1. After the fur traders came the missionaries.
2. The missionaries served three main functions:
a. Convert the Native Americans to Christianity.
b. Provide churches for the settlers that would arrive in the
c. Provide medical care and schooling.
3. In 1831 four Nez Perce Indians arrived in St. Louis and
wanted information about the White-mans religion, causing
the great push of Missionaries westward.
4. Jason Lee was the first missionary to enter the Oregon
Territory. Instead of working with the Natives, McLaughlin
convinced Lee to settle in the Willamette Valley to minister
to the whites.
1. The second group to arrive in the Oregon Territory was the
(read Pacific NW p.83)
2. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were married one day before
their departure to Oregon.
3. Henry and Eliza Spalding came out west with the Whitman’s
( read page 84 Pacific NW)
4. Whitman won the respect of the fur traders (who hated religion)
when he contained a cholera outbreak and removed an arrow
from Jim Bridger’s back.
5. The Whitman party will be the first group to bring a wheeled
cart across the Rockies which helped set the stage for the
6. When the Whitman party arrived at Fort Vancouver, McLaughlin
tried to convince them to settle near the fort.
(Read pg. 85 Pacific NW)
7. Marcus Whitman decided to move further east and create a
mission near present day Walla Walla to mission to the
8. They were warned by the fur traders and McLaughlin that the
Cayuse were more hostile then the Nez Perce.
9. The Spalding’s decided to move north of Walla Walla with the
Nez Perce Indians.
(read page 86 Pacific NW)
10. From the beginning there were problems with
the Whitman’s and the Cayuse.
11. The Protestants believed that Indian needed to
changed to match whites.
(Read page 86 Pacific NW)
12. Because of this conflict the Protestant had very
little luck converting the Natives.
13. The women of the mission were also troubled by Natives.
a. Natives did not hesitate to take what they wanted
b. They also would show up unannounced.
14. Because of their lack of success, Whitman had to return back to
the east coast to fight for his mission.
10. When he returned, Whitman led a new group of settlers to
11. As more and more whites came to Oregon the Natives became
more and more concerned.
a. The missions were now spending more time helping and
ministering to the whites then to the Native Americans.
b. Settlers were bringing diseases like small pox killing in some
cases most of a tribe.
c. The Native Americans began to fear their way of life would
(read page 88 Pacific Northwest)
12. On November 29,1847 a group of Cayuse showed up at the
Whitman Mission looking for medicine and ended up killing
14 and capturing 47.
15. 500 men from the Willamette Valley arrived at the mission to
fight the Cayuse.
16. Lasted 2 years before Cayuse surrendered 5 tribesmen who
were hung. (SKINNED)
The mission in 1900
The common grave for the 14
1. Mother Joseph arrived at Fort Vancouver in
2. Within a short time she established the first
hospital and one of the first schools.
3. She decided to extend her work to all parts of
the Oregon Territory.
4. She is considered the first architect of the Northwest.
5. She died in 1902 after helping construct 11 hospitals, 12 schools
and 2 orphanages.
1. The Catholic Missionaries, Called the “Black Robes, were
usually of the Jesuit Order.
2. There were a number of advantages that the Jesuits had over
the Protestant Missionaries.
a. They were trained, ordained priests, not well intentioned
b. They were free to travel and live among the Natives.
c. They posed no threat of permanent settlement and
d. The priests could devote most of their time to their
3. Catholics were more forgiving then the protestant. They
were less shocked by Native attitudes and practices.
4. They did not deliver moralistic messages. “you are a sinner”
5. The Jesuits used symbols and objects that lent themselves to
the Native culture that already used symbolic objects.
6. By the mid 1840s’ there were 14 catholic missions.
1. Bishop Blanchet – First Catholic Missionary. Became the Oregon
Territories first bishop.
2. Fr. De Smet – Jesuit from Belgium who a skilled negotiator between
the Natives and white settlers and built missions in
Eastern Washington and Idaho.
3. Fr. Cataldo – Built mission in Coeur d’ Alene, Idaho
1. They started the first religious centers in the Northwest.
2. Jason Lee opened up the first 4 year college in the Northwest
3. Letters from home encouraged people to move to the Oregon
Territory which helped start the Great Migration.