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Naming compounds with functional groups

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					Naming Organic Compounds




   Created by L. Scheffler, Lincoln High School
              Modified by K. Slater




                                                  1
         Naming Organic
          Compounds
•   Originally compounds were named based
    on their source or use
•   Many organic compounds were given
    common names which are still in use
•   However many ambiguities resulted
•   With the large number of organic
    compounds, a method for systematically
    naming them is very important

                                             2
            IUPAC Names
•   The International Union of Pure and Applied
    Chemists (IUPAC) developed a system for
    naming organic compounds.
•   This system eliminated many of the
    ambiguities that plagued earlier naming
    systems
•   Common names for many substances are
    still widely used

                                                  3
 Naming Hydrocarbons
using the IUPAC System
A series of prefixes are used to designate the
 number of carbon atoms in a carbon chain

meth     1C            hex     6C
eth      2C            hept    7C
prop     3C            oct     8C
but      4C            non     9C
pent     5C            dec     10 C
                                                 4
           Naming Alkanes
•    For straight chain hydrocarbons. The prefix indicates
    the number of carbon atoms.
•   The suffix ane is added to designate that the
    compound is an alkane




                                                             5
       Naming Alkanes with
        branched chains
•    For branched chain hydrocarbons, identify the longest
    consecutive (straight) chain first. Then name the side
    chains or branches.
•   The name of the branches end in “yl” and go before
    the name of the straight chain

             -methylpropane               dimethyl propane



             methyl butane


                                                             6
                   Alkenes
•   Alkenes have one (or more) carbon to carbon
    double bonds
•   When there are 4 or more carbon atoms in a chain,
    the location of the double bond is indicated by a
    number.
•   Numbering the location of the double bond(s) takes
    precedence over the location of side chains




      1 butene      2-butene       methylpropene         7
  Naming Compounds With
    Functional Groups
Various functional groups have unique suffixes that
designate the functional group.
The functional group takes precedence in numbering
the carbon chain.
Branches to the carbon chain are named in the usual
manner.
 alcohols     “-ol”     Amides               “-amide”
 Aldehydes    “-al”     Amines               “-amine” or “amino-”
 Ketones      “-one”    Esters               “-oate”
 Carboxylic   “-oic acid” halohydrocarbons   Fluoro-, bromo-, chloro- or
 acids                                       iodo-

                                                                           8
Alcohols
    1- Propanol      Suffix = “ol”



    2- Propanol




    2-methyl-2-propanol


                                     9
                Aldehydes
Suffix = “al”
                      Propanal
                      Note that the
                      aldeyhde group
                      is always on an
                      end carbon or
                      carbon 1




                                        10
Ketones
                   Suffix = “one”
  Propanone
  (also known as acetone)

  Butanone
  (also known as methyl ethyl ketone)


  2-Pentanone
  (note the number is necessary
  Because the C=O could be on carbon
   2 or carbon 3)
                                        11
           Carboxylic Acids
Suffix = “oic acid”

                      Butanoic acid


                      Note that the acid
                      group (called a
                      “carboxyl”) is
                      always on an end
                      carbon or carbon 1


                                           12
                  Esters
                  Esters
Suffix = “oate”

                      Ethyl butanoate




                      Butyl ethanoate
                      There are two branches.
                      The branch with the
                      carbonyl gets the suffix

                                                 13
                   Amides
Suffix = “amide”


                       butanamide


                       Note that the amide
                       group is always on an
                       end carbon or carbon 1



                                                14
Amines
    Suffix = “amine”
    Or prefix = “amino”
 Propylamine or 1-aminopropane


 2-propylamine or 2-aminopropane



 2-methyl-2-propylamine or

 2-methyl -2- aminopropane
                                   15
Halohydrocarbons
     1-bromopropane         prefixes =
                            “fluoro,
     2-chlorobutane         chloro,
                            bromo, iodo”
     1,2-diiodoethane

     1,2-difluroethene

     1,2-difluoroethene

     1,1,2-trifluorothene

                                           16
Aromatic Structure

     • The benzene ring is a
       common structure in
       organic molecules
     • Molecular formula: C6H6




                                 17
Aromatic Compounds With
   Functional Groups
       Benzoic acid



       2 hydroxybenzoic acid



       3 bromobenzoic acid

                               18
Functional Groups

				
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posted:10/7/2011
language:English
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