Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Study - CLU-IN by qingyunliuliu

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Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Study
                      Michele Mahoney
 Office of Superfund Remediation & Technology Innovation
         Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

                  Introduction
 Purpose of Study

 Three sites
    Stafford Airport Site, Virginia
    Sharon Steel Site, Pennsylvania
    Leadville Site, Colorado



                                        1
                                                       Timeline                         EPA, TIFSD
                                                                                     produces a draft
                                                                                     field protocol for
                                                                                         sampling
    Common
practice to apply                                                                    Sharon Steel field
                                                                                                           EPA published
   biosolids to                                                                       demonstration
                                                                                                           cross-program
lands began and                                                                      plots to evaluate
                                                                     EPA produces                          Ecological
  continues until  Leadville, CO,                                                    soil amendments
                                                                     a white paper                         Revitalization
      today       starts restoration                                                                       paper
                                                                        on soil         EPA, TIFSD
                       with soil                                                          conducts
                                                                     amendments
                    amendments                                                         sampling at 3                          EPA finalizes
                                                                                        field sites to    EPA launches        field sampling
                                        Stafford, VA
                                                                                          evaluate          Ecotools              protocol
                                       restores land
                                                                                        Carbon seq          website
                                          with soil                                                                              Evaluate
                                       amendments                                         potential
                                                                                                            EPA, TIFSD           additional
                                                        EPA TIFSD                                          analyzes soil     partners and field
                                                         hosts a                                            carbon data            sites
                                                       workshop on                                        from field sites        Create a
                                                           soil                                                               database of info,
                                                       amendments                                                              range of C seq
                                                                                                                              rates for various
                                                                                                                                    sites




                                                                                                                                          2
  CO2
                                    What is terrestrial
  microbial
  respiration                     carbon sequestration?
                         Uses CO2 to store carbon in biomass


                                  Transformation of carbon in organic materials,
                Translocation     such as soil amendments, into humus, a stable
O HORIZON                         organic material that builds healthy soils.

                                  Soil organic matter and stable organo-
A HORIZON                         mineral complexes form, which bind and
                                  store carbon.


B HORIZON                         Downward movement of humus and stable
                                  aggregates making them more stable.

C HORIZON



R HORIZON                          Bedrock - Soil-forming parent material.



                                                                              3
         Field Guide for Sampling & Analysis


 Consistent sampling approach

 Drafted and tested at three sites

 Living document

 http://www.cluin.org/ecotools


                                           4
     Data Collection Approach
 Document Site-Specific Information

 Plan for Data Collection

 Collect and Analyze Data

 Manage and Interpret Data

                                       5
         Document Site Specifics
 Required for carbon sequestration calculations

 Used for calculating other aspects of carbon
  sequestration potential and results

 Provides useful background information and
  data to compare results across sites over time

 Suggested format in Appendix 1
                                                   6
          Plan for Data Collection
 Input from all stakeholders

 Identify data needs for accurate carbon accounting

 Identify statistical data reduction methods

 Identify carbon accounting tools

 QAPP documentation
                                                   7
               Analytical Measurements for Soil
             Amendments, Cores, Gases and Plants
  Matrix                          Analyses                            Method(s)
                Total Carbon                                     Dry flash combustion
                Inorganic/Organic Carbon Fractionation           Acid vapor exposure
                Total Nitrogen                                   Dry flash combustion
Amendments      Organic Matter Content                           Loss on ignition
                Moisture Content                                 Thermal-gravimetry
                pH                                               Paste-electrode
                Electrical Conductivity (EC)                     Paste-electrode

                Total Carbon                                     Dry flash combustion
                Inorganic/Organic Carbon Fractionation           Acid vapor exposure
                Total Nitrogen                                   Dry flash combustion
                Organic Matter Content                           Loss on ignition
   Soil         Moisture Content                                 Thermal-gravimetry
                Particle Size Analysis (sand, silt, clay)        Sieving-gravimetry
                Bulk Density                                     Gravimetry
                pH                                               Paste-electrode
                EC                                               Paste-electrode

 Biomass/       Above and below ground biomass sampling and
                                                                  Thermal-gravimetry
  Plants         estimation (dry weight)

                Nitrous oxide                                    Static flux chamber:
  Gases         Carbon dioxide                                    headspace gas
                Methane                                           chromatography (GC)

                                                                                          8
                    Sampling Events
Sampling Event              Matrices                                   Purpose
Time 0 or before       Soil amendment; soil           Establish baseline carbon assessment for site
   (pretreatment)
Time 0 or before     Plant biomass (if present)                     Establish baseline
   (pretreatment)
    Time 0          Amended soil, reference soil               Initial carbon measurement
    Time 0           Plant biomass (if present)                Initial biomass measurement

                                                   Determine nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane
    Time 0                  Gases in air                emissions from amendment for a minimum of one
                                                                              month.

