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DAY-22-PASTRY-BAKERY

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					READY FOR EXCELLENCE PROGRAMME




               READY FOR EXCELLENCE ‟ PASTRY/BAKERY

                              INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                        INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3




DAY           MODULE                               SUB TOPIC STAGES                         TIME

                                 BREAD RECIPES - THEORY                                     02:00

                                 COMFORT BREAK                                              00:15

                                 BREAD RECIPES - PRACTICAL                                  03:00

                                 LUNCH BREAK                                                01:00
22    INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                                 BREAD RECIPES - PRACTICAL                                  02:00

                                 COMFORT BREAK                                              00:15

                                 BREAD RECIPES - PRACTICAL                                  02:00

                                 CONSOLIDATION                                              00:30

                                           GRAND TOTAL including Comfort Breaks and Lunch   11:00
                                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                                       INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
    OBJECTIVES:
    At the end of today’s session (INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3 ) you will be able to:
„   Demonstrate an understanding of the basic Costa pastry recipes.
„   Apply the correct processes and preparation techniques required to make the pastry recipes.

RANGE:
„   Knowledge of Costa basic bakery recipes.
„   The techniques associated with the preparation of pastry recipes.

TIME:
           11 hours including individual quizzes.

    NEED:
„    Preparing pastry involves a different set of skills within the realm of the Galley. It is        therefore important that you learn the
recipes and how to apply them, so that you are better           prepared to accomplish this task when you embark your Costa vessel.

    INTEREST:
„    Bread making is a craft of its own and some cooks decide to branch out from general       cooking to specialize in this specific area.
Either way it is an important aspect to learn of as      part of your overall knowledge as a cook.
                              INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3




“Excellence is in the details, give attention to the details and excellence will come” Perry Paxton
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                                           INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3


                                          STEPS IN YEAST DOUGH PRODUCTION
         There are 12 basic steps in the production of yeast breads. These steps are generally applied to all yeast products, with
                variations depending on the particular product. Apply your knowledge and put them in the right order
                                                     Scaling ingredients,
                                                     Benching,
                                                     Mixing,
                                                     Makeup and panning,
                                                     Fermentation,
                                                     Proofing,
                                                     Punching,
                                                     Baking,
                                                     Scaling,
                                                     Cooling,
                                                     Rounding,
                                                     Storing



5 Mins
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                                       INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3


                                       STEPS IN YEAST DOUGH PRODUCTION
There are 12 basic steps in the production of yeast breads. These steps are generally applied to all yeast products, with
       variations depending on the particular product. In particular, many of the handcrafted artisan breads that have become
       popular require more complex procedures. This gives you the information you need to know to produce the conventional
       yeast formulas.
               1.Scaling ingredients                        7.Benching
               2.Mixing                                                    8.Makeup and panning
               3.Fermentation                               9.Proofing
               4.Punching                                   10.Baking
               5.Scaling                                                   11.Cooling
               6.Rounding                                   12.Storing


As you can see, mixing ingredients into a dough is only one part of a complex procedure. This section describes each of
      these 12 steps, including the basic procedures. In the next sections, dough making and fermentation are discussed in
      greater detail.
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3


                                              1. SCALING INGREDIENTS
All ingredients must be weighed accurately. Water, milk, and eggs may be measured by volume. They are scaled at 1 pt per
       pound,or 1 kg per liter. However, if quantities are large, it is more accurate to weigh these liquids. Special care must
       be taken when measuring spices and other ingredients used in very small quantities. This is particularly important with
       salt, which affects the rate of fermentation.


                                                       2. MIXING
   Mixing yeast doughs has three main purposes:
   „ To combine all ingredients into a uniform, smooth dough.
   „ To distribute the yeast evenly throughout the dough.
   „ To develop the gluten.
   Three principal mixing methods are used for yeast doughs: the straight
   dough method, the modified straight dough method, and the sponge method
   (also called the sponge-and-dough method).
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                                      INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3


