ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING

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					        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


            ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING
                     Validation of Satellite Products

                                    Paul Simon
                     Institut d’Aéronomie spatiale de Belgique

  Acknowledgements:
  C. De Clercq, M. De Mazière, I. De Smedt, B. Dils, P. Gerard, J. Granville, F. Hendrick,
  J-C. Lambert, N. Theys, M. Van Roozendael, C. Vigouroux.




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                                    Table of contents
        •    1. Introduction
        •    2. ESA Satellite observations
              – GOME
              – GOMOS
              – MIPAS
              – SCIAMACHY
        •    3. Ground based networks
              – NDACC
              – GAW
        •    4. Validation principles
        •    5. Validation errors
        •    6. Atmospheric sensors validation
              – GOME/ERS-2 & ENVISAT
        •    7. New generation of instruments

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                                1. Introduction




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                    Towards an End-to-End Approach
    User’s       Complementary              Complementary
    needs            Data                       Data
                                                                                               Services

                                                                                               Scientific
                                    Validated                                                Environmental
  Observations                                                    Information                  Strategic
                                      Data
                    Processing
                                                                                                Political
                                                                                            Socio-economical
                                                                                              Commercial

   Science &           Science                     Science
  Applications       Knowledge                    Knowledge                     Knowledge
                        Gaps                         Gaps                         Gaps
                      (analysis,                  (modelling,
                    validation,…)               assimilation,…)


                                      HOW TO BRIDGE THE GAPS ?

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                                    Introduction

           The global observing system must be designed
           to support the scientific questions inherent in
                  long-term atmospheric prediction.

             Long-term validation of satellite products is
                   mandatory to achieve this goal.




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                        Observation Concept:
  The Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations (IGACO)
  Objectives
        To ensure accurate,
        comprehensive global
        observations of key
        atmospheric gases and
        aerosols;
        To establish a system for
        integrating ground-based, in
        situ and satellite
        observations;
        To make the integrated
        observations accessible to
        users.
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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING

                                                           Satellites




                                                            Aircrafts




                                                         G-B Networks




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING

  The Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations
                          (IGACO)

 A framework for the next generation…

 The IGACO framework is an important
 strategy in integrating air chemistry
 observations including satellites and in
 bridging GAW to GEOSS, GCOS and
 the needs of the Numerical Weather
 Prediction community.




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                    The existing observational system
  A. Extensive ground-based measurements (in-situ and remote
     sensing) including balloons
      – Accuracy, long-term history, validation source, local/regional
        relevance
  B. Systematic aircraft measurements
      – High-resolution tropospheric profiles,
      – Tropopause measurements, history
  C. Satellite observations
      – Global coverage, uniform data quality
  D. Chemical models and data assimilation tools
      – Integration, data analysis and exploitation

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                         Satellite validation (Ozone)




                       Station: Sodankylä. PI: Florence Goutail, CNRS
            Continuity is essential for validation purposes
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                          2. Satellite observations
        ESA Satellite Sensors:

        – Global Ozone Monitoring experiment (GOME)
        – Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars
          (GOMOS)
        – Michelson Interferometric Passive Atmospheric
          Sounder (MIPAS)
        – Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for
          Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY)


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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


   Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME/ERS-2)
   • Launched in 1995
   • Nadir viewing mode
   • Leading role in retrieval and exploitation of products (e.g. O3, NO2, OClO,
     BrO,…), by DOAS analyses
   • Evaluation of UV radiation intensity at the Earth’s surface




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                  DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                        ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Mission
  GOMOS                                    Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars
  MIPAS                                    Michelson Interferometric Passive Atmospheric Sounder
  SCIAMACHY                                Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography

                              03    H20      NO2   NO3   N2O   CH4     HNO3   CO   CO2   BrO   p,T   aerosol
                        100
                                                                                                               Thermosphere
                        90
                                             GOMOS                   MIPAS               SCIAMACHY
                        80
                        70
        Altitude (Km)