    Year 1          Amended soil, reference soil      Assess one-year changes in terrestrial carbon
    Year 1           Plant biomass (if present)               Assess one-year plant growth
    Year 3          Amended soil, reference soil           Assess changes in terrestrial carbon
    Year 3           Plant biomass (if present)                Assess changes in biomass
                                                     Assess longer-term changes in terrestrial carbon;
    Year 5          Amended soil, reference soil
                                                           determine need for further sampling times

    Year 5           Plant biomass (if present)          Assess longer-term changes in biomass
                                                     Assess longer-term changes in terrestrial carbon;
    Year 10         Amended soil, reference soil
                                                           determine need for further sampling times
    Year 10          Plant biomass (if present)          Assess longer-term changes in biomass

                                                                                                         9
         Manage & Interpret Data
    %C x BD x AD x                   10,000 m2         =    Mg C per ha
    100                                ha

    Where:
             % C = Mean percent carbon content of amended soil
             BD = Mean bulk density (in Mg/m3)
             AD = Amended soil depth interval of interest (in m)
             m = meters
             Mg = megagrams (metric tons)
             ha = hectare

Conversion to CO2 equivalents in Mg (metric tons) per hectare:
Mg C x 44 g/mole CO2 = Mg CO2
 ha        12 g/mole C            ha


                                                                          10
          Field Guide Appendices
1.   Suggested Format for Site Information

2.   Example Sampling Approach

3.   Standard Operating Procedure for Carbon/Nitrogen Elemental
     Analysis

4.   Methods for Inorganic/Organic Carbon Fractionation

5.   Method for Bulk Density Measurement

6.   Standard Operating Procedures for Above and Below Grade
     Biomass Characterization
7.   Protocol for Gas Flux Measurement

                                                                  11
               Site Description
                       Stafford
 Located 35 miles from Washington D.C.
 Site history:
                                                  Photograph of Stafford
   • 1997 – Contraction began for an airport    Regional Airport provided by
                                                 Lee Daniels, Virginia Tech

   • 2001 – Airport completed
 550-acre facility with paved aircraft parking and a
  runway
 Sandy loam soil
 Rolling hills geography

                                                                           12
                  Site Description
                      Sharon Steel
 Located Mercer County, Pennsylvania
 Site history:
    •   1900 – Steel product manufacturing facility
    •   1992 – Sharon Steel declared bankruptcy        Photograph courtesy of
                                                      Libby Dayton, Ohio State
    •   Waste byproducts were disposed of on site            University

    •   1998 – Sharon Steel was listed on the NPL
 Topography consists of hilly uplands and broad deep valleys
 Silty loam soil
 Contamination in soil consists of metals, PAHs, PCBs, and
  pesticides

                                                                                 13
                  Site Description
                          Leadville
 Located 100 miles southwest of Denver, CO
 Site History:
                                                   Leadville Site (Before and After)
    •   120 years – Mined and milled for silver,
         gold, lead and zinc
    •   1983 – Leadville site listed on the NPL
 Sandy loam soil
 Elevation at site is 8,200 – 10,000 feet
 Sulfide mine tailings washed down the Arkansas River
  impacting an 11-mile stretch of the river causing acidic
  conditions and metal contamination.

                                                                                       14
                                       Results
    Site       Soil     Amendments          Mg C/ha   metric tons   metric tons
               Type                                    CO2/acre      CO2/acre
                                                                       year

Leadville,     Sandy        Biosolids,
Colorado       loam     compost, pellets,   114-147     169-218         9.1
                        limestone, wood
                          chips, manure



Stafford,      Sandy    Biosolids, Straw
Virginia       Loam         Mulch             16          24            2.5




Sharon          Silty      Biosolids,
Steel,         Loam      Compost, pine       19-67        45            NA
Pennsylvania                  bark



                                                                              15
          What do the results mean?
                   Stafford
 Amended 275 acres with a gain of 15 metric tons of
  CO2 per acre.

 Equivalent to the amount of CO2 emissions
  associated with 281 gallons of gasoline consumed
  per year.

 Was carbon sequestered at this site - YES!

                                                     16
            What do the results mean?

                   Sharon Steel
 57 – 99 metric tons of CO2 per acre as compared to
  the control of 32 metric tons of CO2 per acre.

 Potential of 9,200 metric tons of CO2 at the site.

 Was carbon sequestered in the soil at this site – YES!




                                                           17
               What do the results mean?
                             Leadville
 80 acres amended

 146-218 metric tons of CO2 per acre
       87 metric tons of CO2 per acre more than the control over 10 years; or 9.1
        metric tons of CO2/ acre year
 Equivalent to the amount of carbon sequestered annually by
  134 acres of pine or fir forests, or the greenhouse gas
  emissions avoided by recycling 212 tons of waste per year
  instead of sending it to a landfill.
 Was carbon sequestered in the soil at this site – YES!


