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					October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
                                                      Part I
4 Process of Speech
Brain is responsible for how process function

    1. Articulation – changes and modifies airflow
           a. As vibrating and resonating air goes through mouth parts, they break up the air stream
              depending on how the articulators are placed
    2. Resonation – as air passes through cavities, air resonates
           a. Tones made in the cavity of the nose, modifies tone according to shape and size of nose
           b. As vibrating air comes through throat and mouth it causes cavities to vibrate
           c. Everything beyond the vocal folds: throat, oral, and nasal cavities
    3. Phonation – occurs when vocal folds of larynx are drawn together by contraction of specific muscles
       and the exhaled air causes vocal folds to vibrate
    4. Respiration – breathing provides power for speech

   Speech is product of successive and simultaneous interaction of the 4 process
   Continuous speech – all 4 of process are occurring at integrated and synchronized manner
       o Brain sends signals to coordinate all of this
   Respiration –
       o Primary purpose is for breathing, along with lungs
       o Structures involved:
                Diaphragm
                Thorax
                Abdomen
       o The continuous process of respiration involves:
                Inspiration cycle
                Expiration cycle
       o Secondary purpose is the role in communication:
                Process is adapted for communication
       o Speech requires speaker to draw in a supply of air from an ongoing stream of air
       o Basic difference between breathing (inspiration/expiration) for survival and breathing for speech…
                breathing for speech during inspiration is quicker and deeper than expiratory cycle
                Expiratory cycles are more controlled and extended – we speak on the expiration
 Phonation
       o Larynx is responsible for changing air stream into phonation (with vocal folds)
       o Main purpose of the larynx is to protect the air way, communication is secondary
 Resonation
       o Vocal Tract components resonate
              Spaces and structures above vocal folds – aka Supra-laryngeal vocal tract
       o Distinguishes vowels
       o Primary characteristics of vowels are open sounds with free flowing air
       o The individual contours of vocal tract allow for differences in one speaker to another
       o Nasality – air resonates in nasal cavities, /m, n ŋ/
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Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
        o Hypo- Nasality/hyper – disordered nasality when sounds resonate in naval cavity when they should
            not resonate in the nasals
   Articulation
        o Breaking up of air stream into the sounds of speech by the structures of the mouth
        o What happens in the mouth, how sounds are changed
        o Lips, teeth, tongue, hard palate , soft palate (velum), jaw, alveolar ridge
        o Some can move, others are fixed
 Classifying Speech Sounds
       o 2 Major categories
   Vowels
       o Sounds made with an unobstructed vocal tract (19 including diphthongs)
   Consonants
       o Sounds made with constricted vocal tract (25)
       o Made with constricted vocal tract
       o Differ in where and how the vocal tract is closed
       o Place of articulation
                Upper lip, teeth, palate, velum, alveolar ridge
       o Manner of articulation
                Stop-plosives (complete occlusion)
                Fricatives (partial blockage)
                Nasals (nasals emission)
                Affricatives (stop + fricative)
                Glides ( gradually changing articulatory shape)
                Laterals ( closure in midline no closure at sides of tongue)
                Liquid (retroflex)
   Phones, Phonemes and Allophones
       o Phones are different sounds a language uses ( entire group of language)
       o Phonemes are defined as the contrasting sounds in a language (families)
                Changing phoneme will turn one work into another (difference that makes a difference)
                       Coat vs. goat
       o Allophones – phones that do not differentiate meaning (individual differences)
   Phonotactics – rules that govern permissible sound combinations
       o Real words in English – Blink? Bnick?
       o No 2 stop consonants at the beginning, bp
       o Learning the rules of phonotactic arrangement is an important component in phonological
   Traditional Phonetics
       o Describing consonant speech sounds threefold classification system
       o Place and manner and voicing
       o Place of articulation – where articulatory contact
       o Voicing – vocal fold vibration or not
October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
                                                      Part II
      Perception
          o Recognition and interpretation of incoming stimuli…how you make meaning from what you
          o Visual and auditory experiences
          o Children must make sense of sensory information
      Auditory perception
          o Children are attracted to human voice and speech (in general)
                  Pitch, loudness, quality make infants interested in our voice
                  Because infants recognize human voice, Rationalist believe we have an innate structure
                     for speech, language, how we learn words. (predisposition to learn)
          o Characteristics of sounds that appeal to infants found in human speech
          o Infants as young as one month can discriminate among speech sounds
          o Differentiate noise vs. human voice
                  From their time in the womb and hearing sounds in there
                  Study done on women who read to women who didn’t read to their babies in the womb
          o Children may be born with speech perceptual ability – may find these sounds more interesting
              than non-speech sounds
                  Or children are born with an auditory system that discriminate human vs. non-human
                  Could be coincidental

