2-4 days in a nearly tors deserves further study.
  equal proportion (some 30 per cent) of      The "colds" presumably due to
  control volunteers who either were not viruses may be caused by infection with
  inoculated or received virus-free main- agents which do not produce a lasting
 tenance fluid. This occurred in each of immunity or they may be due to many
 the three studies where such controls immunologically distinct viral agents
 were observed simultaneously with which separately induce sustained im-
 virus-inoculated groups. The time of munity. In the spectrum of respiratory
 occurrence of these "colds" did not sug- disease due to various known viral
 gest secondary spread from the virus- agents (influenza, psittacosis, adeno-
 inoculated volunteers and none showed viruses, etc.) the milder illnesses are
 a complement-fixing antibody response. often interpreted as "colds." These mild
 In the two early Maryland studies the reactions may be due to constitutional
 volunteers were observed under group factors of the host, to route of invasion,
 hospital isolation and in Study C 3/54 to virulence, or to dosage of the agent.
 they were not generally isolated. There On the other hand, some "colds" may
 was no evidence of a concurrent epi- represent an "immediate" or "accel-
 demic in the nonstudy population of erated" reaction to reinfection with
 either institution during the periods homologous virus in partially immune
 when these studies were carried out.      or sensitized individuals. Another
    These findings indicate that a sub- sibility is that some colds may be pos-  due
  stantial number of the "colds" observed   to reactivation of latent viral infections
  in these volunteer studies were not       such as herpes or dormant adenoviruses.
 caused by the inoculated viruses. In          Volunteer studies provide limited but
 view of these observations, it becomes     valuable information; however, one
 pertinent to reexamine hypotheses on       should be wary of extrapolation of re-
 the etiology of "colds." The general       sults to the phenomenon of the natural
 epidemiologic picture is compatible        occurrence of "colds." Volunteers are
 with a view that "colds" are caused by     not representative of the general popula-
 viruses. Although some "colds" may         tion; the method, dosage, and route of
 be due to viruses, others may be due to    inoculation are artificial; the inoculums
 other causes. It is of interest that the   are complex substances; the susceptibil-
 Army studies 2 have shown no lasting       ity-immunity status is generally not
 immunity to "colds" when individuals       known and may vary tremendously in
 were rechallenged with aliquots of the     small groups; and the clinical manifes-
 same inoculums. This may be inter-         tations are difficult to measure with
preted to indicate that either these par-   finite accuracy. In spite of these limi-
ticular "colds" were not due to viral       tations, the present report exemplifies
agents or that the presumed viral agents    that volunteer studies, when properly
did not produce the lasting immunity        planned, can answer specific questions
so common in other viral infections. In     that otherwise might require years of
the present studies, "colds" developed      observation under natural circum-
in volunteers who were not inoculated       stances.
and in those inoculated with virus-free
maintenance fluid. In one study, seven
volunteers were noted to complain of        Summary and Conclusions
nasal irritation several hours after          Studies of adenovirus infection, im-
inoculation and all seven later developed   munity, and disease in adult volunteers
                                                            ADENOVIRUSES VOL. 46                    1145