                                                                                                               Mesosphere
                        60
                        50
                                                                                                               Stratosphere
                        40
                        30                                                                                     O3 layer
                        20
                                                                                                               Stratosphere
                        10
                          0                                                                                    Troposphere

                                               Atmospheric Species versus Instruments

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                         GOMOS occulation mode
                                                         Iref(λ)
           stars



                                                                   Iocc(λ)




  Self-calibration
                                                                   Vertical profiles with
  Global coverage                                                  1.7 km sampling
                                    T(λ) = Iocc(λ) / Iref(λ)
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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                           MIPAS ViewingModes




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                    SCIAMACHY Viewing Modes
   Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography
   - nadir, limb and solar occultation viewing modes;
   - 220-1750 nm + two IR channels;
   - surface : albedo, UV irradiance;
   - troposphere: O3, NO2, CO, BrO, CH4, H2O, HCHO, SO2, aerosols;
   - stratosphere: O3, NO2, N2O, CO, CO2, CH4, BrO, OClO, aerosols.




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                    SCIAMACHY viewing modes




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                         GOME & SCIAMACHY
                           Ground pixel resolution




          40 x 320 km                                    16 x 32 km

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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                                Observing modes

    Estimations for a tangent point around 30km altitude:
    GOME:                 Nadir ⇒ ground pixel resolution
    GOMOS:                Occultation and limb ⇒ air mass at 3000 km
    MIPAS:                 Limb (side & backward) ⇒ air mass at 3000 km
    SCIAMACHY: Nadir ⇒ ground pixel resolution
                           Occultation ⇒ air mass at 3000 km
                           Limb (forward) ⇒ air mass at 3000 km


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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                       3. Ground Based Networks

    - The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric
      Composition Change (NDACC) – (previously known as the
      Network for the Detection of Statospheric Change, ‘NDSC’)

    - The Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW)




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


    The Network for the Detection of Atmospheric
          Composition Change (NDACC)
  Set up in the late 1980s (as NDSC):
         Dual goal of measurement and understanding
         Provide independent calibration/validation of satellites and
      testing of models

  • Endorsed by UNEP and IOC/IAMAS;
  • Incepted officially in 1991;
  • Major element of WMO’s GAW;
  • Major contributor to the worldwide atmospheric research effort,
  such as defined in Global Earth’s Observation System of Systems
  (GEOSS).
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                                          NDACC
   It consists of a suite of globally distributed research stations providing
   consistent, standardized, long-term measurements of atmospheric trace
   gases, particles, spectral UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, and
   physical parameters.

                    Global set of more than 60 high-quality, remote
                sensing research stations
                         observing and understanding the physical
                       and chemical state of the atmosphere
                          assessing the impact of atmospheric
                       changes on chemical composition and on
                       global climate
                                                             http://www.ndacc.org/
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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                                        NDACC
    Observations are centered around the following priorities:

    • Detecting changes and trends in atmospheric composition and
      understanding their impact on the stratosphere and troposphere;
    • Establishing scientific links between climate and atmospheric
      composition;
    • Testing and validating atmospheric measurements from satellites;
    • Supporting field campaigns;
    • Testing and improving theoretical and modelling work;
    • Further our capability to forecast the future state of the atmosphere.


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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                     NDACC Measurements Sites




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                         Specific goals of NDACC
    • To provide independent calibration and validation of space-
      based sensors of the atmosphere.
    • To produce verified data sets for testing and improving
      stratospheric and tropospheric models.

         NDACC data are ideally suited for satellite validation because
         they rely upon:
              - Long time series
              - Rigorous quality control



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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


        NDACC Quality Control & Data Archiving
   A commitment to data quality:
   • Investigators subscribe to a protocol designed to ensure that archived data
     are of as high a quality as possible within the constraints of measurement
     technology and retrieval theory.
   • Validation is a continuing process.
   • Instruments and data analysis methods are evaluated prior to NDAAC
     acceptance and are continuously monitored throughout their use.
   • Formal intercomparisons are used to evaluate algorithms and instruments.
   • Data must be submitted to the central archive within one year of the
     measurement.
   • Data go to anonymous ftp site when two years old.