                                          Infant speech perception
                                         High Amplitude Sucking Technique (HAS )

           o From Brown University in 70s
                  Wanted to determine if speech sounds/patterns discrimination up to 4 months of age
                  Connected pacifier to sound generator. Infant sucked on pacifier with enough vigor
                     while audio tapes played to indicate they perceive the sound, the rate of suck and
                     intensity/duration/pattern of sucking changed when they heard speech sounds vs.
                     noise, specifically speech sounds they were familiar with
                  Example, after few minutes of listening to /b/ sound, they decrease sucking rate,
                          Sucking rate decreases with losing interest
                          Introduce new sound, sucking rate increases
           o Habituation- Would continue to suck until they were bored, same sound until they loose
             interest, (they pay attention until it stops)
                  When you introduce a new toy to an infant, then they engage, then suddenly disengage,
                     that is the habituation
           o Dishabituation – baby looses interest in sound, introducing a new sound and the baby would
             start sucking at a new rate, regain interest, sucking rate picks up
                  If change the toy, and infant looks back, that is Dishabituation
           o HAS techniques works in infants up to 4 months of age
                  Determines how well infants perceive sound
October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
           o This test only last till 4 months because infants lose interest in sucking all together, unless its
             nutritive sucking. This test would be non-nutritive sucking

_______________ October 14, 2009

      Head Turning Technique
           o Used between 5 and 12 months
           o Infants interested in toys that move – used as reward
           o HT technique used on children between 5-12 months of age
                    They use toys, that is why they must be of age
           o The toy is not activated until the child looks at certain block
           o Play sounds and lights in patterns then look at what they pay attention to
           o Babies are trained to turn their heads when they hear a change in the sound being presented.
           o Must prime them to looking in a certain direction when hear a certain sound
                    Repetitive sound
                    Then sound change
                    Then activate toy in the same direction
      Categorical Perception
           o Using past experience to discriminate what the present perception is
                    Can I recognize what I already know to what I am perceiving in the present
                    Trying to understand, then file it away or create a new ‘file folder’
      Excitation, Sensation, Cognition – steps to what happens when we experience the world
           o Excitation – pattern of neural responses elicited by a given stimulus
           o Sensation – internal response to an experience -representation of a stimulus
           o Cognition – trying to discriminate experience in the mind
           o Matching experiences with previous ones – what an infant does – as they experience the world,
               they filter their experiences
      Cognitive Theory – How we organize meaning in a systematic way that we use it to understand
       the world ( file folder analogy)
           o Cognitivist theorist emphasize the sequence and rate of cognitive development
                   How you organize (map) information
           o Cognition – map meaning in an organized way
                                       o Basic Tenets of cognitive develpome
                   Schemes – a conceptual system consist of organize patterns of reaction to stimuli called
                            organized patterns we create to organize world
                            (the file folder itself)
                            Storing and organizing information
                            As a human, we have to organize every concept we experience, it must be
                               registered as a conception
                            Infants must organize into a conceptual system
                            Conceptual system (file cabinet from analogy) contains Schemes
                            The reason kids can develop language because they match cognitive
                               development with their experiences in the world
                            **As new information is added, a person tries to fit new information into
                               existing schemes (new information per file folder)
October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
                                  o A person who has trouble “mapping” or “scheming” either has too many
                                      file folders or too few file folders
                                            A child has a folder for legs, arms, but not one for ‘dog’…takes a
                                               while to process what they see
                                  o Involves interpretation and classification
                           With experience, schemes change and become more refined
                                  o Some kids struggle with synthesizing material
                           Cognitive development is the result of organization and Adaptation
                   Organization - the tendency to systemize and/or organize processes into systems
                           ‘organizing’ the file folders within the schemes or just that the entire conceptual
                              system is organized
                           Organized cognitive structures are schemes
                   Adaptation – the function or tendency that we have as organisms to change in response
                      to the environment or our experiences
                           The result of 2 related process:
                           Assimilation – the use of existing schemes to incorporate external stimuli
                                  o Having a new experience, you can stick the new experience in a file you
                                      already have….just make an assembly line and file things away
                           Accommodation – transformation of schemes in response to external stimuli
                              that don’t fit into any available scheme
                                  o You can’t ‘assimilate’ so you Create a new File
                   Equilibrium – state of cognitive balance/harmony between incoming stimuli and the
                      person’s cognitive schemes
                           Brain wants to be organized, being stressed makes you remember less
      Discrimination - The ability to distinguish between 2 levels of a stimulus parameter
           o In order for infant to distinguish sounds, must intellectually organize what they hear
                   Then they discriminate
                   Discrimination is just one part of cognitive development
      Recognition - Ability to distinguish or categorize a stimulus as belonging to a particular class (e.g.
       color or object type
           o Similar to assimilation – only you assimilate something so you can recognize it later or you
              recognize something you have assimilated already
           o What you recognize is a representation dependent – in context
           o One part of cognitive development to be able to perceive differences in categories of sounds
      An infant must store information and may cannot assimilate just accommodate their first information
           o Maybe in the womb, they have recognition of sounds that carry over to after birth
      Relationship between discrimination and recognition
           o Recognition relies on discrimination – but – does recognition also influence discrimination?
                   Yes it does
           o Discriminability seems to be affected by category structures (aka -schemes) – this is categorical
              perception – another way to look at perception and recognition
           o The more difficult something is to discriminate, may be that it belongs to a different category
                   The picture of the vase/face
October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
                      Matching what you see with what you already stored, to say for sure that you recognize
                       something means discriminating it from something you already have or make new
      Categorical Perception – discriminability across category boundaries is more sensitive than
       discriminability within categories, being able to recognize/discriminate something
           o Involve recognition and discriminability
           o Ability to recognize sounds and discriminate which sounds belong in a certain category
           o It is easier to discriminate when the object belongs to a scheme or is vastly different than
              something else
           o Easier to tell difference between /p/ and /d/ rather than allophones of /p/

