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Biology Review for Final Exam

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					Biology Review for Final Exam
  Second Semester Exam Review
Why does speciation cause populations
 to become reproductively isolated?
                  Answer…
• Because the new specie will only reproduce
  with other organisms in their species. So, one
  specie’s gametes and another specie’s
  gametes will not work together, and these
  species become reproductively isolated.
   When one allele is not completely
dominant over another allele it is called…

1)   Multiple Alleles
2)   Incomplete Dominance
3)   Co-Dominance
4)   Polygenic traits
             Correct answer…
• Incomplete Dominance




        RR        RW     WW
Name the 4 phases of
  mitosis in order
                 Answer
1.   Prophase
2.   Metaphase
3.   Anaphase
4.   Telophase
What are centrioles? Where
    are they located?
                   Answer
• Centrioles are two tiny structures located in
  the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope.
  They separate and take up positions on
  opposite sides of the nucleus.
What does a pacemaker do?
                  Answer…
• A pacemaker is a small group of cardiac
  muscle cells in the right atrium that “set the
  pace” for the heart as a whole
 An organ that serves no useful function is
               called a/an…
1.   Vestigial organ
2.   Homologous structure
3.   Embryological structure
4.   None of the above
 An organ that serves no useful function is
                called a/an…
1.   Vestigial organ
2.   Homologous structure
3.   Embryological structure
4.   None of the above
             What is fitness?
1. Any inherited characteristic that increases an
   organism’s chance of survival.
2. Members of a species compete regularly to
   obtain food
3. The ability of an individual to survive and
   reproduce in a specific environment.
4. Each living species has descended, with
   modification, from other species over time.
             What is fitness?
1. Any inherited characteristic that increases an
   organism’s chance of survival.
2. Members of a species compete regularly to
   obtain food
3. The ability of an individual to survive and
   reproduce in a specific environment.
4. Each living species has descended, with
   modification, from other species over time.
Why are all X-linked alleles
  expressed in males?
                  Answer…
• All X-linked alleles are expressed in men
  because men only have one X chromosome.
  Men don’t have the extra X-chromosome that
  women do, so any allele that is located on the
  X-chromosome will show up.
Name the three types of blood
  vessels and what they do
                  Answer…

• Arteries – carry blood from the heart to tissues
  of the body
• Veins – a blood vessel that returns blood to
  the heart
• Capillaries – bring nutrients and oxygen to the
  tissues and absorb carbon dioxide and waste
  products
           What is the larynx?
1. The connective tissue that covers the trachea
2. A structure in the throat containing the vocal
   cords
3. The throat
4. None of the above
           What is the larynx?
1. The connective tissue that covers the trachea
2. A structure in the throat containing the
   vocal cords
3. The throat
4. None of the above
 What is the difference between
quantitative and qualitative data?
                     Answer…
• Quantitative data is numbers measured in
  intervals, ratios, numbers (counted)
  – 13.3 mm, 17 kg
• Qualitative data is measured by putting into
  groups or categories
  – Color, texture, size
           Where is bile stored?
1.   Gallbladder
2.   Liver
3.   Pancreas
4.   Small Intestine
           Where is bile stored?
1.   Gallbladder
2.   Liver
3.   Pancreas
4.   Small Intestine
              True or False
• Alfred Russel Wallace and Darwin did not
  think the same about evolutionary change.
                  Answer…
• False.
  – Wallace sent Darwin a short essay that
    summarized thoughts on evolutionary change that
    were the same to what Darwin believed.
 The purpose of the digestive system is to:

1.   crush food with canines.
2.   dissolve gastric juices with lipase.
3.   allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be
           exchanged.
4.   provide chemical energy to all cells in our
     body.
 The purpose of the digestive system is to:

1.   crush food with canines.
2.   dissolve gastric juices with lipase.
3.   allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be
           exchanged.
4.   provide chemical energy to all cells in our
     body.
Which scientific discipline supports the theory of evolution with
                        the following fact?
 2 weeks after fertilization a chicken looks
               like a human
1)   Paleontology
2)   Genetics
3)   Anatomy
4)   Embryology
 Which scientific discipline supports the theory
     of evolution with the following fact?
 2 weeks after fertilization a chicken looks like a
                       human

1)   Paleontology
2)   Genetics
3)   Anatomy
4)   Embryology
What’s inbreeding?
           What’s inbreeding?
• A cross of closely related individuals of the
  same species
       In which century did this knowledge exist?
      Crossing of plants to produce the best variety.

