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					  The Global Environmental Industry and
     its Relationship to Monitoring &
    Compliance in Developing Nations

               Grant Ferrier, President
        Jim Hight, Research Project Manager
       Environmental Business International Inc.
       EBI Inc. is an independent research & publishing company
   (Environmental Business Journal) specializing in the environmental
        industry since 1988, based in San Diego, California, USA

  OECD funded project to identify and profile examples of monitoring &
compliance programs involving imports of environmental goods & services;
              detailed results to be published in early 2006
Case Studies in Monitoring & Compliance
Project Summary:
• Monitoring & compliance programs are undeveloped and
  require technology and assistance in set-up and operation
• Trade barriers are not insurmountable, but most projects are
  test projects allowing special considerations for imports
• Use of technology, experience of project managers and
  resulting information flow to agencies and the public inspires
  program managers that compliance objectives can be
  enforceable and attainable, and creates pressure for
  administrations to launch enforcement initiatives
• Projects demonstrate capacity building in technical ability to
  collect & analyze monitoring data
          Case Studies Profiled
1. Jorf Lasfar Energy Company Coal Power Plant Air
   Quality Monitoring Project, El Jadida, Morocco (130 km
   west of Casablanca)
2. Metro Manila Air Quality Monitoring Project, Philippines
3. Malaysia Air Quality Monitoring Network
4. Jakarta Health Risk Monitoring Project: Exposure to
   Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide, Indonesia
5. Fuel Testing for Air Quality Project, Tamil Nadu, India
        Morocco Coal Power Plant
• Jorf Lasfar Energy Company Coal Power Plant: 1,350
  MW power plant was built in 1996 with funding from
  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  (IBRD) and USA-based Overseas Private Investment
  Corporation (OPIC).
• $1.5 billion project budget included $250,000 for air
  monitoring equipment and related services
• Air monitoring station established with continuous
  monitors for SO2 and NOx and highball samplers for
  total suspended particulates (TSP) and respirable
  particulates (PM10).
• Two meteorological stations also established.
      Morocco Coal Power Plant: 2
• Consultants from URS Corp. audit the station’s
  performance and train staff as needed.
• Over 10 years, the system consistently achieved valid data
  capture rates above 90%.
• Data have shown the plant meets World Bank or WHO
  guidelines for air quality.
• Data have also identified another nearby industrial source
  of air pollution.
• The government and plant operators know that electricity
  is generated without significant adverse impacts on the
            Metro Manila Air Quality
• Metro Manila Air Quality Monitoring Project (Philippines)
• In 2004, Philippine Department of Environment and Natural
  Resources (DENR) contracted with TRC Environmental
  Corp. for a three-year Outsource Sampling Program as part
  of Metro Manila Air Quality Improvement Sector
  Development Project (MMAQISDP).
• $2.3-million project was funded by Asian Development
• TRC’s Filipino partner, Technical Experts on Environmental
  Management (TEEM) provide manpower for data collection.
• Four teams of technicians are deploying mobile testing sets
  to measure stack emissions of PM10, SO2, NOx, CO and
  heavy metals from 1,000 sources.
          Metro Manila Air Quality: 2
• At conclusion, monitoring gear and lab equipment will be
  turned over to DENR, whose staff are being trained to use
  the equipment.
• 60% of the 500 emitters tested so far have failed one or
  more criteria of the Philippine clean air law.
• Data will assist the government in enforcing its 1999 clean
  air law, which is comparable to the U.S. Clean Air Act.
• $170,000 worth of equipment was imported from Japan
  and the United States.
• Tariffs for the equipment were waived because of
  government sponsorship, but clearing shipments through
  customs required specialized consultants working about
  40 person-hours per shipment. For six shipments, approx.
  240 consultant hours have been expended.
Malaysia Air Quality Monitoring Network
• ASMA joint venture was created in 1995 by Bovar
  (Canada) and PIC Corp. (Malaysia) to finance, build, own
  and operate a national air quality monitoring system.
• Under 20-year contract, ASMA earns revenues by selling
