Pregnancy and Infancy

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					Pregnancy and Infancy

    By Sheri Owens RDH
Common Oral Conditions and Diseases
  of Pregnant and Infant Patients

•   Pregnancy Gingivitis
•   Periodontal Disease
•   Dental Caries
•   Early Childhood Caries
•   Preterm Birth
•   Low Birth Weight
      Pregnancy Gingivitis
• The increased risk of pregnancy gingivitis appears to be
  primarily the result of resistance changes that occur during
  pregnancy in the connective tissues composing the structure
  of the periodontium

• Predominant manifestations are gingival enlargement,
  increased erythema, tissue sensitivity, and spontaneous
     Periodontal Disease
• Women are particularly susceptible to periodontal
  disease, because female hormones affect the
  periodontal structures
• A significant association between maternal
  periodontal disease, race, smoking, and insulin
  resistance status was also found
• Study results show that pregnant black women
  were more likely than white women to have
  periodontal disease
              Dental Caries
• A pregnant woman is often at considerable risk of
  caries development
• The risk of dental caries probably increases because of
  changes in habits
• The sucking of hard candy to reduce nausea, dietary
  cravings, and frequent between-meal snacks of refined
  carbohydrates can raise the caries potential of the
  dental plaque
• The mother often experiences nausea or "morning
  sickness," causing vomiting with a regurgitation of
  stomach acid which may cause erosion and
  demineralization of the lingual surfaces of the teeth
    Early Childhood Caries
• Dental caries can and does occur in infants and
  toddlers well before 3 years of age
• Early childhood caries (ECC) has been observed
  in children as young as 12 months of age
• ECC is also known as nursing caries, nursing
  bottle caries, nursing bottle mouth, baby-bottle
  syndrome, baby-bottle tooth decay, and bottle-
  mouth caries
   Early Childhood Caries
• The caries pattern of this condition is highlighted
  by rampant dental caries initially involving the
  maxillary primary incisors and progressing to the
  first primary molars in later stages

• The decay is caused by continual, prolonged
  exposure of the primary teeth to milk, infant
  formula, fruit juices, soft drinks, or other sugar
  /carbohydrate-containing fluids placed in the
  nursing bottle or sipping cup
       Low-Birth Weight and
         Pre-term Babies
• A relationship has been drawn between the incidence
  of periodontitis and low-birth weight, preterm babies
• The many inflammatory factors, as a result of the
  periodontitis process, are not limited to the oral
  environment, but can also affect or manifest in a
  secondary site
• Several processes exist in the mother with
  periodontitis resulting in circulating endotoxins that
  cross the placental barrier
• Infection in the amniotic apparatus supports an
  association between preterm birth or low birth weight
  and infection during pregnancy

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