____________________ Start October 21, 2009

    Phoneme boundary effect – (in book) (a 2nd step in categorical perception)
         o Difference between lag time (stop) and saying the voiced sound
         o Phonemes are the sounds that make up language /p/ /b/
         o Lag time is 20 millisecond difference, onset timing is longer for /p/ than /b/
         o Liberman (researcher) showed the phoneme boundary effect: “There is a smaller change in
            delay was necessary to distinguish p and b than to distinguish 2 phonemes within these
         o **Motor Theory of Speech Perception** the reason infants can perceive categorical
                 The phoneme boundary effect is caused by activation of the motor program required to
                    produce a phoneme
                 Infants perceive differences because of what happens in the vocal tract, the motor
                    aspect of a child being able to produce a sound, acoustics has nothing to do with
                 Example Question: Is the reason children perceive sound different because of motor
                    theory of speech perception? Answer= NO, because it is no longer an agreed upon
    Categorical Perception (review)
         o In adults : voice onset time (VOT) – lag between the time of air passing through lips and vocal
            folds vibrating to produce a syllable
         o VOT looks at differences between voiced and voiceless consonants, look at air flow from onset
            to end
         o Infants: 1-4 months can perceive phonemic distinctions
                 In native language and other languages
                 It is significant because we are born with the tools to learn any language
         o *phonemic reorganization* after receiving so many phonemes in a specific language, they
            forget early on phonemes from other languages
         o After 8 months, infants ability to distinguish nonnative contrasts diminishes
                 Phonological reorganization - phones are organized into the phonemic categories of the
                    native language
                 Can make fine distinctions before 8 months, but at 8 months, the phonemes that are
                    not in their language are not as easily detected (graph page 154)
    Cognition is required for infants to perceive – we have an innate ability to know language, either a
     system in the brain or just an ability we are born with.
October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
           o Head turning and HAS technique (sucking study)
           o There is a phonemic reorganization at 8 months once they fine tune the phoneme difference in
             their own language
           o VOT is the measure of discerning voice vs. voiceless time in categorical perception