1)   1600’s
2)   1700’s
3)   1800’s
4)   1900’s
5)   All of these
  In which century did this knowledge exist?
 Crossing of plants to produce the best variety.
1)   1600’s
2)   1700’s
3)   1800’s
4)   1900’s
5)   All of these
      A single "tree of life" would be a logical
           conclusion for the principle of
1)   hardy-weinberg
2)   fitness
3)   common descent
4)   artificial selection
      A single "tree of life" would be a logical
           conclusion for the principle of
1.   hardy-weinberg
2.   fitness
3.    common descent
4.   artificial selection
        Humans are to artificial selection as
       ____________ is to natural selection.
1)   perfection
2)   fitness
3)   reproduction
4)   equilibrium
        Humans are to artificial selection as
       ____________ is to natural selection.
1)   perfection
2)   fitness
3)   reproduction
4)   equilibrium
    Which of the following does NOT provide
 evidence that living things have been evolving
               for millions of years?
1) fossil record
2) natural variation within a species
3) geographical distribution of living things
4) homologous structures of living organisms
5) similarities in embryological development
    Which of the following does NOT provide
 evidence that living things have been evolving
               for millions of years?
1) fossil record
2) natural variation within a species
3) geographical distribution of living things
4) homologous structures of living organisms
5) similarities in embryological development
What are the phases of mitosis?
•   Prophase
•   Metaphase
•   Anaphase
•   Telophase
How can a karyotype be used?
• Allows for the identification of genetic defects
What is the difference between a
 benign tumor and a malignant
             tumor?
• Benign tumor
  – Remains in tissue
• Malignant tumor
  – Cells separate and take over other locations
In meiosis, what is the end result
    of sexual reproduction?
• The fusion of two gametes, producing a zygote
In Mendalian genetics, what
 does the law of segregation
            state?
• Homologous chromosomes separate
• Each gamete receives one allele
What is the purpose of gel
   electrophoresis?
• To separate pieces of DNA using electrical
  charge
What does a pedigree chart
         show?
• The possible outcomes of traits in offspring
Where and when did Charles
 Darwin travel to observe
       organisms?
• The Galapagos islands in 1820
What two scientists believed that
the Earth is millions of years old
  due to gradual change over
              time?
• James Hutton
• Charles Lyell
    What is descent with
modification and what is the
diagram called that proves it?
• The idea that all living species have descended
  from other species over time

• A Cladogram
What is the difference between a
 homologous structure and an
     analogous structure?
• Homologous
  – Same structure
  – Different function
• Analogous
  – Different structure
  – Same function
What is the function of the
   digestive system?
• To break down foods into energy
• Nourishment for cells
Name the six types of nutrients
•   Water
•   Carbohydrates
•   Fats
•   Protein
•   Vitamins
•   Minerals
What is the function of the small
           intestine?
• Absorbs nutrients and minerals found in food
Name the three types of blood
          vessels
• Arteries
• Capillaries
• Veins
What are the three components
 that make up the circulatory
           system?
• The heart
• Blood vessels
• blood
What is the purpose of the
  circulatory system?
• Supplies cells with oxygen & nutrients
Why is the lymphatic system
        important?
• Collects fluid lost by blood & returns it to the
  circulatory system
What is the function of the
  respiratory system?
• Exchanges oxygen & carbon dioxide by way of
  breathing
    2nd Semester
Biology Exam Review
     Audrey Liang
       Mitosis and Meiosis


What is the role of centrioles and
spindle in mitosis?
       Mitosis and Meiosis
Centrioles separate onto opposite sides
of the nucleus during mitosis.

Centrioles organize spindle, which helps
separate chromosomes
      Mitosis and Meiosis


How does cytokinesis in animal cells
differ from plant cells?
          Mitosis and Meiosis
Cytokinesis in animal cells: Cell membrane is
  drawn inward until cytoplasm is pinched and
  cell is split into two equal parts

Cytokinesis in plant cells: Cell plate form down
  the center of the divided nuclei and gradually
  develops into a separating membrane
       Mitosis and Meiosis


How is cancer a disease of the cell
cycle?
       Mitosis and Meiosis
Cancer cells do not respond to the
signals that regulate the growth of
most cells. The cells lose the ability
to control growth
      Mitosis and Meiosis


How does mitosis and meiosis differ
from each other?
      Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis produces two genetically
identical diploid cells

Meiosis produces four genetically
different haploid cells
            Genetics


What does Mendel’s law of
independent assortment state?
            Genetics
Mendel’s law of independent
assortment states that genes for
different traits can segregate
independently and do not influence
one another
            Genetics