  have been described. The intranasal in-        bodies, and no untoward reactions oc-
  stillation of adenovirus Types 1, 2, 3, 4,     curred. Such vaccinated persons were
  5, or 6 and the swabbing of the oro-           protected against challenge-induced ill-
  pharynx with Type 4 virus have pro-            ness apparently to the same extent as
  duced infection as demonstrated by a           adult volunteers with naturally acquired
  complement-fixing antibody response.           antibodies.
  Such inoculations have commonly been
  followed by minor respiratory illness,           ACKNOWLEDGMENT-The inmates and staff
                                                 of the Federal Industrial Reformatory, Chilli-
  chiefly manifest by an afebrile naso-          cothe, Ohio, and the Maryland State Reforma-
  pharyngeal catarrh, which could not be         tory for Males, Breathedsville, Md., cooperated
  attributed to infection with these viruses.    in this study. We are greatly indebted to
     Both infection and illness were readily     Warden R. P. Hagerman, M.D., and Chief
                                                 Medical Officers Edward Slaten, M.D., and
  produced in susceptible volunteers by          T. P. Hackett, M.D., of the Chillicothe Re-
  swabbing the lower palpebral conjunc-          formatory, and to R. L. Clopper, assistant
  tiva with adenovirus Types 1, 3, 4, or 5.      superintendent of the Maryland Reformatory,
 The frequencies of infection and illness        who actively assisted in the performance of
  were similar when virus grown in either        these studies.
  HeLa or monkey kidney cells was used.                                REFERENCES
                                                  1. Enders, 3. F.; Bell, J. A.; Dingle, J. H.; Francis,
  Infection was demonstrated by recovery             T., Jr.; Hilleman, M. R.; Huebner, R. J.; and
  of the homologous virus from the eye               Payne, A. M. N. "Adenoviruses": Proposed Group
                                                     Name for the New Respiratory-Tract Viruses (AD.
 or throat from five to nine days after              RI-APC-ARD Agents). Science 124, 3212:119-120
  inoculation and by complement-fixing               (July 20), 1956.
                                                  2. Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. Experi-
  antibody response. Illnesses occurred              mental Transmission of Minor Respiratory Illness to
  from two to seven days following inocu-            Human Volunteers by Filter-Passing Agents. I.
                                                     Demonstration of Two Types of Illness Characterized
 lation, generally persisted from four to            by Long and Short Incubation Periods and Different
 eight days, were occasionally febrile,              Clinical Features. II. Immunity on Reinoculation
                                                     with Agents from the Two Types of Minor Respira-
 and were characterized chiefly by a fol-            tory Illness and from Primary Atypical Pneumonia.
 licular conjunctivitis. Often pharyngitis           J. Clin. Investigation 26:957-982, 1947.
                                                 3. Rowe, W. P.; Huebner, R. J.; Gilmore, L. K.;
 with vascular injection and lymph fol-             Parrott, R. H.; and Ward, T. G. Isolation of a
 licle hypertrophy was seen. These ill-                Cytopathogenic Agent from Human Adenoids Under.
                                                       going Spontaneous Degeneration in Tissue Culture.
 nesses included complaints of eye                     Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 84 570-573, 1953.
                                                   4. Huebner, R. J.; Rowe, W. P.; Ward, T. G.;
 irritation and discharge, nasal discharge             Parrott, R. H.; and Bell, J. A. Adenoidal-
 and obstruction, sore throat, and occa-               Pharyngeal-Conjunctival Agents. A Newly Recog-
                                                       nized Group of Common Viruses of the Respiratory
 sionally cough and headache. Both ob-                 System. New England J. Med. 251:1077-1086 (Dec.
 jective and subjective symptoms were                  30), 1954.
                                                  5. Rowe, W. P.; Huebner, R. J.; Hartley, J. W.;
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 and illness occurred predominantly in                Adenoidal-Pharyngeal-Conjunctival (APC) Group
                                                      of Viruses. Am. J. Hyg. 61:197-218 (Mar.), 1955.
 volunteers without detectable prechal-           6. Rowe, W. P.; Hartley, J. W.; and Huebner, R. J.
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                                                      Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. (In press.)
 bodies. Swabbing viruses onto the con-           7. Jawetz, E.; Kimura, S.; Tricholas, A. N.; Thygeson,
junctiva produced a higher frequency                  P.; and Hanna, L. New Type of APC Virus from
                                                      Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis. Science 122:1190-
of conjunctivitis than did dropping virus             1191, 1955.
                                                 8. Hilleman, M. R., and Werner, J. H. Recovery of
into the conjunctival fornix.                         New Agent from Patients with Acute Respiratory
    Heat- and formaldehyde-inactivated                Illness. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 85:183-188,
                                                      1954.
virus vaccines were prepared against             9. Ginsberg, H. S.; Badger, 0. F.; Dingle, J. H.;
Type 3 adenovirus. When adult volun-                 Jordan, W. A., Jr.; and Katz, S. Etiologic Rela.
                                                     tionship of the RI-67 Agent to Acute Respiratory
teers without detectable Type 3 neutral-             Diseases (ARD). J. Clin. Investigation 34:820
izing antibodies were inoculated intra-               (June), 1955.
                                                10. Ward, T. G.; Huebner, R. J.; Rowe, W. P.; Ryan,
muscularly with these vaccines, 78 per               R. W.; and Bell, J. A. Production of Pharyngocon.
cent developed Type 3 neutralizing anti-             junctival Fever in Human Volunteers Inoculated with
                                                     APC Virus. Science 122:1086-1087, 1955.
1146      SEPTEMBER 1956 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

11. Huebner, R. J.; Bell, J. A.; Rowe, W. P.; Ward,           Respiratory Disease Virus RI-67. A.J.P.H. 45, 203-
    T. G.; Suskind, R. G.; Hartley, J. W.; and                210, 1955.
    Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr. Studies of Adenoidal-        15. Smith, R. R.; Huebner, R. J.; Rowe, W. P.;
    Pharyngeal-Conjunctival Vaccines in Volunteers.           Schatten, W. E.; and Thomas, L. B. Studies on the
    J.A.M.A. 159 986-989, 1955.                               Use of Viruses in Treatment of Carcinoma of the
12. Ward, T. G., and Procter, D. F. Isolation of a            Cervix. (To be published.)
    Common Cold Virus in Chick Embryos and the            16. Hull, R. N. Personal communication.
    Clinical Manifestations It Produces in Human          17. Rowe, W. P.; Huebner, R. J.; Bell, J. A.; and
    Volunteers. Am. J. Hyg. 52 91-106, 1950.                  Hartley, J. W. (Unpublished data.)
13. Bell, J. A.; Rowe, W. P.; Engler, J. I.; Parrott,     18. Topping, N. H., and Atlas, L. T. A Note Regarding
    R. H.; and Huebner, R. J. Pharyngoconjunctival            Isolation of an Agent. Science 106:636-637, 1947.
    Fever-Epidemiological Studies of a Recently Recog.    19. Andrewes, C. H. Adventures Among Viruses. III.
    nized Disease Entity. J.A.M.A. 157:1083-1092, 1955.       The Puzzle of the Common Cold. New England J.
14. Hilleman, M. R.; Werner, J. H.; Dascomb, H. R.;           Med. 242:235-240, 1950.
    Butler, R. L. Epidemiologic Investigations with




World Multiple Sclerosis Literature
    Through a grant of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society to the Excerpta
Medica Foundation of Amsterdam, Holland, abstract of the world's current litera-
ture on demyelinating diseases will be available in the English language, reportedly
for the first time. The results will be published in a monthly journal containing
100-150 abstracts and distributed among scientists and physicians, universities, and
libraries throughout the world.
    It is hoped that by bringing to scientists a greater awareness of the world's
literature on the disease, achieving the control of multiple sclerosis will be hastened.
Frederick L. Stone, M.D., medical director of the National Society, is a member of
the 10-man editorial board of scientists that will oversee the work. Seven others are
drawn from as many United States medical schools and two are Europeans.

				
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