                                                   2. MIXING (Cont)
Straight Dough Method:
In its simplest form, the straight dough method consists of only one step:
Combine all ingredients in the mixing bowl and mix. Many bakers make good quality
products by using this procedure. However, the yeast may not be evenly
distributed in the dough. It is therefore safer to mix the yeast separately with a
little of the water.
PROCEDURE:
1. Soften the yeast in a little of the water.
Fresh yeast: Mix with about 2 times its weight in water, or more.
Ideal water temperature: 100°F (38°C).
Active dry yeast: Mix with about 4 times its weight in water.
Ideal water temperature: 105°F (40°C).
2. Combine the remaining ingredients, including the rest of the water, in the mixing
bowl. Add the dissolved yeast, taking care not to let it come in contact with the salt.
3. Mix to a smooth, developed dough.
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3


                                                   2. MIXING (Cont)
Modified Straight Dough Method:
For rich sweet doughs, the straight dough method is modified to ensure even
distribution of the fat and sugar.
PROCEDURE:
1.Soften the yeast in part of the liquid, using a separate container.
2. Combine the fat, sugar, salt, milk solids, and flavourings and mix until well combined,
but do not whip until light.
3. Add the eggs gradually, as fast as they are absorbed.
4. Add the liquid and mix briefly.
5. Add the flour and yeast. Mix to a smooth dough.
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                            INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                                     2. MIXING (Cont)
Sponge Method:
Sponge doughs are prepared in two stages. This procedure gives the yeast
action a head start.
The first stage is called a sponge, a yeast starter, or a yeast pre-ferment also called Biga which is
      usually a stiff starter. Poolish (loose starter where the amount of water is the same as the
      flour) or Levain. All of these terms mean the same thing. There are many variations of this
      procedure. Part of the liquid is sometimes reserved for step 2.
Because they play an important part in the production of artisan breads. There are two possible
     ways to express percentages when using a sponge:
1. Consider the sponge or pre-ferment as a separate formula. Express the
flour in the sponge as 100%.Then, in the main formula, express the total
weight of the sponge as a percentage of the flour weight in the main formula.
2. Consider the sponge as part of the main formula. Express the flour in the
sponge as a percentage of the total flour in the complete formula.
Each method has its advantages, and bakers have their own Preferences
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                              INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                                            2. MIXING (Cont)
Sponge Method:
PROCEDURE:
1. Combine part or all of the liquid, all
of the yeast, and part of the flour
(and, sometimes, part of the sugar).
Mix into a thick batter or soft dough.
Let ferment until double in bulk.
2. Punch down and add the rest of the
flour and the remaining ingredients.
Mix to a uniform, smooth dough.
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                                   INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                                             3. FERMENTAION
Fermentation is the process by which yeast acts on the sugars and starches in the dough to produce
    carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and alcohol. Gluten becomes smoother and more elastic during
    fermentation, so it stretches farther and holds more gas. An underfermented dough will not develop
    proper volume, and the texture of the product will be coarse. A dough that ferments too long or at too
    high a temperature becomes sticky, hard to work, and slightly sour. An underfermented dough is
    called a young dough. An overfermented dough is called an old dough.

Doughs with weak gluten, such as rye doughs and rich doughs, are usually underfermented or ―taken to
    the bench young.‖

Yeast action continues until the yeast cells are killed when the temperature of the dough reaches 140°F
     (60°C) in the oven. It is important to be aware that fermentation continues during the next steps in
     yeast dough production—punching, scaling, rounding, benching, and makeup or molding. Failure to
     allow for this time may result in overfermented doughs.

Doughs that are to be made into rolls and loaves requiring a great deal of makeup time

should be slightly underfermented to prevent the dough from being too old by the time makeup is
     completed.
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                             INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3