What is the difference between
genotype and phenotype?
             Genetics
A phenotype is the physical
characterisic of an organism

A genotype is the genetic makeup of
an organism
             Genetics


What does it mean if alleles are
homozygous or heterozygous?
              Genetics
Homozygous means that there are
two identical alleles for a trait. Ex: rr
Heterozygous means that there are
two different alleles for a trait. Ex: Rr
     Genetics


What is codominance?
            Genetics
In codominance, neither allele is
completely dominant over the other.
Both alleles are shown in the
phenotype.
        Evolution


What is artificial selection?
            Evolution
A process where nature provides the
variation in an organism, and
humans select variations that are
useful and breed the individuals with
those variations
       Evolution


What is natural selection?
              Evolution

A process also known as ‘survival of the
fittest.’ Only certain individuals of a
population produce offspring. Individuals
with characteristics better suited to the
environment survive and reproduce
more successfully than individuals with
characteristics not suited to the
environment.
            Evolution


What was Lamarck’s hypothesis of
acquired characteristics? Is this
correct?
                Evoluton
Lamarck hypothesized that organisms
acquired or lost certain traits due to selective
use or disuse of certain traits during their
lifetime. These traits are then passed onto
their offspring and over time leads to a change
in species.

An organism’s behavior does not effect ts
heritable characteristics, but organisms do
adapt to their environment.
            Evolution


When does directional selection
occur?
            Evolution
Directional selection occurs when
individuals at one end of the curve
have higher fitness than individuals
in the middle or at the other end.
            Evolution


When does stabilizing selection
occur
             Evolution
Stabilizing selection occurs when
individuals near the center of the
curva have higher fitness than
individuals at either end of the curve
            Evolution


When does disruptive selection
occur?
            Evolution
Disruptive selection occurs when
individuals at upper and lower ends
of curve have higher fitness than
individuals at the middle
            Evolution
What five factors does the Hardy-
Weinberg principle state needs to be
kept constant in order to keep a
genetic equilibruim?
           Evolution
1. Mating must be random
2. Population must be very large
3. There can be no movement
   into or out of the population
4. No mutations
5. No natural selection
            Digestion


What is the main function of the
digestion system?
            Digestion
The main function of the digestive
system is to help convert foods into
simpler molecules that can be
absorbed and used by the body
             Digestion


What is the function of the liver?
            Digestion
The liver produces bile, which
dissolves and disperses fat found in
fatty foods
           Circulation


What is the function of the
capillaries?
           Circulation


Capillaries bring nutrients and
oxygen to the tissues and absorb
waste
            Circulation


What is the function of the veins?
            Circulation
The veins return the blood back to
the heart after it has passes through
the whole circulatory system
Biology
Claire Howard

EXAM REVIEW
WHAT ARE THE TWO MAIN STAGES OF
EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION?


Mitosis-division of the cell nucleus
& Cytokinesis-division of the cytoplasm
WHAT ARE THE THREE MAIN TYPES OF
RNA, AND WHAT DO THEY DO?


Messenger RNA - messengers from DNA to the rest of the cell with
instructions
Transfer RNA- transfers certain amino acids (building blocks) as coded
by the messenger RNA
Ribosomal RNA-the building blocks makes several different proteins on
the ribosomes according to the instructions
WHAT ARE THE MITOTIC PHASES
(IN ORDER)

            Prophase
            Metaphase
            Anaphase
            Telophase
            G1 phase
            S phase     Interphase
            G2 phase
Middle of the chromatids
CENTROMERES ARE LOCATED NEAR THE
…
TRUE OR FALSE: LAMARCK’S HYPOTHESIS
WAS THAT IF AND ORGANISM USES IT’S
TRAITS MORE OR LESS THE TRAIT CAN BE
PASSED DOWN TO OFFSPRING.


TRUE!
DURING REPLICATION WHICH SEQUENCE
OF NUCLEOTIDES WOULD BOND WITH
THE SEQUENCE TATGA?
A. TATGA    B. UAUGA
C. ATACT    D. AUAGA
E. ATACA




 C. ATACT
WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF DECODING
MESSENGER RNA INTO A POLYPEPTIDE
CALLED?



Translation- takes place on ribosomes
TRUE OR FALSE: THE DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM INCLUDES JUST THE MOUTH,
PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, AND LARGE
INTESTINE.