  data to Malaysia Dept. of Environment, the media and
  others; manages Environmental Quality Data Center for
  air and water.
• The $6 million system includes 51 continuous monitoring
  stations for CO, SO2, NOx, PM10 and O3, and 25 manual
  stations (checked every six days) for TSP, PM10 and
  heavy metals.
• Equipment is mostly U.S.-made (Teledyne API and Met
  One) including analyzers, calibraters, sampling systems,
  telemetry infrastructure, etc.
Malaysia Air Quality Monitoring Network
• Imports were exempted from tariffs for first four years, but
  ASMA required special license to import gauges with low-
  level radioactivity.
• System provides real-time updates every 15 minutes with a
  data capture rate of more than 95%. (Audited by USEPA)
• During 1997 smoke & haze crisis, government temporarily
  banned air quality data release to media, but used data to
  target public health response toward worst effected areas.
• Full disclosure policy now in force again.
• ASMA data provided evidence for Malaysia Univ. of Science
  and Technology study which recommends:
   –   Expand network and facilitate greater public access.
   –   Create air quality standards, rather than guidelines.
   –   Require periodic emissions inspections for vehicles.
Jakarta Health Risk Monitoring Project
• Monitor citizens’ exposure to Particulate Matter and
  Carbon Monoxide (PM and CO): pollutants of concern in
  Jakarta due to leaded gasoline and lack of catalytic
  converters in vehicles. (Respiratory illness is #1 killer of
  children under 5 in Indonesia.)
• $200,000 budget from US-Asia Environmental
  Partnership (USAID) and partners: University of
  Indonesia, University of California (Berkeley and UCLA)
  and Swisscontact. Manpower was provided by University
  of Indonesia staff and students, trained by U.S. partners.
• Using portable equipment in backpacks, investigators
  shadowed 50+ individuals -- students, traffic officers and
  others -- for 8-hour and 24-hour periods.
   Jakarta Health Risk Monitoring Project
• State-of-the-art equipment for measuring PM (from 0.1
  microns to 2.5 microns) and CO was borrowed and
  purchased; most items from TSI: Data is in process, but
  preliminary results show very hazardous exposure levels.
• Identifies pollutant sources -- gasoline & diesel vehicles,
  garbage burning, etc. -- with high degrees of specificity,
  allowing the targeting of regulations or enforcement action to
  protect public health.
• The project is inspiring local staff with a vision of effective air
  quality regulations in city and national environmental
  agencies; but a lack of resources constrains their capabilities.
• To avoid the delays associated with Indonesian customs,
  project equipment was imported with U.S. embassy
  diplomatic privileges. Importing the equipment commercially
  would have caused 8 to 12 week delays and added costs.
       Fuel Testing for Air Quality, India
• A laboratory and sampling program in Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
  India, to detect and report cases of adulterated vehicle fuels,
  a major source of air pollution in India.
• The project was organized by CONCERT (Center for
  Consumer Education, Research Teaching, Training and
  Testing) with funding from the U.S. Council of State
  Governments and US-Asia Environmental Partnership, and
  technical support from the California Air Resources Board.
• All equipment was manufactured in India, but budgetary
  constraints made it impossible to purchase the most
  sophisticated analytical equipment, which is commonly used
  by oil companies for quality control.
• After analyzing more than 60 retail gasoline and diesel fuel
  samples, data suggests contamination of adulterants at high
       Fuel Testing for Air Quality, India
• CONCERT intends to expand sampling program, upgrade
  and procure additional lab equipment, establish a mobile
  laboratory to collect and test samples in the field, seek
  greater enforcement by government agencies and increase
  outreach to retail fuel dealers.
• Widespread fuel testing, coupled with greater enforcement,
  would significantly improve air quality throughout India.
• While monitoring equipment is available within India, what is
  needed is a funded network of facilities and sampling
  programs. At present CONCERT is the only NGO in India
  that has established such a facility and sampling program.
• CONCERT and prospective fuel testing entities also need
  funds to purchase more modern, sophisticated equipment to
  increase the speed and efficacy of testing.

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