                                          4. PUNCHING
PUNCHING
Punching is not hitting the dough with your fist. It is a method of deflating the
dough that
• expels carbon dioxide
• redistributes the yeast for further growth
• relaxes the gluten
• equalizes the temperature throughout the dough
Additional fermentation and punching may or may not be necessary,
depending on the product.
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                                 5. SCALING
Using a baker’s scale, divide the dough into pieces of the same weight,
according to the product being made.
During scaling, allowance is made for weight loss due to evaporation of
moisture in the oven.This weight loss is approximately 10 to 13% of the weight
of the dough. Allow an extra 11⁄2 to 2 oz dough for each 1 lb baked bread, or 50
to 65 g per 500 g.
Actual baking loss depends on baking time, size of the unit, and whether it
is baked in a pan or freestanding.
Scaling should be done rapidly and efficiently to avoid overfermenting the
dough.
If a dough divider is used to make rolls, the dough is scaled into presses,
which are then divided into 36 equal pieces (see p. 120).For example,if 11⁄3-oz
rolls are desired, the presses should be scaled at 3 lb (36  11⁄3 oz), plus 6 oz to
allow for baking loss. Presses are rounded, relaxed, and divided; the divided
units may or may not be rounded again, depending on the product
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                      INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                6. ROUNDING
After scaling, the pieces of dough are shaped into smooth, round balls. This
procedure forms a kind of skin by stretching the gluten on the outside of the
dough into a smooth layer. Rounding simplifies the later shaping of the dough
and also helps retain gases produced by the yeast.
Your instructor will demonstrate rounding techniques. Machines are also
available that divide and round portions of dough automatically.

                                7. BENCHING
Rounded portions of dough are allowed to rest for 10 to 20 minutes. This
relaxes the gluten to make shaping the dough easier. Also, fermentation
continues during this time.
In large operations, the rounded dough is placed in special proofers for
this rest. Smaller operations place the dough in boxes that are stacked on one
another to keep the dough covered. Or the dough may simply be placed on the
workbench and covered—hence the term benching.
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                                        INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                        8. MAKEUP AND PANNING
The dough is shaped into loaves or rolls and then placed in pans or on baking sheets. Hearth breads—breads
baked directly on the bottom of the oven— may be placed in floured baskets or other molds after makeup.
Proper makeup or molding is of critical importance to the finished baked product. All gas bubbles should be
expelled during molding. Bubbles left in the dough will result in large air holes in the baked product.
For both pan breads and hearth breads, the seam must be centered on the bottom to avoid splitting during
baking. For units baked in pans, the pan size must be matched to the weight of the dough.Too little or too
much dough will result in a poorly shaped loaf. Breads and rolls take a great many forms.

                                                     9. PROOFING
Proofing is a continuation of the process of yeast fermentation that increases the volume of the shaped
      dough. Bakers use two different terms so they can distinguish between fermentation of the mixed
      dough and proofing of the made-up product before baking. Proofing temperatures are generally higher
      than fermentation temperatures.

Underproofing results in poor volume and dense texture. Overproofing results in coarse texture and some
      loss of flavor. French bread is generally given a long proof to create its characteristic open texture. Its
      strong gluten withstands the extra stretching of a long proof. Rich doughs are slightly underproofed
      because their weaker gluten structure does not withstand too much stretching..
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                                       INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                              Procedure for Proofing Yeast Dough Items

Procedure for Proofing Yeast Dough Items
1. For lean yeast doughs, place the panned products in a proof box at 80° to
85°F (27° to 30°C) and 70 to 80% humidity, or as indicated in the formula.
Proof until double in bulk.
Rich doughs, especially rolled-in doughs, are usually proofed at a lower
temperature (77°F or 25°C) so the butter does not melt out of the dough.
Avoid using too much steam. This weakens the surface of the dough and
causes uneven proofing.
If a proof box is not available, come as close to these conditions as you can by
covering the products to retain moisture and setting them in a warm place.
2. Test-proof by sight (the unit doubles in bulk) and by touch. When touched
lightly, properly proofed dough springs back slowly. If it is still firm and
elastic, it needs more proofing. If the dent remains in the dough, the dough is
probably overproofed.
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                                   10. BAKING
Many changes take place in the dough during baking. The most important
      changes are:
1.    Oven spring, which is the rapid rising in the oven due to production and
      expansion of trapped gases as a result of the oven heat. The yeast is
      very active at first but is killed when the temperature inside the dough
      reaches 140°F (60°C).


2. Coagulation of proteins and gelatinization of starches. In other words, the
product becomes firm and holds its shape.


3. Formation and browning of the crust.
In order to control the baking process, the following factors should be
considered
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                               10. BAKING cont.
Oven Temperature and Baking Time
Temperatures must be adjusted for the product being baked. At the proper
temperature, the inside of the unit becomes completely baked at the same
time that the crust achieves the desired color. Therefore:
1. Large units are baked at a lower temperature and for a longer time than
small rolls spaced apart.