False, the small intestine, stomach, salivary glands, pancreas, and the
liver.
IS THE STOMACH CHEMICAL
DIGESTION OR MECHANICAL
DIGESTION?

The lining of the stomach is chemical because it contains glands that
release substances (mucus, hydrochloric acid) into the stomach. These
substances activate pepsin.

The muscles of the stomach are mechanical because they churn and
contract the stomach fluids with the food.
WHAT ENZYMES ARE ACTIVE IN THE
SMALL INTESTINE? WHAT DO THEY
DO?

Amylase- continues the breakdown of starch
Trypsin- continues the breakdown of protein
Lipase- breaks down fat
Maltase, Sucrase, Lactase- breaks down remaining dissacharides to
monosaccharides
Peptidase- breaks down dipeptides into amino acids
WHAT LINES THE INSIDE OF THE
SMALL INTESTINE?

VILLI!
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN AQUATIC AND
TERRESTRIAL GAS EXCHANGE?



Aquatic- keeps surface moist. Oxygen concentrations in water are low.
Terrestrial- oxygen diffuses faster in air, the air contains more oxygen
than water. Surface must be internal to avoid loss of water due to
evaporation
 What are the
 grape like
 structures
 called?


Alveoli
WHICH IS NOT A FUNCTION OF FAT?
A. PROTECTING BODY ORGANS
B. INSULATING THE BODY
C. STORING ENERGY
D. TRANSPORTING OXYGEN



D. Transporting oxygen
WHERE IS THE PYLORIC VALVE
LOCATED?


Between the stomach and small intestine
A HOLE IN THE STOMACH WALL IS
CALLED A(N)…



Peptic ulcer
IN BLOOD FLOW, THE RIGHT
PULMONARY ARTERY GOES
WHERE?
The lungs
WHAT IS THE PERICARDIUM?




Tough membrane that covers and protects the heart
WHAT IS THE VALVE BETWEEN THE
LEFT ATRIUM AND LEFT VENTRICLE?



Mitral Valve
WHAT VALVE IS
THIS?


Pulmonary Valve
Biology Final: Questionnaire
        PowerPoint
         Protein Synthesis Q’s
What DNA base pair is replaced by Uracil in
RNA?

a.Adenine
b.Thymine
c.Guanine
d.Cytosine
                   PSQ’s
What are the three main types of RNA?

a.Transfer RNA, Polymerase RNA, Ribosomal
RNA
b.Ribosomal RNA, Messenger RNA, Nitrogenous
RNA
c.Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA
d.Polymerase RNA, Nitrogenous RNA, Ribose
RNA
                   PSQ’s
What separates the DNA strands during
Transcription?

a.Ribosomal RNA
b.Nucleotide Promoters
c.RNA Polymerase
d.5 carbon sugar
                       PSQ’s

What is the difference between introns and extrons?

a.INTRONS are sequences of nucleotides not expressed in
protein synthesis while EXONS are expressed
b.EXONS are sequences of nucleotides not expressed in
protein synthesis while INTRONS are expressed
c.INTRONS are nucleotide promoters while EXTRONS are
not recognized promoters.
d.EXTRONS are nucleotide promoters while INTRONS are
not recognized promoters
                      PSQ’s

How many bases pairs make up a codon and what
does it code for?

a.A codon is 2 base pairs –codes for protein
b.A codon is 1 base pair –codes for an amino acid
c.A codon is 3 base pairs- codes for an amino acid
d.A codon is 3 base pairs- codes for a protein
                      PSQ’s

Where does translation take place?

a.In the cytoplasm
b.In the ribosome
c.In the nucleus
d. All of the above
                   PSQ’s

What two things does transfer RNA (tRNA) carry
to the ribosome during translation?

a.an amino acid + an anticodon
b.An amino acid + 3 mRNA complementary
bases
c.An anticodon + a mRNA
d.Both answers a + b are correct
                     PSQ’s

During translation, what is responsible for
binding tRNA to the mRNA?

a.   The ribosome
b.   The rRNA
c.   Phosphorous
d.   The anticodon
                     PSQ’s
The final product of translation is…

a.An amino acid
b.A protein
c. peptides
d.A codon
Cell Division + Mitosis and Meiosis
             Questions
What phases are part of the M- phase in the cell
cycle?

a.Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase Anaphase,
Telophase, Cytokinesis.
b.G1, G2, S, Interphase.
c.Prophase Metaphase Anaphase, Telophase,
Cytokinesis.
d.Prophase Metaphase Anaphase, Telophase.
                   CDQ’s
What is the difference between a chromosome and
chromatin?

