Biology Review for Final Exam Second Semester Exam Review Why does speciation cause populations to become reproductively isolated? Answer… • Because the new specie will only reproduce with other organisms in their species. So, one specie’s gametes and another specie’s gametes will not work together, and these species become reproductively isolated. When one allele is not completely dominant over another allele it is called… 1) Multiple Alleles 2) Incomplete Dominance 3) Co-Dominance 4) Polygenic traits Correct answer… • Incomplete Dominance RR RW WW Name the 4 phases of mitosis in order Answer 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase What are centrioles? Where are they located? Answer • Centrioles are two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope. They separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus. What does a pacemaker do? Answer… • A pacemaker is a small group of cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium that “set the pace” for the heart as a whole An organ that serves no useful function is called a/an… 1. Vestigial organ 2. Homologous structure 3. Embryological structure 4. None of the above An organ that serves no useful function is called a/an… 1. Vestigial organ 2. Homologous structure 3. Embryological structure 4. None of the above What is fitness? 1. Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival. 2. Members of a species compete regularly to obtain food 3. The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. 4. Each living species has descended, with modification, from other species over time. What is fitness? 1. Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival. 2. Members of a species compete regularly to obtain food 3. The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. 4. Each living species has descended, with modification, from other species over time. Why are all X-linked alleles expressed in males? Answer… • All X-linked alleles are expressed in men because men only have one X chromosome. Men don’t have the extra X-chromosome that women do, so any allele that is located on the X-chromosome will show up. Name the three types of blood vessels and what they do Answer… • Arteries – carry blood from the heart to tissues of the body • Veins – a blood vessel that returns blood to the heart • Capillaries – bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorb carbon dioxide and waste products What is the larynx? 1. The connective tissue that covers the trachea 2. A structure in the throat containing the vocal cords 3. The throat 4. None of the above What is the larynx? 1. The connective tissue that covers the trachea 2. A structure in the throat containing the vocal cords 3. The throat 4. None of the above What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data? Answer… • Quantitative data is numbers measured in intervals, ratios, numbers (counted) – 13.3 mm, 17 kg • Qualitative data is measured by putting into groups or categories – Color, texture, size Where is bile stored? 1. Gallbladder 2. Liver 3. Pancreas 4. Small Intestine Where is bile stored? 1. Gallbladder 2. Liver 3. Pancreas 4. Small Intestine True or False • Alfred Russel Wallace and Darwin did not think the same about evolutionary change. Answer… • False. – Wallace sent Darwin a short essay that summarized thoughts on evolutionary change that were the same to what Darwin believed. The purpose of the digestive system is to: 1. crush food with canines. 2. dissolve gastric juices with lipase. 3. allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged. 4. provide chemical energy to all cells in our body. The purpose of the digestive system is to: 1. crush food with canines. 2. dissolve gastric juices with lipase. 3. allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged. 4. provide chemical energy to all cells in our body. Which scientific discipline supports the theory of evolution with the following fact? 2 weeks after fertilization a chicken looks like a human 1) Paleontology 2) Genetics 3) Anatomy 4) Embryology Which scientific discipline supports the theory of evolution with the following fact? 2 weeks after fertilization a chicken looks like a human 1) Paleontology 2) Genetics 3) Anatomy 4) Embryology What’s inbreeding? What’s inbreeding? • A cross of closely related individuals of the same species In which century did this knowledge exist? Crossing of plants to produce the best variety. 1) 1600’s 2) 1700’s 3) 1800’s 4) 1900’s 5) All of these In which century did this knowledge exist? Crossing of plants to produce the best variety. 1) 1600’s 2) 1700’s 3) 1800’s 4) 1900’s 5) All of these A single "tree of life" would be a logical conclusion for the principle of 1) hardy-weinberg 2) fitness 3) common descent 4) artificial selection A single "tree of life" would be a logical conclusion for the principle of 1. hardy-weinberg 2. fitness 3. common descent 4. artificial selection Humans are to artificial selection as ____________ is to natural selection. 1) perfection 2) fitness 3) reproduction 4) equilibrium Humans are to artificial selection as ____________ is to natural selection. 