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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                             NDACC vs. IGACO

   NDACC:
   • A key component of the IGACO initiative,
   • Ground based measurement network with a long-term heritage,
   • Conducting essential atmospheric observations,
   • Providing correlative and validation data for satellite missions.




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                 The NDACC: general organisation
           UV
                                                                      FTIR
                             O3S &         MWR
                            aerosol




                                                           LIDAR


                                                                    DOAS
                                 Steering Committee

        DOBSON



                                                                    SAOZ
                             Satellites                    THEORY

        BREWER
                                      Peers + Ex-officio

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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                          NDACC measurements

        •   Stratospheric temperatures
        •   Total ozone
        •   Ozone profiles
        •   Compounds pertaining to ozone loss
        •   ClO, OClO, BrO, HCl, HBr, ClONO2, CFC etc.
        •   Greenhouse gases and water vapour
        •   Stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds
        •   UV radiation



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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                                        NDACC




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                                        NDACC




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


              Alpine Primary Station: Jungfraujoch




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


  New Generation of instruments & measurements
  MAXDOAS




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                    3. Ground based networks (cont.)

    The Global Atmospheric Watch Mission (GAW)




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                                GAW Motivation




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                        GAW Monitoring Themes




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                         Global Stations in GAW




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


               Stations registered for China (total: 13)
    Stations                      Station Type           Coordinates        Elevation (m, a.s.l.)

    Gonghe                        Regional               36.27°N 100.62°E   2860
    Hok Tsui / Cape d Aguilar     Regional               22.22°N 114.25°E   60
    Hong Kong Observatory         Regional               22.31°N 114.17°E   65
    Hong Kong University          Regional               22.22°N 114.25°E   60
    Kunming                       Regional               25.03°N 102.21°E   1917
    Lhasa                         Contributing           29.40°N 91.03°E    3633
    Linan                         Regional               30.30°N 119.73°E   138
    Longfenshan                   Regional               44.73°N 127.60°E   310
    Mt. Waliguan                  Global                 36.28°N 100.90°E   3810
    Shangdianzi                   Regional               40.39°N 117.07°E   294
    Xhianghe                      Regional               39.98°N 116.37°E   80
    Yuen Ng Fun                   Regional               22.38°N 114.34°E   86

    Antarctica
    Zhong Shan                    Regional               69.37°S 76.37°E    71

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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                        Mount Walliguan, P.R.C.




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


        Estimated Global Ozonesonde Network: 2003




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


            GAW Global Carbon Dioxide Network




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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                      Ten challenges for GAW (1)
  (i) Maintaining long term measurements of quality in the current
      network
  (ii) Establishing long term measurements of quality to improve global
      coverage, particularly in countries that are developing or in transition.
  (iii) Developing collaboration between NHMSs and the chemical
      measurement community in some countries
  (iv) Developing globally accepted calibration, quality assurance and
     standard operating procedures: costly and not high profile but
     essential
  (v) Working with contributing partners that have networks as substantive as
     GAW to build a global network.

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        DRAGON ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE IN ATMOSPHERE REMOTE SENSING


                      Ten challenges for GAW (2)
 (vi) Developing World Data Centres that are comprehensive global
    repositories for high quality global observations of targeted GAW
    species.
 (vii) Development of GAWSIS so that the GAW global network is
    accurately known.
 (viii) Building a global aerosol monitoring network and integrated data
    analysis system in partnership with other organizations including satellite
    agencies.
 (ix) Developing, with partners, an implementation plan for the Integrated
    Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations (IGACO) strategy of IGOS
 (x) Continue to build air quality management capacity in countries with
    megacities air pollution problems.
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