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					Crosstabs
Types of relationships
 Linear
 Spurious
 Intervening
 Interaction effects
Interaction effects
 Does   perceived political
 advantage reduce the likelihood
 of litigation?
  (in the case of the Moscow Theater
  case)
What causes people to litigate against their
government?
(with regard to the Moscow Theater incident)


   How should this variable be measured?
Measure of litigation
(with regard to the Moscow Theater incident)



Are you one of the plaintiffs in this lawsuit?




                                                 freq vars = litigant.
Theory from the U.S.:
Political Disadvantage
   When people feel alienated from traditional
    avenues of participation or representation, then
    they may be more likely to participate in
    litigation.
Political Disadvantage
Measure: the highest answer from the following two questions
How well do you believe that President Putin represents your interests?
How well do you believe that the current Duma represents your interests?

very well, rather well, not very well, not at all well
Crosstab Analysis: Is political advantage
related to litigation?
     Stata code: tab litigant reph
     R code: .Table <- xtabs(~litigant+yourside, data=[data name])
   Are you one of the litigants? * Perceived political advantage



   are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |
   in this |                    reph
   lawsuit |         1          2          3          4 |     Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |        30         74        162         10 |       276
           |     83.33      86.05      95.29     100.00 |     91.39
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |         6         12          8          0 |        26
           |     16.67      13.95       4.71       0.00 |      8.61
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |        36         86        170         10 |       302
           |    100.00     100.00     100.00     100.00 |    100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =       -0.1752    ASE = 0.053
Theory
 People tend to use procedures that they
  believe will be fair
 Thus, perception of fairness of the courts
  causes litigation
 How carefully will the court listen to the
  hostages side of the story? Very carefully,
  rather carefully, somewhat carefully, not at
  all carefully
     Stata Code: tab litigant yourside, col taub
     R code: .Table <- xtabs(~litigant+yourside, data=[data name])
     .Table
   are you |
one of the |
plaintiffs |    how carefully will the court consider
   in this |           hostage side of the story
   lawsuit | not at al not very     somewhat   very care |    Total
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
        no |        52          84        103         31 |      270
           |     83.87       90.32      97.17     100.00 |    92.47
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
       yes |        10           9           3         0 |       22
           |     16.13        9.68       2.83       0.00 |     7.53
-----------+--------------------------------------------+----------
     Total |        62          93        106         31 |      292
           |    100.00      100.00     100.00     100.00 |   100.00

          Kendall's tau-b =   -0.1941   ASE = 0.045
Theory
   Why is it that when people think the courts
    are more unfair, they are MORE likely to
    litigate?

   What is going on?!
Anger
 Could it be that the more angry people
  are, they more likely they want to engage
  in an expressive activity –
 In other words, litigation is not about the
  fairness of courts – it is about expressing
  how angry you are
 How to test that?
Perhaps   the negative correlation
 between perceptions of fairness
 and litigation is particularly
 negative when people have
 reason to be angry – they are
 politically disadvantaged
   In this case, we are using crosstabs to test a
    conditional relationship:
     The effect of one independent variable is
      intensified OR mitigated, depending on the
      values of another variable
     The negative effect of procedural justice will
      intensify as political advantage decreases
                                    Perceived probability
                                     of judicial fairness


Anger (political disadvantage)



                                        Litigation




                     Proc Just   Proc Just      Proc Just
                    Low anger    Med anger      High anger
                    High PD      Med PD         High PD
            Figure 1: Effects of Perceived (Un)fairness on Litigation, Given Political Disadvantage
                                                  Predicted Probabilities
0.12




 0.1



                                                                                                       very carefully
0.08                                                                                                   rather carefully
                                                                                                       not very carefully
                                                                                                       not at all carefully


0.06                                                                                                 Responses to "How
                                                                                                     carefully do you think
                                                                                                     the court will
                                                                                                     consider the
                                                                                                     plaintiffs' side of the
0.04                                                                                                 story?"




0.02




  0
       very advantaged      somewhat advantaged        somewhat disadvantaged   very disadvantaged

				
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posted:10/7/2011
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