2. Rich doughs and sweet doughs are baked at a lower temperature because
their fat, sugar, and milk content makes them brown faster.

3. French breads made with no added sugar and a long fermentation require
very high temperatures to achieve the desired crust color.

• Popular American lean breads are baked at 400° to 425°F (205° to 220°C).
• Some French breads are baked at 425° to 475°F (220° to 245°C).
• Rich products are baked at 350° to 400°F (175° to 205°C).

A golden-brown crust color is the normal indication of doneness. Loaves
that are done sound hollow when thumped.
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                                      INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                                 10. BAKING cont.
Washes
Many, if not most, yeast products are brushed with a liquid, called a wash, just
before baking. The most common washes are as follows:
1. Water is used primarily for hard-crusted products, such as French bread.
Like steam in the oven (see below), the water helps keep the crust from
drying too quickly and thus becoming too thick.
2. Starch paste is used primarily for rye breads. In addition to keeping the
crust from drying too quickly,the starch paste helps give a shine to the crust.
To make a starch paste, mix 1 oz light rye flour with 1 qt water (60 g rye
per 500 mL water). Bring to a boil while stirring. Cool. If necessary, thin
with water to the consistency of cream.

3. Egg wash is used to give a shiny brown crust to soft breads and rolls and
to rich doughs and Danish.It is made by mixing beaten eggs with water or,
sometimes, with milk. Proportions may vary greatly depending on how
strong a wash is desired.
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                                10. BAKING cont.
Cutting or Scoring
A break on the side of the loaf is caused by continued rising after the
crust is formed. To allow for this expansion, the tops of hard-crusted
breads are cut before baking. Slashes are made on the top of the loaf
with a sharp knife or razor immediately before it is put into the oven,
as shown in the figure on the right. The pattern created by the cuts
also contributes to the appearance of the bread.
Small rolls often bake completely without a break, so they are
usually cut for the sake of appearance only.
Note: The term docking is often used for this procedure.
However, many bakers feel this term should be reserved for a
different process—namely, the piercing or perforating of pastry and
pie doughs. but you should be aware of the other term because you will hear it
      used.
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                                10. BAKING cont.
Steam
Hard-crusted breads are baked with steam injected into the ovens
      during the first part of the baking period. Rye breads also benefit
      from baking with steam for the first 10 minutes.
The steam helps keep the crust soft during the first part of baking so
      the bread can expand rapidly and evenly. If steam were not used,
      the crust would begin forming earlier and thus would become
      thick and heavy. The steam also helps distribute the heat in the
      oven, further aiding oven spring. When the moisture of the steam
      reacts with the starches on the surface, some of the starches
      form dextrins. Then, when the steam is withdrawn, these
      dextrins, along with sugars in the dough, caramelize and turn
      brown. The result is a thin, crisp, glazed crust. Rich doughs,
      those with higher fat or sugar content, do not form crisp crusts
      and are usually baked without steam.
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                                    INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                                 11. COOLING
After baking, bread must be removed from pans and cooled on racks to allow the escape of the excess
     moisture and alcohol created during fermentation. Small rolls spaced on baking sheets are often
     cooled on the pans when air circulation is adequate. On the other hand, if condensation is likely to
     make the bottoms of the rolls soggy, it is better to cool them on racks. If soft crusts are desired, breads
     may be brushed with melted shortening before cooling.
Do not cool bread in a draft because the crust may crack.



                                                 12. STORING

Breads to be served within 8 hours may be left on racks. For longer storage, wrap cooled breads in moisture-
      proof bags to retard staling. Bread must be thoroughly cool before wrapping or moisture will collect
      inside the bags. Wrapping and freezing maintains quality for longer periods. Refrigeration, on the other
      hand, increases staling. Hard-crusted breads should not be wrapped (unless frozen) because the
      crusts will soften and become leathery.
                                                                   1

                           INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                     BREAD FAULTS AND THEIR CAUSES




          Because of the complexity of bread production, many things
               can go wrong. To remedy common bread faults, check
               the following troubleshooting guide for
          possible causes and correct your procedures. Using the
               handout write in each line the common fault which will
               lead to that result in the bread.




