Motivating Others by pengxiuhui


									Reference Checking
Would You Hire This Applicant?
        Exercise 5.7
         Why Check References?
•   Check for resume fraud
•   Find new information about the applicant
•   Check for potential discipline problems
•   Predict future performance
      Checking for Resume Fraud
• Why Check?              • Obtaining Missing
  – 1/3 resumes contain     information
    inaccurate info         – unintentional omission
  – over 500,000 people     – strategic omission
    have bogus degrees      – deceptive omission
• Verifying Information   • Alternative methods
  –   truth                 – bogus application items
  –   error                 – social security reports
  –   embellishment         – hire professional
  –   fabrication             reference checkers
       Finding New Information
         About the Applicant
• Types of Information        • Alternative Measures
  –   personality               – psychological tests
  –   interpersonal style       – letters of
  –   background                  recommendation
  –   work habits               – biodata
• Problems                      – resumes
  – references seldom agree     – interviews
  – people act in different
    ways in different
Checking for Potential Discipline
•   Criminal Records
•   Previous employers
•   Motor vehicle records
•   Military records
•   Credit reports
•   Colleges and universities
•   Neighbors and friends
                 Criminal Records
• Obtained from local and state agencies
• Check with each jurisdiction
• Only convictions can be used (EEOC Decision No. 72-
   – “Reasonable amount of time” between release and
     decision to hire
   – In using convictions, employer must consider
      • Nature and gravity of offense
      • Amount of time that has passed since the conviction and/or
        completion of the sentence
      • The nature of the job held or being sought
                       Credit Checks
• Purpose
   – Predict motivation to steal
   – Determine character of applicant
• Fair Credit Reporting Act
   –   Order through a Consumer Reporting Agency (CRA)
   –   Provide written notice to applicant to you will be checking credit
   –   Get applicant’s written authorization to check credit
   –   If adverse action is to be taken
        • Provide applicant with “Pre-adverse Action Disclosure” which includes
          copy of credit report
        • Inform applicant that they will not be hired due to credit check and
          provide name of CRA and notice of applicant rights to appeal within 60
References Often Have a Limited
 Opportunity to View Behavior


  Processed                                       %



              0   20   40   60   80   100   120
   Potential Legal Ramifications
• Negligent hiring

• Invasion of privacy

• Negligent reference

• Defamation
• Three types
   – libel (written)
   – slander (oral)
   – self-publication
• Employers have a conditional privilege that
  limits their liability
  Avoiding Liability for Defamation
    Employers will not be liable if their
            statements were
• Truthful                        • Made in good faith
   – statements were true
                                     – don’t offer unsolicited
   – not true, but reasonable          information
     person would have believed
                                     – statements cannot be made
     them to be true
                                       for revenge
   – opinions are protected
                                     – avoid personal comments
     unless reference infers
     opinion is based on facts    • Made with the permission
     that don’t exist               of the applicant
• Made for a legitimate              – use waivers
  purpose                            – let the former employee
                                       know if the reference will not
                                       be positive
       Trait Method of Evaluating
       Letters of Recommendation
• Peres and Garcia (1962)
• The Technique
   – Read each letter
   – Highlight traits in each letter
   – Place each trait into one of five categories
       •   Mental agility (openness to experience)
       •   Vigor
       •   Urbanity (Extroversion)
       •   Cooperation-Consideration (Agreeableness)
       •   Dependability-Reliability (Conscientiousness)
   – Total the number of traits per category
   – Divide the number of traits per category by the total number of traits
Dear HR Director,

Ms. Monica Geller asked that I write this letter in support of her
application as an assistant manager and I am pleased to do so. I
have known Monica for six years as she was my assistant in the
accounting department.

Monica always had her work completed accurately and
promptly. In her six years here, she never missed a deadline.
She is very detail oriented, critical, and methodical in her
problem solving approach. Interpersonally, Monica is very
caring and helpful.