1) perfection 2) fitness 3) reproduction 4) equilibrium Which of the following does NOT provide evidence that living things have been evolving for millions of years? 1) fossil record 2) natural variation within a species 3) geographical distribution of living things 4) homologous structures of living organisms 5) similarities in embryological development Which of the following does NOT provide evidence that living things have been evolving for millions of years? 1) fossil record 2) natural variation within a species 3) geographical distribution of living things 4) homologous structures of living organisms 5) similarities in embryological development What are the phases of mitosis? • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase How can a karyotype be used? • Allows for the identification of genetic defects What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor? • Benign tumor – Remains in tissue • Malignant tumor – Cells separate and take over other locations In meiosis, what is the end result of sexual reproduction? • The fusion of two gametes, producing a zygote In Mendalian genetics, what does the law of segregation state? • Homologous chromosomes separate • Each gamete receives one allele What is the purpose of gel electrophoresis? • To separate pieces of DNA using electrical charge What does a pedigree chart show? • The possible outcomes of traits in offspring Where and when did Charles Darwin travel to observe organisms? • The Galapagos islands in 1820 What two scientists believed that the Earth is millions of years old due to gradual change over time? • James Hutton • Charles Lyell What is descent with modification and what is the diagram called that proves it? • The idea that all living species have descended from other species over time • A Cladogram What is the difference between a homologous structure and an analogous structure? • Homologous – Same structure – Different function • Analogous – Different structure – Same function What is the function of the digestive system? • To break down foods into energy • Nourishment for cells Name the six types of nutrients • Water • Carbohydrates • Fats • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals What is the function of the small intestine? • Absorbs nutrients and minerals found in food Name the three types of blood vessels • Arteries • Capillaries • Veins What are the three components that make up the circulatory system? • The heart • Blood vessels • blood What is the purpose of the circulatory system? • Supplies cells with oxygen & nutrients Why is the lymphatic system important? • Collects fluid lost by blood & returns it to the circulatory system What is the function of the respiratory system? • Exchanges oxygen & carbon dioxide by way of breathing 2nd Semester Biology Exam Review Audrey Liang Mitosis and Meiosis What is the role of centrioles and spindle in mitosis? Mitosis and Meiosis Centrioles separate onto opposite sides of the nucleus during mitosis. Centrioles organize spindle, which helps separate chromosomes Mitosis and Meiosis How does cytokinesis in animal cells differ from plant cells? Mitosis and Meiosis Cytokinesis in animal cells: Cell membrane is drawn inward until cytoplasm is pinched and cell is split into two equal parts Cytokinesis in plant cells: Cell plate form down the center of the divided nuclei and gradually develops into a separating membrane Mitosis and Meiosis How is cancer a disease of the cell cycle? Mitosis and Meiosis Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells. The cells lose the ability to control growth Mitosis and Meiosis How does mitosis and meiosis differ from each other? Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis produces two genetically identical diploid cells Meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells Genetics What does Mendel’s law of independent assortment state? Genetics Mendel’s law of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently and do not influence one another Genetics What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? Genetics A phenotype is the physical characterisic of an organism A genotype is the genetic makeup of an organism Genetics What does it mean if alleles are homozygous or heterozygous? Genetics Homozygous means that there are two identical alleles for a trait. Ex: rr Heterozygous means that there are two different alleles for a trait. Ex: Rr Genetics What is codominance? Genetics In codominance, neither allele is completely dominant over the other. Both alleles are shown in the phenotype. Evolution What is artificial selection? Evolution A process where nature provides the variation in an organism, and humans select variations that are useful and breed the individuals with those variations Evolution What is natural selection? Evolution A process also known as ‘survival of the fittest.’ Only certain individuals of a population produce offspring. Individuals with characteristics better suited to the environment survive and reproduce more successfully than individuals with characteristics not suited to the environment. Evolution What was Lamarck’s hypothesis of acquired characteristics? Is this correct? Evoluton Lamarck hypothesized that organisms acquired or lost certain traits due to selective use or disuse of certain traits during their lifetime. These traits are then passed onto their offspring and over time leads to a change in species. An organism’s behavior does not effect ts heritable characteristics, but organisms do adapt to their environment. Evolution When does directional selection occur? Evolution Directional selection occurs when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end. Evolution When does stabilizing selection occur Evolution Stabilizing selection occurs when individuals near the center of the curva have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve Evolution When does disruptive selection occur? Evolution Disruptive selection occurs when individuals at upper and lower ends of curve have higher fitness than individuals at the middle Evolution What five factors does the Hardy- Weinberg principle state needs to be kept constant in order to keep a genetic equilibruim? Evolution 1. Mating must be random 2. Population must be very large 3. There can be no movement into or out of the population 4. No mutations 5. No natural selection Digestion What is the main function of the digestion system? Digestion The main function of the digestive system is to help convert foods into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body Digestion What is the function of the liver? Digestion The liver produces bile, which dissolves and disperses fat found in fatty foods Circulation What is the function of the capillaries? Circulation Capillaries bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorb waste Circulation What is the function of the veins? Circulation The veins return the blood back to the heart after it has passes through the whole circulatory system Biology Claire Howard EXAM REVIEW WHAT ARE THE TWO MAIN STAGES OF EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION? Mitosis-division of the cell nucleus & Cytokinesis-division of the cytoplasm WHAT ARE THE THREE MAIN TYPES OF RNA, AND WHAT DO THEY DO? Messenger RNA - messengers from DNA to the rest of the cell with instructions Transfer RNA- transfers certain amino acids (building blocks) as coded by the messenger RNA Ribosomal RNA-the building blocks makes several different proteins on the ribosomes according to the instructions WHAT ARE THE MITOTIC PHASES (IN ORDER) Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase G1 phase S phase Interphase G2 phase Middle of the chromatids CENTROMERES ARE LOCATED NEAR THE … TRUE OR FALSE: LAMARCK’S HYPOTHESIS WAS THAT IF AND ORGANISM USES IT’S TRAITS MORE OR LESS THE TRAIT CAN BE PASSED DOWN TO OFFSPRING. TRUE! DURING REPLICATION WHICH SEQUENCE OF NUCLEOTIDES WOULD BOND WITH THE SEQUENCE TATGA? A. TATGA B. UAUGA C. ATACT D. AUAGA E. ATACA C. ATACT WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF DECODING MESSENGER RNA INTO A POLYPEPTIDE CALLED? Translation- takes place on ribosomes TRUE OR FALSE: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM INCLUDES JUST THE MOUTH, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, AND LARGE INTESTINE. False, the small intestine, stomach, salivary glands, pancreas, and the liver. IS THE STOMACH CHEMICAL DIGESTION OR MECHANICAL DIGESTION? The lining of the stomach is chemical because it contains glands that release substances (mucus, hydrochloric acid) into the stomach. These substances activate pepsin. The muscles of the stomach are mechanical because they churn and contract the stomach fluids with the food. WHAT ENZYMES ARE ACTIVE IN THE SMALL INTESTINE? WHAT DO THEY DO? Amylase- continues the breakdown of starch Trypsin- continues the breakdown of protein Lipase- breaks down fat Maltase, Sucrase, Lactase- breaks down remaining dissacharides to monosaccharides Peptidase- breaks down dipeptides into amino acids WHAT LINES THE INSIDE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE? VILLI! WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL GAS EXCHANGE? Aquatic- keeps surface moist. Oxygen concentrations in water are low. Terrestrial- oxygen diffuses faster in air, the air contains more oxygen than water. Surface must be internal to avoid loss of water due to evaporation What are the grape like structures called? Alveoli WHICH IS NOT A FUNCTION OF FAT? A. PROTECTING BODY ORGANS B. INSULATING THE BODY C. STORING ENERGY D. TRANSPORTING OXYGEN D. Transporting oxygen WHERE IS THE PYLORIC VALVE LOCATED? Between the stomach and small intestine A HOLE IN THE STOMACH WALL IS CALLED A(N)… Peptic ulcer IN BLOOD FLOW, THE RIGHT PULMONARY ARTERY GOES WHERE? The lungs WHAT IS THE PERICARDIUM? Tough membrane that covers and protects the heart WHAT IS THE VALVE BETWEEN THE LEFT ATRIUM AND LEFT VENTRICLE? Mitral Valve WHAT VALVE IS THIS? Pulmonary Valve Biology Final: Questionnaire PowerPoint Protein Synthesis Q’s What DNA base pair is replaced by Uracil in RNA? a.Adenine b.Thymine c.Guanine d.Cytosine PSQ’s What are the three main types of RNA? a.Transfer RNA, Polymerase RNA, Ribosomal RNA b.Ribosomal RNA, Messenger RNA, Nitrogenous RNA c.Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA d.Polymerase RNA, Nitrogenous RNA, Ribose RNA PSQ’s What separates the DNA strands during Transcription? a.Ribosomal RNA b.Nucleotide Promoters c.RNA Polymerase d.5 carbon sugar PSQ’s What is the difference between introns and extrons? a.INTRONS are sequences of nucleotides not expressed in protein synthesis while EXONS are expressed b.EXONS are sequences of nucleotides not expressed in protein synthesis while INTRONS are expressed c.INTRONS are nucleotide promoters while EXTRONS are not recognized promoters. d.EXTRONS are nucleotide promoters while INTRONS are not recognized promoters PSQ’s How many bases pairs make up a codon and what does it code for? a.A codon is 2 base pairs –codes for protein b.A codon is 1 base pair –codes for an amino acid c.A codon is 3 base pairs- codes for an amino acid d.A codon is 3 base pairs- codes for a protein PSQ’s Where does translation take place? a.In the cytoplasm b.In the ribosome c.In the nucleus d. All of the above PSQ’s What two things does transfer RNA (tRNA) carry to the ribosome during translation? a.an amino acid + an anticodon b.An amino acid + 3 mRNA complementary bases c.An anticodon + a mRNA d.Both answers a + b are correct PSQ’s During translation, what is responsible for binding tRNA to the mRNA? a. The ribosome b. The rRNA c. Phosphorous d. The anticodon PSQ’s The final product of translation is… a.An amino acid b.A protein c. peptides d.A codon Cell Division + Mitosis and Meiosis Questions What phases are part of the M- phase in the cell cycle? a.Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis. b.G1, G2, S, Interphase. c.Prophase Metaphase Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis. d.Prophase Metaphase Anaphase, Telophase. CDQ’s What is the difference between a chromosome and chromatin? a.Chromatin appears when the cell divides, while chromosomes are always present b.Chromatin is synthesized in the S phase and Chromosomes are synthesized in the G2 phase c.Chromosomes are the condensed version of chromatin d.Chromatin is the condensed version of chromosomes CDQ’s DNA synthesis takes place during which individual phase? a.S phase b.Interphase c.G1 phase d.G0 phase CDQ’s Preparation for Mitosis takes place during which individual phase? a.S phase b.Interphase c.M – phase d.G2 phase CDQ’s Cell Growth takes place during which individual phase? a.G1 phase b.S phase c.M- phase d.Interphase CDQ’s During prophase the chromosomes become visible… TRUE OR FALSE? CDQ’s During Prophase the centrioles two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm take up positions on opposite poles of the nucleus… TRUE OR FALSE? CDQ’s During Metaphase what happens? a.The sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and move apart b.The nuclear envelope breaks down and the spindle fibers form c.The chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes d.The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell and connect to spindle fibers at their centromere CDQ’s Which is “greater”? prokaryotic cell division – eukaryotic cell division CDQ’s What regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells? a.Regulatory chromosomes b.Regulatory amino acids c.Cyclin d.Lysine CDQ’s Cancer cells respond to internal regulators, just not external regulators… True/False? CDQ’s Sister chromatids are attached to each other at an area called the… a.Centriole b.Centromere c.Spindle d.chromosome CDQ’s Meiosis is the cell division to form… a.Gametes b.Sperm c.Eggs d.All of the above are correct CDQ’s In meiosis a haploid cell becomes a diploid cell (N to 2N)… True/False CDQ’s To maintain the chromosome number of an organism, the gametes must… a.Become diploid b.Be produced by meiosis c.Become recessive d.Be produced by mitosis CDQ’s What is the difference between the chromosomes in Metaphase (mitosis) Metaphase 1 (meiosis)? a.nothing, this part is the same b.The centriole’s have not moved to the poles yet c.The homologous chromosomes line up in 2 tetrads rather than individually d.Crossing over occurs in Metaphase, not Metaphase 1 CDQ’s Meiosis= TRUE/FALSE 2N N N N N N N Mendelian Genetics and Genetic Engineering True breeding = Self-pollination to produce offspring identical to the parent… TRUE/FALSE GQ’s What is the principal of dominance? a. States that offspring of crosses between two parents results in a hybrid b. States different forms of genes are called alleles c. States that self-pollination will result in offspring identical to parent because of dominance d. States that some alleles are dominant and some are recessive GQ’s What is a hybrid in genetic terms? a.The offspring produced from a cross between two parents with different traits b.The offspring produced from one parent c. The offspring produced from self-pollination d. Both b and c are correct GQ’s The law of segregation states… a.During gamete formation genes separate so each carries only a single copy of each allele b.During gamete formation alleles segregate so each carries only a single copy of each gene c. During mitosis alleles segregate so each carries only a single copy of each gene d. During mitosis genes separate so each carries only