15 Mins
                                                     1

                 INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
              BREAD FAULTS AND THEIR CAUSES
Fault                   Causes
Shape
                        Too much salt
                        Too little yeast
Poor volume
                        Too little liquid
                        Weak flour
                        Under- or overmixing
                        Oven too hot
                        Too little salt
Too much                Too much yeast
volume
                        Too much dough scaled
                        Overproofed
                        Too much liquid
                        Flour too weak
Poor shape
                        Improper molding or makeup
                        Improper fermentation or
                        proofing
                        Too much oven steam
                                                                 1

                    INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                 BREAD FAULTS AND THEIR CAUSES
Fault                      Causes
Shape
                           Overmixing
                           Underfermented dough
Split or burst
crust                      Improper molding—seam not on bottom

                           Uneven heat in oven
                           Oven too hot
                           Insufficient steam
Flavor
Flat taste                 Too little salt
                           Inferior, spoiled, or rancid
Poor flavor                ingredients
                           Poor bakeshop sanitation
                           Under- or overfermented
                                                              1

                       INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                    BREAD FAULTS AND THEIR CAUSES
FAULT                     CAUSES
TEXTURE AND CRUMB
                          Too much salt

Too dense or              Too little liquid
close-grained             Too little yeast
                          Underfermented
                          Underproofed
                          Too much yeast
                          Too much liquid
Too coarse or
open                      Incorrect mixing time
                          Improper fermentation
                          Overproofed
                          Pan too large
                          Improper mixing procedure
Streaked
                          Poor molding or makeup techniques
crumb
                          Too much flour used for dusting
                                                                      1

                       INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                    BREAD FAULTS AND THEIR CAUSES
FAULT                     CAUSES
TEXTURE AND CRUMB
                          Flour too weak

Poor texture or           Too little salt
crumbly                   Fermentation time too long or too short
                          Overproofed
                          Baking temperature too low
                          Fermentation time or temperature too high
Gray crumb
                          Too much sugar or milk

Crust Too dark            Underfermented dough
                          Oven temperature too high
                          Baking time too long
                          Insufficient steam at beginning of baking
                                                                   1

                       INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                    BREAD FAULTS AND THEIR CAUSES
FAULT                     CAUSES
TEXTURE AND CRUMB
                          Too little sugar or milk
                          Overfermented dough
Too pale
                          Overproofed
                          Oven temperature too low
                          Baking time too short
                          Too much steam in oven
                          Too little sugar or fat
Too thick                 Improper fermentation
                          Baked too long or at wrong temperature
                          Too little steam
                          Too much liquid
Blisters on
                          Improper fermentation
crust
                          Improper shaping of loaf
                                                                            1

                          INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3



                                    Hard Rolls
                                Procedure
Ingredients    Quantity         Mixing
Water          350 g            Straight dough method
                                10 minutes at second speed
Yeast, fresh   22 g             Fermentation
Bread flour    625 g            About 1 hour at 80°F (27°C)
                                Makeup
Salt           14 g             45g each roll round or oval shape.
Sugar          14 g             Baking
                                425°F (218°C) for loaves; 450°F (230°C) for Rolls
Shortening     14 g
Egg whites     14 g
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                                     INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                                                  Hard rolls
Round Rolls
1. Scale the dough as required, such as 31⁄2 lb (1600 g) per press or 11⁄2 oz
(45 g) per roll. Divide presses into rolls.
2. Holding the palm of the hand fairly flat, roll the dough in a tight circle on the
workbench (a). Do not use too much flour for dusting, as the dough must
stick to the bench a little in order for the technique to work.
3. As the ball of dough takes on a round shape, gradually cup the hand (b, c).
4. The finished ball of dough should have a smooth surface, except for a slight
pucker on the bottom.
5. Place rolls 2 in. (5 cm) apart on sheet pans sprinkled with cornmeal.
6. Proof,wash with water, and bake with steam.

