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Lithography (PowerPoint)

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									    PRINTMAKING
Going dotty for reproduction
Letterpress
              Printing press invented by
              Gutenberg in 1438.


              Relief printing – used wooden then
              metal block of type.


              Pros – quality and creativity.


              Cons – inflexible, slow.


              Uses – tickets, limited edition work.
 Flexography




Relief print process using flexible plates. Mainly used for packaging.

Pros – Prints onto non-absorbent or cheap stock, e.g. plastic, cardboard.

Cons – Expensive set-up costs, poor quality printing (especially halftones).
Gravure
          Intaglio process – image cells of
          varying size and depth etched into
          copper plates.


          Used for long-run work – magazines,
          brochures , stamps, wallpaper.

          Pros – economic for long runs, high
          quality, high speed.


          Cons – Expensive to set up, expensive
          to make corrections, type is screened.
Lithography
Oil and water don’t mix.

Greasy image area
attracts ink. Non image
area attracts water.

Artists traditionally draw on
lithographic stones with a
greasy pencil or crayon.

Commercial printing on
offset litho printing press.
Offset Lithography
                 Main print process used today.

                 Pros – cost effective, flexible,
                 print on wide range of stock.

                 Cons – translucent ink, affected
                 by dry/damp conditions.

                 Use – magazines, leaflets,
                 packaging, posters, stationery.
Silk screen printing
Image created using a stencil and
mesh screen. Ink applied using a
squeegee.

Used for textiles, posters,
stickers, CD and DVDs.

Pros – thick ink, brilliant colours,
print on any surface.

Cons – small print runs, halftones
and small type difficult.
Digital Printing




Unlike traditional print methods, digital printing doesn’t use film or even
printing plates in some cases.
Pros – saves time and money, good for low quantity runs.
Cons – only prints full colour, quality, gets expensive for multiple copies
CMYK and PMS colour
CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black)
Image reproduced in dots of colour –
halftone. Best for full-colour.




PMS (Pantone Matching System)
Tins of ink mixed by hand to colour
formula guides. Best for spot colour.
Lamination & binding
3 main binding methods – saddle-stitched (magazines & brochures),
perfect (magazines & paperbacks) and cased (hardback books).


Varnish and lamination adds a finish/coating. Spot varnish is only
added to specific areas.
Special finishes
Foil blocking – relief image on
metal block, heat applied to block
transfers foil image to surface.

Emboss – image created as
male/female die. Paper placed
between and pressure applied.

Die cut – image die works like a
Cookie cutter. Complex shapes
can now be cut using a laser.

								
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