a.Chromatin appears when the cell divides, while
chromosomes are always present
b.Chromatin is synthesized in the S phase and
Chromosomes are synthesized in the G2 phase
c.Chromosomes are the condensed version of
chromatin
d.Chromatin is the condensed version of
chromosomes
                 CDQ’s

DNA synthesis takes place during which
individual phase?

a.S phase
b.Interphase
c.G1 phase
d.G0 phase
                  CDQ’s

Preparation for Mitosis takes place during which
individual phase?

a.S phase
b.Interphase
c.M – phase
d.G2 phase
                  CDQ’s

Cell Growth takes place during which individual
phase?

a.G1 phase
b.S phase
c.M- phase
d.Interphase
                 CDQ’s

During prophase the chromosomes become
visible…

TRUE OR FALSE?
                  CDQ’s

During Prophase the centrioles two tiny
structures located in the cytoplasm take up
positions on opposite poles of the nucleus…

TRUE OR FALSE?
                  CDQ’s
During Metaphase what happens?

a.The sister chromatids separate into individual
chromosomes and move apart
b.The nuclear envelope breaks down and the
spindle fibers form
c.The chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the
cell and lose their distinct shapes
d.The chromosomes line up across the center of the
cell and connect to spindle fibers at their
centromere
                   CDQ’s

Which is “greater”?

 prokaryotic cell division – eukaryotic cell
division
                   CDQ’s

What regulates the timing of the cell cycle in
eukaryotic cells?

a.Regulatory chromosomes
b.Regulatory amino acids
c.Cyclin
d.Lysine
                   CDQ’s

Cancer cells respond to internal regulators, just
not external regulators…

True/False?
                  CDQ’s

Sister chromatids are attached to each other at
an area called the…

a.Centriole
b.Centromere
c.Spindle
d.chromosome
                   CDQ’s

Meiosis is the cell division to form…

a.Gametes
b.Sperm
c.Eggs
d.All of the above are correct
                   CDQ’s


In meiosis a haploid cell becomes a diploid cell
(N to 2N)…

True/False
                 CDQ’s

To maintain the chromosome number of an
organism, the gametes must…

a.Become diploid
b.Be produced by meiosis
c.Become recessive
d.Be produced by mitosis
                   CDQ’s

What is the difference between the chromosomes
in Metaphase (mitosis) Metaphase 1 (meiosis)?

a.nothing, this part is the same
b.The centriole’s have not moved to the poles yet
c.The homologous chromosomes line up in 2
tetrads rather than individually
d.Crossing over occurs in Metaphase, not
Metaphase 1
                CDQ’s

Meiosis= TRUE/FALSE
                      2N
                               N
         N
                      N        N
         N                 N
       Mendelian Genetics and
        Genetic Engineering

True breeding = Self-pollination to produce
offspring identical to the parent…

TRUE/FALSE
                      GQ’s
What is the principal of dominance?

a. States that offspring of crosses between two
parents results in a hybrid
b. States different forms of genes are called alleles
c. States that self-pollination will result in offspring
identical to parent because of dominance
d. States that some alleles are dominant and some
are recessive
                   GQ’s
What is a hybrid in genetic terms?

a.The offspring produced from a cross between
two parents with different traits
b.The offspring produced from one parent
c. The offspring produced from self-pollination
d. Both b and c are correct
                    GQ’s
The law of segregation states…

a.During gamete formation genes separate so each
carries only a single copy of each allele
b.During gamete formation alleles segregate so
each carries only a single copy of each gene
c. During mitosis alleles segregate so each carries
only a single copy of each gene
d. During mitosis genes separate so each carries
only a single copy of each allele
                     GQ’s
Which is Heterozygous?
Which is Homozygous?

a.   TT
b.   Rr
c.   SS
d.   TTt
e.   Both a and c are correct
                      GQ’s
What is the difference between genotype and
phenotype?

a.Genotype= self-pollinated + phenotype = hybrid from
two parents
b.Genotype= physical characteristics + phenotype =
genetic makeup
c.Genotype= genetic makeup + phenotype= physical
characteristics
d.Genotype= heterozygous + Phenotype= homozygous
                  GQ’s


The law of independent assortment states that
genes for different traits can segregate
independently during mitosis.