Oval Rolls
1. Scale and round the rolls as indicated above for round rolls.
2. Roll the rounded units back and forth under the palms of the hands so they
become slightly elongated and tapered.
3. Proof and wash with water. Slash with one lengthwise cut or three diagonal
cuts.
4. Bake with steam.
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                                      INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                                                   Hard rolls

Split Rolls
1. Round the rolls as for round rolls. Let them rest a few minutes.
2. Dust the tops lightly with rye flour. Using a lightly oiled 3⁄4-in. (2 cm) thick
wooden pin, press a crease in the center of each roll.
3. Proof upside down in boxes or on canvas dusted with flour. Turn right
side up and place on pans or peels dusted with cornmeal.Do not slash.Bake
as for other hard rolls

 Crescent Rolls
 1. Scale the dough into 16–20-oz (450–575 g) units.Round and relax the units.
 2. Flatten the dough and roll out into 12-in. (30 cm) circles.
 3. With a pastry wheel, cut each dough circle into 12 equal wedges or
 triangles. (Alternative method: For large quantities of dough, roll out into a
 rectangle and cut like croissant dough.)
 4. Roll the triangles into crescents using the same technique as for croissants. The rolls
 may be either left as straight sticks or bent into crescents.
 5. Proof.Wash with water and, if desired, sprinkle with poppy seeds, caraway
 seeds, sesame seeds, or coarse salt. Bake with steam.
                                                              1

        INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3
                    Hard rolls
Club Rolls
Rather than being rounded, these units are molded as they come from the
divider.
1. Flatten the piece of dough roughly into a rectangle (a).
2. Begin to roll up the dough by folding over the back edge of the rectangle.
Press the seam firmly with the fingertips (b).
3. Continue to roll the dough, always pressing the seam firmly after each
turn. As you roll up the dough, the front edge will appear to shrink.
Stretch the front corners as shown by the arrows, to keep the width
uniform (c).
4. When the roll is finished, seal the seam well so the roll is tight (d).
5. Docking the proofed roll with a single slash gives the baked roll this
appearance (e).
6. Place units 2 in. (5 cm) apart on sheet pans sprinkled with cornmeal.
7. Proof, wash with water, and slash with one cut lengthwise. Bake with
steam.
                                                        1

         INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

         Identify the Different types of Focaccia




                                                            C
             A




              B                                     D

3 Mins
                                                                     1

                    INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                    Identify the Different types of Focaccia
  OLIVE FOCACCIA                               ONION FOCACCIA




                                                                         C




                         B                                       D
ROSEMARY FOCACCIA                               PLAIN FOCACCIA
                                                                                   1

                                   INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                         Focaccia

          Ingredients   Quantity       Mixing
Bread Flour             500g           Straight dough method
Water                   300 ml         12 minutes at first speed
Salt                    10 grams       Fermentation
Yeast                   10 grams 60    11⁄2 hours at 80°F (27°C)
                        ml             Makeup and Baking
Olive oil
                                       30 min proofing at 80°F (27°C
Variations:
                                       20 min at 230 C
Olives                  120g
                                       Add the olives after the other ingredients have
Onions                  200g           formed a dough.
                                                                          1

                          INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3



                                  BAGUETTE
                                Procedure
Ingredients    Quantity         Mixing
Water          600 g            Straight dough method
                                3–5 minutes at first speed
Yeast, fresh   25 g             15 minutes at second speed
Bread flour    1000 g           Fermentation
                                About 1 hour at 80°F (27°C)
Salt           20 g             Makeup
                                Scale at 11 oz (320 g)..
                                Baking
                                475°F (250°C) for 20 minutes with steam
                                                                         1

                        INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3



                        CIABATTA (Sponge Method)
Ingredients    Quant.    Mixing - Sponge method
SPONGE/BIGA:             1. Warm the water to about 100°F (37°C). Dissolve yeast in the
Water          480 g          warm water.
Yeast, fresh   30 g      2. Add the yeast mixture to the flour for the sponge. Add the oil.
Bread flour    450 g
Olive oil      180 ml    3. Mix to form a soft dough. Beat well for approximately 5 minutes
                              or until the sponge starts to become smooth.
DOUGH:                   4. Cover and leave at room temperature until doubled in size,
Salt           20 g           approximately 1 hour.
Bread Flour    220g      5. Stir down and add the ingredients for the dough. Beat for a few
                              minutes to form a smooth dough, which will be very soft and
                              sticky.
                         Fermentation
                         Cover and allow to ferment at room temperature until doubled in
                              size, approximately 1 hour.
                         Makeup and Baking
                         1. Lightly oil sheet pans. Handling the fermented dough as little as
                              possible, scale it into portions weighing about 18 oz (550 g).
                                                                            1