Mental Ability:0       Urbanity: 0            Vigor: 0
Cooperation: 2         Dependability: 6
Using the Trait Approach
      Exercise 5.1
                   James Beam
Dear Mr. Daniels:
   It is a pleasure to write this letter in support of Mr.
James Beam. I have known Jim for 10 years as he
was an accounting associate in our firm.
   Jim is one of the most intelligent, original, and
creative individuals I have ever met. He is always
developing new ideas. In addition to being so smart,
Jim has a great sense of humor, is very friendly, and
always cheerful.
                   James Beam
Dear Mr. Daniels:
   It is a pleasure to write this letter in support of Mr.
James Beam. I have known Jim for 10 years as he
was an accounting associate in our firm.
   Jim is one of the most intelligent, original, and
creative individuals I have ever met. He is always
developing new ideas. In addition to being so smart,
Jim has a great sense of humor, is very friendly, and
always cheerful.
   The Real Meaning of Recommendations
Recommendation                      Actual Meaning
He is a man of great vision         He hallucinates
He is definitely a man to watch     I don’t trust him
She merits a close look             Don’t let her out of your sight
He’s the kind of employee you can   He likes dirty jokes
swear by
She doesn’t mind being disturbed    She spent 10 years in a mental
When he worked for us, he was       He was arrested several times
given many citations
She gives every appearance of       But, appearances are deceiving
being a loyal, dedicated employee
   The Real Meaning of Recommendations
Recommendation                      Actual Meaning
If I were you I would give him      He can handle a broom
sweeping responsibilities
She commands the respect of         But she rarely gets it
everyone with whom she works
I am sure that whatever task he     He will foul up any project
undertakes, no matter how small,
he will be fired with enthusiasm
You would be very lucky to get      She is lazy
this person to work for you
You will never catch him asleep on He is too crafty to get caught
the job
      Personnel Selection Methods
• Training & Education    • Skills
• Experience                 – Work Samples
   – Applications/Resumes    – Assessment Centers
   – Biodata                 – References
   – Interviews           • Personality & Character
• Knowledge                  – Personality Tests
• Ability                    – Integrity Tests
   – Cognitive            • Medical
   – Physical                – Medical Exams
   – Perceptual              – Psychological Exams
                             – Drug Testing
What types of employment tests have
            you taken?
Predicting Performance Using
   Training and Education
       Ratings of Training
• Education
• Work-Related Training
• Military
       Cognitive Ability Tests
  – Highest validity of all selection
    measures (ρ = .51)
  – Easy to administer
  – Relatively inexpensive
  – Most are not time consuming
      Cognitive Ability Tests
  – Likely to cause adverse
  – Low face validity
  – Not well liked by applicants
Sample Cognitive Ability Test
        Exercise 5.2
         Perceptual Ability Tests
• Perceptual Ability (Fleishman & Reilly (1992)
  –   Vision (near, far, night, peripheral)
  –   Depth perception
  –   Glare sensitivity
  –   Hearing (sensitivity, auditory attention, sound
       Psychomotor Ability Tests
• Psychomotor Ability (Fleishman & Reilly (1992)
  –   Dexterity (finger, manual)
  –   Control precision
  –   Multilimb coordination
  –   Response control
  –   Reaction time
  –   Arm-hand steadiness
  –   Wrist-finger speed
  –   Speed-of-limb movement
            Physical Ability
• Used for jobs with high physical demands
• Three Issues
   – Job relatedness
   – Passing scores
   – When the ability must be present
• Two common ways to measure
   – Simulations
   – Physical agility tests
                  Physical Ability
Physical Abilities (Fleishman & Reilly, 1992)
   –   Dynamic strength (strength requiring repetitions)
   –   Trunk strength (stooping or bending over)
   –   Explosive strength (jumping or throwing)
   –   Static strength
   –   Dynamic flexibility (speed of bending or stretching)
   –   Extent flexibility (Degree of bending or stretching)
   –   Gross body equilibrium (balance)
   –   Gross body coordination (coordination)
   –   Stamina
          Assessment Centers
               What are They?
• A selection technique that uses multiple job-related
  assessment exercises and multiple assessors to
  observe and record behaviors of candidates
  performing job-related tasks
   Guidelines for Assessment Center Practices
                  Joiner (2000)
• Based on job analysis   •   Use multiple assessors
• Behavioral              •   Assessor training
  classification          •   Recording behavior
• Assessment techniques   •   Reports
• Use multiple            •   Overall judgment
  assessment exercises        based on integration of