True/False
                   GQ’s
Polygenic traits are…

a.Traits produced by 2 or less genes
b.Traits produced by 2 or more alleles
c.Traits produced by more than one allele
d.Traits produced by more than one gene
                  GQ’s
Crossing a white flower (WW) with a red flower
(RR) and creating a pink flower (RW) is an
example of…

a.Codominance
b.Multiple alleles
c.A polygenic trait
d.Incomplete Dominance
                    GQ’s
Which is bigger in electrophoresis?

1. Pieces that went farthest --- 2. Pieces that
travelled least
                   Evolution
1. What did Lamarck propose?
2. What did Malthus propose?

a.Through selective use or disuse of organs, organisms
lost or acquired characteristics
b.If human population continues to grow unchecked
sooner or later there will be insufficient living space or
food supply
c.Layers of rock form over time and most geological
processes operate very slowly- therefore the Earth has to
be millions of years old
                  Evolution
In artificial selection…

a.Humans provide the variation, nature selects
useful variations
b.Nature provides the variation, humans select
useful variations
c.Nature provides the variation, nature selects
useful variations
d.Humans provided the variation, humans select
useful variations
                      Evolution
Baby birds inherited traits affect their survival. A stronger bird
may take food from a weaker sibling and a faster bird may
escape predators more easily. Therefore the stronger, faster
birds will survive and reproduce.
       What evolutionary term is at work?

a.Adaption
b.Artificial selection
c.Survival of the fittest
d.Natural selection
e.Both c and d are correct
                 Evolution
Which is a homologous structure?

a.Wing of a bat and wing of a bird
b.Tooth of a fish and tooth of a human
c.Inner ear of a human and fish bone near gills
d.Both a and b are correct answers
                  Evolution
Fitness is the result of…

a.Adaptions
b.Homologies
c.Common descent
d.Variation
                Evolution

The two main sources of genetic variation are…
Mutations
Genetic shuffling that results from sexual
reproduction



TRUE/FALSE?
                 Evolution
What selection has acted on this population?

a.   Stabilizing
b.   Directional
c.   Disruptive
d.   Genetic Equilibrium
                 Evolution
The Hardy Weinberg principle states…

a.Genetic equilibrium cannot be reached without
stabilizing selection
b.In small populations if an allele becomes too
prevalent, offspring can no longer reproduce
successfully
c. Allele frequency in a population will remain
constant unless one or more factors cause it to
change
                 Evolution
A change in allele frequency that results from
migration of a small subgroup of a population is
called…

a.Natural selection
b.The Hardy Weinberg principal
c.Genetic Equilibrium
d.The founder effect
Bio Exam Review

  Calley Mannion
           Protein Synthesis
   What enzyme is            What does messenger
     needed for                   RNA do in
  transcription and              translation?
  what does it do?

    RNA polymerase
 separates DNA strands,
then it uses one strand as
      a template for
 nucleotides to make an
        RNA strand            Its information is
                              used to produce
                                   proteins.
                 Mitosis
What pulls apart the   In which type of cells
 sister chromatids?     does Mitosis occur?


    Centrioles            In body cells
                Meiosis
What is crossing-over   In what type of cells
 and when does it       does meiosis occur?
       occur?

                            In sex cells
 The exchange of
 portions of their
  chromatids; it
  occurs during
   Prophase I
Name the phases of cell division in
            order
            • Interphase
             • Prophase
            • Metaphase
             • Anaphase
             • Telophase
            • Cytokinesis
          Types of Alleles
What is incomplete   What is
dominance?           codominance?


The alleles blend    Both alleles are
to create the new    present separately
phenotype.           in the new
                     phenotype
  Why are men more likely to have genetic
         disorders than women?
 Because if the disorder is on the X chromosome then
the man doesn’t have another healthy X chromosome
                    to dominate it.
       Gel Electrophoresis
What charge do the    How is the length
DNA fragments have?   determined through
                      this?
negative
                      The shorter
                      fragments travel
                      further than the
                      long ones
     Science Fair- Pick the false
             statement
Log Books should be    The plant is 5 inches
  written in pen.       tall is a qualitative
                           observation.
You should cross out
any mistakes made in      You change the
    the logbook.       independent variable.
                 Evolution

What is genetic drift?   What does the Hardy-
                         Weinberg principle
                         state?
A random change in
allele frequency
usually caused be        Allele frequencies in
individuals leaving,     a population will
therefore                remain constant
eliminating some         unless outside
phenotypes               factors change them
   • Must be random mating
• Population must be very large
 • No movement in/ out of the
           population
        • No mutations
     • No natural selection
 What are the conditions
required Hardy- Weinberg
 Principle to remain true?

				
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