The Industrial Revolution

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					   The Agrarian Revolution:
Selective Breeding = Giant Cows!
 The Industrial Revolution

• I. Definition from David S.
  Landes’s The Unbound
  Prometheus
  – “The Industrial Revolution was
    a sustained period of economic
    growth and change brought
    about by the application of
    mineral and hydraulic energy
    and technological innovation in
    manufacturing.”
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
Coal and Industry
in England in the
19th Century
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
Diagram of Newcomen’s Steam
        Engine (1712)
Watt’s Steam Engine, 1774
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
The Spinning Jenny
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
British Textile Mill in the 19C
Vincent Van Gogh’s view of 19th
      Century Factories
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
 The Railroad Boom spurs
Industrialization, 1830-1900
The Railroad Boom in
Europe
Green=RR lines in 1850
Red=RR lines added by 1870
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
Child Coal Puller in a Welsh Coal
              Mine
19C Working Class Tenements in
           London
Urban Poor during the Age of
      Industrialization
Social Hierarchy during the Industrial
             Revolution
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
             “Jerusalem”
  William Blake (1757-1827)
And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon England's mountains green?
And was the holy Lamb of God
On England's pleasant pastures seen?

And did the Countenance Divine
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here
Among these dark Satanic mills?

Bring   me   my   bow of burning gold:
Bring   me   my   arrows of desire:
Bring   me   my   spear: O clouds unfold!
Bring   me   my   chariot of fire.

I will not cease from mental fight,
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand
Till we have built Jerusalem
In England's green and pleasant land.
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
Marxism 101
John Wesley, Founder of Methodism
  Preaching at an Outdoor Revival
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
Peterloo Massacre,
 Manchester 1819
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
Queen Victoria
 (r. 1837-1901)
Irish Family during the Potato
        Famine, 1845
      The Industrial Revolution

• II. England leads the way (roughly 1780-1830)
• III. The Revolution in Technology and Energy
   – A. The Steam Engine
   – B. Revolution in Energy spurs Industry
• IV. Changes in Everyday Life
   – A. Rise of Industrial Working Class
   – B. The Standard of Living Debate
   – C. Reactions to the problems of Industrial
       life
• V. Changes in English Political Life
   – A. Peterloo Massacre (1819)
   – B. The Chartist Movement
   – C. Reform Law of 1832
   – D. Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846
• VI. Industrial Revolution on the Continent
         (roughly 1830-1900)
        Scientific and
    Technological Changes
• New Agricultural Technologies
• New Textile Technologies
• Steam engine
• Railroads
• Steamships
• Mechanization of
  Manufacturing
• Assembly Line
   Social Changes caused by
        Industrial Rev.
• Urbanization
• Real Wages rise
• Standard of Living Changes
   –   Overcrowding
   –   Tenements
   –   Child Labor
   –   Pollution
   –   Unsafe Work Environment
   –   Diet of Processed foods
• Pace of work changes: shift labor
• Rise of an Industrial Working class
• Wealthy factory owners edge out old
  landed aristocracy
Economic Changes caused by
      Industrial Rev.
• Economy based upon
  manufacturing replaces agrarian
  economy
• Britain becomes #1 manu-
  facturer in world (until 1900)
• Britain becomes world banker
• Free Market replaces protective
  economic policies of past
• Marxist theory
• Rise of “Big Business” in USA
   Political Changes caused by
          Industrial Rev.
• 1840 Work Reform Laws “end”
  child labor
• 1832 Reform Bill: Parliament
  falls into hands of wealthy
  industrialists
• 1846 Corn Laws repealed
• Marxism as political theory and
  foundation of Socialist and
  Communist Parties
• US: 1902 Pure Food and Drug
  Act
       Cultural Changes

•   Culture wars: Town vs. Country
•   Luddism
•   Romanticism
•   Methodism
•   US: Progressivism
•   Pace of life accelerates

				
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