                          INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3


                               CIABATTA (Cont.)
Ingredients    Quantity    This is usually done by approximation to avoid having to handle
SPONGE/BIGA:                   the dough. Deposit the dough on a greased and floured
Water          480 g           sheet pan (a).
Yeast, fresh   30 g        2. Shape very lightly into rough ovals or rectangles on the oiled
Bread flour    450 g           pans (b). The dough will be very sticky; handle as little as
Olive oil      180 ml      possible.
DOUGH:                     3. Dust tops with extra flour (c). Proof at room temperature until
Salt           20 g            the dough doubles in volume and the flour on the top starts
Bread Flour    220g            to crack slightly.
                           4. Bake at 425°F (220°C) for about 30 minutes, until golden. Cool
                               on a wire rack.




          a                          b                                c
         INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3




         TRAINING WILL RESUME IN




                    15 Mins


Ready for Excellence
                                                                                                              2

                                                INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                           INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3 - PRACTICAL

          Objective:
          To practice through the process of LIVE application, the preparation of basic pastry recipes learned in today's session,
          which are served onboard Costa Cruise fleet.




3 Hours
         INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3




         TRAINING WILL RESUME IN




                     1 Hour


Ready for Excellence
                                                                                                         2

                                              INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                         INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3 - PRACTICAL

          Objective:
          To continue to practice through the process of LIVE application, the preparation of basic Bread recipes learned in
          today's session, which are served onboard Costa Cruise fleet.




2 Hours
         INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3




         TRAINING WILL RESUME IN




                    15 Mins


Ready for Excellence
                                                                                                         2

                                              INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3

                                         INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3 - PRACTICAL

          Objective:
          To continue to practice through the process of LIVE application, the preparation of basic Bread recipes learned in
          today's session, which are served onboard Costa Cruise fleet.




2 Hours
         INTRODUCTION TO BAKERY 3



                 ONSOLIDATION




Ready for Excellence
                                                                                        1

                             MASS FOOD PRODUCTION 1



1)    Properly Scaling Ingredients is an important part of making yeast products?
2)    Punching is the term where you hit the dough with your fists to get the air bubbles out?
3)    Straight Dough method is the process where all the ingredients are mixed together at the beginning?
4)    Modified Straight Dough Method is used for hard rolls.
5)    Poolish, Biga and Levain are the same process. The only variations is in the amount of water used?
6)    Rounding is where the pieces of dough are shaped into smooth, round balls?
7)    Docking is a term used for loading the oven?
8)    The right Cause for a FLAT TASTE in the bread is the lack of salt in the dough?
9)    The amount of dough to make one Round roll is 45g?
10)   The amount of water needed to make Focaccia is 300ml to 500g of Bread flour?
                                                                                                     1

                                        MASS FOOD PRODUCTION 1




1)   TRUE -      Properly Scaling Ingredients is an important part of making yeast                  products?
2)   FALSE - Punching is the term where you get most of the 2CO² (Carbon
      dioxide) that yeast produces out of the dough
3)   TRUE -         Straight Dough method is the process where all the ingredients are              mixed
     together at the beginning.
4)   FALSE - Modified Straight dough method is used for rich sweet doughs, the
      straight dough method is modified to ensure even distribution of the               fat and sugar.
5)   TRUE -       Poolish, Biga and Levain are the same process. The only variations                      is in
     the amount of water used. This is part of the sponge method.
6)   TRUE -       Rounding is where the pieces of dough are shaped into smooth,               round
     balls. This procedure forms a kind of skin by stretching the               gluten on the outside of
     the dough into a smooth layer?
                                                                                         1

                                       MASS FOOD PRODUCTION 1




7)    FALSE - The term Docking is used the same as Scoring .To allow for
       expansion, the tops of hard-crusted breads are cut before baking.
8)    TRUE -      The right Cause for a FLAT TASTE in the bread is the lack of salt in       the
      dough.
9)     TRUE -     The amount of dough to make one Round roll is 45g?.
10)   TRUE -     The amount of water needed to make Focaccia is 300ml to 500g of             Bread
      flour.

				
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