a single copy of each allele GQ’s Which is Heterozygous? Which is Homozygous? a. TT b. Rr c. SS d. TTt e. Both a and c are correct GQ’s What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? a.Genotype= self-pollinated + phenotype = hybrid from two parents b.Genotype= physical characteristics + phenotype = genetic makeup c.Genotype= genetic makeup + phenotype= physical characteristics d.Genotype= heterozygous + Phenotype= homozygous GQ’s The law of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during mitosis. True/False GQ’s Polygenic traits are… a.Traits produced by 2 or less genes b.Traits produced by 2 or more alleles c.Traits produced by more than one allele d.Traits produced by more than one gene GQ’s Crossing a white flower (WW) with a red flower (RR) and creating a pink flower (RW) is an example of… a.Codominance b.Multiple alleles c.A polygenic trait d.Incomplete Dominance GQ’s Which is bigger in electrophoresis? 1. Pieces that went farthest --- 2. Pieces that travelled least Evolution 1. What did Lamarck propose? 2. What did Malthus propose? a.Through selective use or disuse of organs, organisms lost or acquired characteristics b.If human population continues to grow unchecked sooner or later there will be insufficient living space or food supply c.Layers of rock form over time and most geological processes operate very slowly- therefore the Earth has to be millions of years old Evolution In artificial selection… a.Humans provide the variation, nature selects useful variations b.Nature provides the variation, humans select useful variations c.Nature provides the variation, nature selects useful variations d.Humans provided the variation, humans select useful variations Evolution Baby birds inherited traits affect their survival. A stronger bird may take food from a weaker sibling and a faster bird may escape predators more easily. Therefore the stronger, faster birds will survive and reproduce. What evolutionary term is at work? a.Adaption b.Artificial selection c.Survival of the fittest d.Natural selection e.Both c and d are correct Evolution Which is a homologous structure? a.Wing of a bat and wing of a bird b.Tooth of a fish and tooth of a human c.Inner ear of a human and fish bone near gills d.Both a and b are correct answers Evolution Fitness is the result of… a.Adaptions b.Homologies c.Common descent d.Variation Evolution The two main sources of genetic variation are… Mutations Genetic shuffling that results from sexual reproduction TRUE/FALSE? Evolution What selection has acted on this population? a. Stabilizing b. Directional c. Disruptive d. Genetic Equilibrium Evolution The Hardy Weinberg principle states… a.Genetic equilibrium cannot be reached without stabilizing selection b.In small populations if an allele becomes too prevalent, offspring can no longer reproduce successfully c. Allele frequency in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause it to change Evolution A change in allele frequency that results from migration of a small subgroup of a population is called… a.Natural selection b.The Hardy Weinberg principal c.Genetic Equilibrium d.The founder effect Bio Exam Review Calley Mannion Protein Synthesis What enzyme is What does messenger needed for RNA do in transcription and translation? what does it do? RNA polymerase separates DNA strands, then it uses one strand as a template for nucleotides to make an RNA strand Its information is used to produce proteins. Mitosis What pulls apart the In which type of cells sister chromatids? does Mitosis occur? Centrioles In body cells Meiosis What is crossing-over In what type of cells and when does it does meiosis occur? occur? In sex cells The exchange of portions of their chromatids; it occurs during Prophase I Name the phases of cell division in order • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase • Cytokinesis Types of Alleles What is incomplete What is dominance? codominance? The alleles blend Both alleles are to create the new present separately phenotype. in the new phenotype Why are men more likely to have genetic disorders than women? Because if the disorder is on the X chromosome then the man doesn’t have another healthy X chromosome to dominate it. Gel Electrophoresis What charge do the How is the length DNA fragments have? determined through this? negative The shorter fragments travel further than the long ones Science Fair- Pick the false statement Log Books should be The plant is 5 inches written in pen. tall is a qualitative observation. You should cross out any mistakes made in You change the the logbook. independent variable. Evolution What is genetic drift? What does the Hardy- Weinberg principle state? A random change in allele frequency usually caused be Allele frequencies in individuals leaving, a population will therefore remain constant eliminating some unless outside phenotypes factors change them • Must be random mating • Population must be very large • No movement in/ out of the population • No mutations • No natural selection What are the conditions required Hardy- Weinberg Principle to remain true?
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