                                  Part III: Phonological Development
                            Age range                                          Pre-linguistic behaviors
              0 – 1 months                                       Reflexive crying, vegetative sounds
              1- 4 months                                        Cooing (vowel – like)
              4-6 months                                         Vocal play (vowels, CV, other, marginalized babbling,
                                                                  canonical babbling)
              6-9 months                                         Reduplicated babbling
              7- 12 months                                       Non-reduplicated babbling (changes in babbling as
                                                                  they progress to first words)
                                             From Babbling to Words
      Child-Directed Speech (motherese/parentese)
           o    Characteristics – speech directed to children from parents is different from language used among adults
                      Higher pitch voices
                      Wider range of pitches
                      Longer pauses
                      Shorter phrases
           o These characteristic provide input into infants perception of language, how language is put together
           o Adults assign meaning to the cooing which provides input to the meaning; important for when a child
                moves from babbling to words
           o Falls into Social Interaction Theory and how parents change language around their child, intonation is
                      That It is not just the child’s innate ability, they are not a blank slate. Through joint interaction
                        and joint interaction play an input into the sound system they need to later acquire words
                      Motherese regulates their attention and phonetic system
                      With face to face interaction, the range of pitches regulates and attends to mother’s face,
                        phoneme categories and is one of the reasons children develop phonology (sound system)
           o Role in Language Acquisition
                      Regulates attention
                      Help establish phonemic categories
                      Grammatical structure
                             Hirsh-Pasek Studies – determined that children hear motherese and the intonation and
                                flow of language helps child learn words and word boundaries
                             Boot-Strapping – the ability to map meaning (page 159)
                             Clauses help make up structure of sentences and help children, infants pay more
                                attention to natural clauses rather than putting artificial clauses
                                     o Clauses help infant know boundaries of sentences.
                                     o Phonemic boundaries help us know the beginning and ending of words
                             Infants could mark appropriate sentences by the HAS or head-turning techniques
      Social Interaction Theory
           o Role of communication partners is crucial
                      More important than the thought that language is innate
                      Parternship is more cruscial; lang acquisition is from socializing
October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
            o Language acquisition is a process of socialization that follows a transactional model of child caregiver
            o A communication base is established and language is mapped on to this base to express intensions
            o Joint attention /reference – child and caregiver focus on the same object/entity, look at object and
               caregiver for confirmation; Shared Focus
                    Example – “look, here’s your ball!” both mother and child look at object
            o Joint Action – sharing in an action between caregiver and child
            o Through these interactions, a child maps meaning through interaction
            o The words used and interaction creates schemes and can then express their own intentions
            o Parents or caregivers respond differently to infants behaviors and treat them as communication
            o Children receive highly selective language input within routines of child-parent interaction
    Early Phonological Development
            o Children adapt the shape of words they produce on their articulatory abilities
            o Adaption’s are systematic
                    Phonological processes
    Phonological Processes
            o Rules children use to make productions that fit into their phonological understandings and abilities
            o Appear to simplify adult forms
            o Phonology – sound system of a language
            o Children acquire language in a different way than adult language
            o Create vocabularies on what their articulators can make, but they may understand more, but can’t say
                    Example: child says ‘lizza’ but means pizza, when asked if ‘lizza’ is right, the child says it’s not,
                       they just can’t say it correctly
            o Ability for children to use rules in a systematic way that fit their abilities to create words, not an adult
               form, but a simplified form

                Phonological process                                                    Example
Unstressed syllable deletion                                   Banana = nanna
Syllable reduplication                                         Bottle = baba
Deletion of sounds                                             Bike = bi
Addition of sounds                                             Play – palay
Substitution                                                   Big = bik
Assimilation                                                   Doggie = goggie
Reversal of sounds                                             Spaghetti = pisketti
**rules children use when trying to communicate; using
speech for repertoire of vocabulary**

       Cross-linguistic studies – look at sounds in other languages, when sounds emerge in other languages
            o Is the order in which sounds appear in children’s speech influenced by the target language?
                     Rate of development may differ depending on how much a particular phoneme is used within
                         the language
                     /v/ in English vs. /v/ in Swedish (Swedish uses /v/ more so may develop earlier)
            o All children will acquire a sound system if they hear
            o Cross linguistic differences indicate that difficulty of production cannot fully explain why some
                phonemes are acquired earlier than others
            o Depending on their language input, after 8 months, they fine tune their grouping system – Phonological
                Process – rules of language
            o The rate of acquisition of sounds is dependent on target language
October 7, 2009, October 14, 2009, October 21, 2009
Speech and Language Acquisition
Chapter 4
            o Ingram and colleagues – frequency sound is used in different words
                    ‘the’ and ‘yet’ is used a lot in English but it is not supposed to be developed until later on (3
                       years), but since we use it so much a child may acquire it earlier just because they hear it so
                       much, or may not effect it all just because of development in articulators
    Phoneme-by-phoneme view of development
            o Several studies on phonemic acquisition (Wellman; Poole; Templin)
            o Designed to establish norms for phonic acquisition
            o Methodologies varied but results were consistent
    Templin (1957) – sound development;
            o Compared her results to Wellman and Poole
                    Phonemes should develop early because they appear in initial words and are mastered early
                       (mama, papa); sounds considered difficult are late to emerge (/r/l/th/)
    Sanders (1972) – reviewed and reanalyzed Wellman and Templin’s data
            o Said there should be average ages, rather than specific ages, ranges are more appropriate
            o Distinguish between age of customary production and mastery
            o Customary Production – correct production of a phoneme 2 of 3 word position by 50% of subjects at a
               given age level
                    Emergence of a sound
            o Mastery – correct production of a phoneme in all appropriate word positions by 90% of subjects at a
               specified age level
            o Distinction is important because it acknowledges individual variability but allows a sense of what we can
               expect in phonemic acquisition by age levels
            o Example: /g/ might emerge at 3, but not until age 4 do they master /g/
    What can we can conclude?
            o Guidelines are just that; there are individual differences to be considered
            o Tendency for some sounds to emerge before others
            o Have to be careful not to assume that there is a specific order of mastery
    Phonological Awareness

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