• Simulations                 information
      Assessment Center Exercises
• Leaderless group discussions
• In-basket technique
• Simulations
   – Situational exercises
   – Work samples
• Role plays
• Case analyses and business
Evaluation of Assessment Centers
  – Very expensive
  – Time consuming
  – Can have low inter-rater agreement
  – Behaviors can overlap into several
  – Safety of candidates for some work
When are assessment centers most appropriate?
– Most useful for promotion rather than selection
– When candidates have some knowledge of the job
– When you have the money to develop and maintain
  assessment centers
– When you have the time and trainers
Leaderless Group Discussion
        Exercise 5.3
Predicting Performance Using
      Prior Experience
• Evaluated through:
  –   Application blanks
  –   Resumes
  –   Interviews
  –   Reference checks
  –   Biodata instruments
• Considerations
  – How much experience?
  – How well did the person perform?
  – How related is it to the current job?
      Experience Predicts Best…
• Credit prior work experience only:
   – In the same occupational area as that in which performance is to be
   – In the performance of tasks or functions that have direct
      application on the job
• Recency of experience should be used as a decision rule for awarding
  credit only when justified on a case-by-case basis
• Credit for duration of work experience should be limited to a few
• High prediction up to about 3 years of experience, declining to low
  prediction for more than 12 years of experience.
A selection method that considers an
   applicant’s life, school, military,
   community, and work experience
    Personality Inventories
Personality is a collection of traits that
persist across time and situations and
differentiate one person from another
      Differences in Personality
• Types of Personality Inventories
   – Measures of normal personality
   – Measures of psychopathology
• Basis for Personality Dimensions
   – Theory based
   – Statistically based
   – Empirically based
• Scoring
   – Objective
   – Projective
Five-Factor Model (The Big 5)
Openness to Experience
   – imaginative, curious, cultured
   – organized, disciplined, careful
   – outgoing, gregarious, fun-loving
   – trusting, cooperative, flexible
Neuroticism (emotional stability)
   – anxious, insecure, vulnerable to stress
        Evaluation of Personality
   –   Relatively cheap
   –   Easy to administer
   –   Little adverse impact
   –   Predicts best when based on a
       job analysis
   – Scale development
   – Validity
   – Faking
Sample Personality Inventory
       Exercise 5.4
          Polygraph Testing
• Polygraph (lie detector) is a machine that
  measures the physiological responses that
  accompany the verbal responses an individual
  makes to a direct questions asked by
  polygraph operator.
Limitations of the Polygraph
              • Emotions other than
                guilt can trigger
              • Countermeasures used
                to avoid detection
              • Frequency of false
              • Frequency of false
 Legal Guidelines for Polygraph
Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988
makes it illegal to:
• Directly or indirectly require an employee to take a
• Use, accept, refer to, or inquire about the results of any
  polygraph test of any applicant or employee
• Discharge, discipline, discriminate against, or deny
  employment or promotion to (or threaten such actions)
  against any prospective or current employee who
  refuses, declines, or fails to take or submit to a
  Legal Guidelines for Polygraph
The following are exempt from these prohibitions

   – Private employers providing security services

   – Employers who manufacture, distribute, or dispense
     controlled substances

   – Federal, state, and local government employees.
                  Drug Testing
• Use in 2001
  – 80% of U.S. organizations tested for drugs
  – 16% of employees admit to using drugs
• Drug users are more likely to
  –   Miss work
  –   Use health care benefits
  –   Be fired
  –   Have an accident
                   Drug Testing
Forms of Testing
   –   Pre-employment testing
   –   Random selection at predetermined times
   –   Random selection at random times
   –   Testing after an accident or disciplinary action
Responses to the Presence of Drugs
   – 98% of job offers withdrawn
   – Current employees who test positive
        • 25% are fired after a positive test
        • 66% are referred to counseling and treatment
    Two Stages of Drug Testing
• Initial screening of hair or urine
   – Cheaper method ($30 for urine, $50 for hair sample)
   – Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT)
   – Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
• Confirmation test
   – Typically used only after a positive initial screening
   – Thin layer chromatography/mass spectrometry
   – More expensive
Should Organizations Test for Drugs?

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