                                                                                     18
                Carbon Accounting at Soil
                    Amendment Sites
                                        GHG Emission Sources
Carbon Sinks (i.e. storage)
                                         (i.e. CO2, CH4, NOx)
   Vegetation: living biomass
(above/below ground), non-living       Transportation of materials to site
            biomass
                                        Stationary machinery and other
Soil: organic soil matter. inorganic
                                         equipment not covered under
            soil matter
                                                 transportation
                                            Biomass burning for site
                                         preparation and management
  Carbon-rich soil amendments                    Fertilizer use

                                                Soil off-gassing
                                                                        19
                    Conclusions
 Benefits of Soil amendments
                                                   Recycling of
                                                   industrial by-
  •   Remediation & revitalization                   products


  •   More cost-effective cleanups AMENDMENTS  SOIL

  •   Recycling by-products           Reduces
                                     exposure of
                                                    Restores
                                                   soil quality
  •   Jump-starts ecosystem          contaminant



  •   Terrestrial carbon sequestration

                                                                    20
                       Next Steps
 Build database of carbon sequestration rates

 More field studies

 Scope carbon accounting with OAR

 Collaboration with other researchers

 Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration on EcoTools
  web site www.cluin.org/ecotools/seq.cfm
                                                 21
              Michele Mahoney
              US EPA OSWER
Technology Innovation & Field Services Division
            Phone: (703) 603-9057
  Email: Mahoney.Michele@epamail.epa.gov
                                          Results - Stafford
Table 6. Stafford Sampling Results, Fall 2008, 6 years after amendment application

          Sample                  pH          EC         %C         %N       Bulk density   C:N ratio   Mg of       metric tons
                                                                             (g/cm3)                    Carbon/ha   CO2/ acre




     Optimum for soils           5.5 -8       <2          --         --        0.5 – 1.4    20 – 40:1        --         --

      Pre-amendment               2.34         --         --        0.37         0.03          --            --         --

 Piscataway soil amendment        11.9         --       260.7     0.4 g/kg           --      13.23           --         --
                                                        g/kg

          Biosolids               3.96       1.003      1.15        0.12         0.95          96           16          24
       0 -15 cm (SH)

         Biosolids                3.41       1.618      0.47        0.06         1.19          78            8          12
      15 – 30 cm (SH)

           Control                3.24       1.517       0.3        0.04         1.28          7.5           6          9
       0 – 15 cm (SC)

          Control                 3.07       1.65       0.27        0.04             1.8      7.25           7          11
      15 – 30 cm (SC)


                                                                                                                             23
                            Results – Sharon Steel
Table 8. Sharon Steel Sampling Results, Fall 2008, Year 0

        Sample               pH          EC         %C      %N      Bulk density   C:N ratio   Mg of       metric tons
                                                                      (g/cm3)                  Carbon/ha   CO2/ acre
                                                                     for top 6 “

   Optimum for soils        5.5 -8       <2          --      --      0.5 – 1.4     20 – 40:1        --         --

        Control              12         4.92        0.89    ND         1.63          NA             22         32

     10% Biosolids           11.9       4.61        0.76    ND         1.64          NA             19         28

 10% Biosolids + pine        11.8       4.19        1.65    ND         1.58          NA             39         58
       barks

    15% Biosolids +          9.8        2.53        2.27     0.5       1.12          27.3           38         57
       compost

    15% Biosolids +          9.9        2.28        3.12    0.497      1.43          19.5           67         99
  compost + pine bark

     20% biosolids           12         4.99        1.4     0.331      1.52          16.0           32         47

 20% Biosolids + pine        12         4.98        1.54    0.296      1.53          21.8           35         52
        bark

C-lock modeling predicted 1.3 metric tons of CO2 e/ acre per year

                                                                                                                    24
                                      Results - Leadville
Table 5. Leadville Sampling Results from Fall 2008, 10 years after amendment application
        Sample              pH          EC         %C          %N        Bulk density      C:N ratio   Mg of C/ha   metric tons
                                                                           (g/cm3)                                  CO2/ acre
   Optimum for soils       5.5 -8       <2          --          --         0.5 – 1.4       20 – 40:1        --          --
       Biosolids            5.23       2.664       5.88       0.36           1.29             11
    0 -15 cm (LB)                                                                                          114         169
       Biosolids            5.59       2.74        4.81       0.32           1.41             13
    15 -30 cm (LB)                                                                                         102         151
         Pellets            5.89       2.53        6.37       0.52           1.54             10
     0 -15 cm (LP)                                                                                         147         218
         Pellets            5.83       2.76        6.25       0.51           1.61             11
    15 - 30 cm (LP)                                                                                        151         224
       Compost              5.7        3.08        5.45       0.29           1.2              15
    0 -15 cm (LC)1                                                                                         98          146
       Compost              5.46       1.78        4.38       0.29           1.22             14
   15 -30 cm (LC) 1                                                                                        80          119
       Untreated            3.72       3.13        3.75       0.24           1.09             17
    0 – 15 cm (LU)                                                                                         61           91
      Untreated             3.67       2.09        4.16       0.26           0.97             16
   15 – 30 cm (LU)                                                                                         61           90
       Reference            5.67       0.48        5.22        0.3           0.79             10
    0 – 15 cm (LR)                                                                                         62           92
      Reference             5.74       0.22         2.9       0.14           1.22             10                             25
   15 – 30 cm (LR)                                                                                         53           79

								
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